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  1. 1984-01-01 People discovered bow to use clay over 20,000 years ago. The basic principles of shaping, drying, and firing clay are still the same today as they were then. The only significant changes since the discovery of clay have been the identification of additional clay materials and improvements in the...
  2. 1984-01-01 Clay occurs naturally almost everywhere in the world and is formed by the action of weathering on several kinds of rocks. This process takes many thousands of years, but it happens wherever the rocks are exposed to the natural forces of wind, water, frost, etc. The rocks change very slowly in...
  3. 1965-01-01 Concrete is a strong and inexpensive construction material when it is properly prepared and used. This introduction explains the importance of a good mixture and describes the materials used in the mixture. Following this are entries on: Calculating amounts of materials for concrete Mixing...
  4. 1988-01-01 The investment and labor force required for this plant are very small. The objects are decorated with the application of ceramic colors, engobes, and stains, all of which can be purchased initially in the United States, England, France, or Germany, and later fabricated by the potter. The local...
  5. 1990-01-01 Bridges are a part of the transportation system of a region. They are used to span an obstacle like a stream or chasm. Bridges make the system more efficient either by saving travel distance or by enabling vehicles or pedestrians to reach places that were previously inaccessible. There are four...
  6. 1985-01-01 Bamboo is one of the oldest materials people have used to increase their comfort and well-being. In today's world of plastics and steel, besides continuing to make its traditional contributions, bamboo is growing in importance. Outstanding varieties of bamboo from throughout the world are being...
  7. 1985-01-01 Every low-cost housing project seeks to build the most durable house at the lowest cost possible. Emphasis is always given to the maximum use of locally available materials, such as adobe. Common adobe, as it has been known for centuries, is simply a soil mixture with a clay content of at least...
  8. 1988-01-01 The Product. To make Portland cement, a crushed mixture of limestone and clay is heated to form "clinker," which is mixed with gypsum and ground to a fine, dehydrated powder. Quality control is essential during manufacture. The cement is shipped in moisture-resistant bags or other containers, or...
  9. 1985-01-01 In many parts of the world, the primary source of energy for such vital activities as cooking and space heating is burning wood and other agricultural products. An increasing population using a dwindling resource of combustible biomass materials will eventually result in a shortage of those...
  10. 1990-01-01 The purpose of this manual is to outline, in as simple a manner as possible, the details of making and burning clay brick suitable for domestic building. The scope of the manual is confined to "cottage industries"; it does not cover large commercial production such as is known in the United...
  11. 1990-01-01 Sun-dried earthen blocks (adobe) have been used as a building material for thousands of years, especially in very dry areas. Clay is mixed with water, and sometimes straw to keep the finished blocks from cracking, and formed by hand into blocks. The blocks are placed in the sun until they are...
  12. 1984-01-01 Soil is one of the oldest building materials. It has been used for centuries in all parts of the world. Ancient temples, fortifications, and pyramids as well as part of the Great Wall of China were built with soil. The three traditional methods of soil construction are: adobe block or lumps built...
  13. 1987-01-01 Soil is a universal building material and is one of the oldest known to humanity. Simple soils (without additives), or soils improved by adding stabilizing materials such as bitumen or cement, are suitable for homes, schools, roads, and other construction. For construction purposes, soil is...
  14. 1977-01-01 This manual combines the experience of four men who used the CINVA-Ram Block Press and figured out answers, bit by bit, to the inevitable problems of detail as they came up day after day. That was the hard way to learn how to use the press; this handbook is intended to make it easier.
  15. 1988-01-01 Ferrocement is a building material composed of a relatively thin layer of concrete, covering such reinforcing material as steel wire mesh. Because the building techniques are simple enough to be done by unskilled labor, ferrocement is an attractive construction method in areas where labor costs...
  16. 1980-01-01 The plan presented here is a detailed description of a 1-kilowatt (1-kW) generator unit, which was prepared in 1971. The plan is scheduled to be revised and updated in the near future in order to incorporate additional data. At the time, this plan was prepared, the generator had not been built on...
  17. 1980-01-01 The Michell or Banki turbine is a relatively easy to build and highly efficient means of harnessing a small stream to provide enough power to generate electricity or drive different types of mechanical devices. The turbine consists of two main parts - the runner, or wheel, and the nozzle. Curved...
  18. 1984-01-01 Once it is understood that gravity and water can be harnessed to produce energy, a study of methods to extract this energy efficiently can be undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to discuss several such methods in general terms. The paper provides a basic introduction to the science of water...
  19. 1985-01-01 Electricity can be generated from the power of flowing water. This is called hydroelectric generation, and it can be done anywhere that there is water and a hill or drop for it to run down--in an irrigation canal, where a river runs through rapids or over a waterfall, or where a dam has backed up...
  20. 1985-01-01 The power of flowing water can be used to generate electricity, or to do other kinds of useful work. Generating electricity in this way is called hydroelectric generation. It can be done anywhere that there is water and a hill or drop for it to run down, such as a drop in an irrigation canal, a...
  21. 1987-01-01 A hydraulic ram is a pump that uses the power of falling water to force a small portion of the water to a height greater than the source. Water can be forced about as far horizontally as desired, but greater distances require larger pipe, due to friction. No external power is necessary. With only...
  22. 1980-01-01 Improved use of water as a power source has potential for much of the developing world. There are few places where water is not available in quantities sufficient for power generation. Almost any flowing water--river, brook, or outlet of a lake or pona--can be put to work and will provide a...
  23. 1989-01-01 Supplying power to many remote locations in the world from central generators using customary distribution methods is either economically unfeasible or will be many years in coming. Power, where desirable, will therefore need to be generated locally. Various commercial machinery is marketed, but...
  24. 1987-01-01 Flowing water tends to generate automatically a picture of "free" power in the eyes of the observer. But there is always a cost to producing power from water sources. The cost of developing low-output water power sites should be checked against available alternatives, such as: Electric Utility -...
  25. 1987-01-01 This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries. The Profiles provide basic information for starting manufacturing plants in developing nations. Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions, financial, and technical factors for their...
  26. 1988-01-01
  27. 1988-01-01
  28. 1988-01-01 There are many places in the world where wind energy is a good alternative power source for pumping water. These include windy areas with limited access to other forms of power. In order to determine whether wind power is appropriate for a particular situation an assessment of its possibilities...
  29. 1977-01-01 Construction details for a low cost windmill are presented. The windmill produces one horsepower in a wind of 6.4 miles/sec (14.3 mph), or two horsepower in a wind of 8.1 miles/sec (18.0 mph). The windmill uses the rear axle and differential of a small car. Other parts are made from sheetmetal,...
  30. 1977-01-01 The text on the following pages provides data compiled by various investigators on the amount of energy available from S-rotors at various wind speeds. The author feels the potential rotor builder should use these data carefully to see if an S-rotor can meet his needs--before he begins the...
  31. 1984-01-01 The sun is the original source of wind energy. Sunlight warms the sea, land, and mountains at different rates. This creates inequalities in the temperature of the earth's atmosphere. These thermal imbalances produce air in motion--or wind. Wind machines capture the energy of the wind and convert...
  32. 1988-01-01 This easily-operated washing machine can be built by a good carpenter from materials easily found in most countries. It is easy on clothes, effective, and sanitary. The machine, which can take 3-kilogram (6-pound) load of clothes, can be shared by several families. Clothes will last much longer...
  33. 1988-01-01 The Village Technology Handbook has been an important tool for development workers and do-it-yourselfers for 25 years. First published in 1963 under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Handbook has gone through eight major printings. Versions in French and Spanish,...
  34. 1984-01-01 Stirling engines are external combustion engines that use air or other gases as working fluid. They can burn any solid or liquid fuel as their heat source. This makes them very attractive, particularly in situations where conventional fuels are expensive and hard to obtain. Because some types of...
  35. 1987-01-01 Silk screen printing is a simple, inexpensive method of producing multiple copies of attractive visual aids, posters, and other materials, including typewritten pages. A squeegee forces very thick paint through those parts of the silk screen that are exposed by the stencil onto paper placed...
  36. 1987-01-01 This Profile describes one small plant operating with one shift and manufacturing 15,000 dozen men's dress shirts a year. It also describes a larger plant running a single shift and manufacturing 22,000 dozen shirts a year. The proposed plant should not be confined to the production of just men's...
  37. 1956-01-01 Inexpensive rubber cement can be made easily with ordinary gasoline and raw sheet rubber.
  38. 1986-01-01 Roads vary from trails to major hard-surface highways. Depending on the local climate and materials available for construction, roads may sometimes be open to traffic for only part of the year. A year-round road is often more expensive to build, and may not always be necessary. As a general rule,...
  39. 1995-01-01 Soon after beginning a major program in renewable energy in 1979, VITA (Volunters in Technical Assistance) found that many of the technical terms commonly used in renewable energy literature were not understood by many of the laypeople for whom the information was meant. VITA also realized that...
  40. 1995-01-01
  41. 1960-01-01 This low-cost, easy-to-make pen has been in use in Jordan since 3000 B.C. Pens of different sizes can be made for work ranging from fine writing to large block letters. Similar pens have also been used in Thailand.
  42. 1986-01-01 Modern machines form paper in a continuous ribbon or web, not a single sheet at a time as did the ancients. A good papermaker in the olden days could make enough sheets in a day to weigh about 90kg. Today, an average machine makes 90,000kg per day! Much of the paper produced ultimately ends up as...
  43. 1979-01-01 In many areas of developing countries paper is scarce. Rural schools may not have enough paper for their students and market goods may be wrapped in old newspapers if at all. Often this is because resources are not available to invest in modern papermaking factories, which require large amounts...
  44. 1989-01-01 This process is for the manufacture of small, box-shaped paper bags (our specific process turns out one and three quarters kilo bags, but a similar process is possible for other sizes as well.) It is designed to make 500 bags per day with a labor force of 3 to 5 people. This method uses labor as...
  45. 1986-01-01 One field in which hand and small-scale papermakers do find a niche is the production of the very highest quality "art" papers, or the manufacture of a variety, of paper products or small local markets that are not served by large producers. Another area in which papermaking processes can be...
  46. 1989-01-01 This Profile describes a small plant that will serve local needs, mainly in the trade-sales sector. Its output may exceed 4,000 liters per week (L/wk). For economic reasons, at least part of its total output may have been imported in bulk, and then tested, modified, and repackaged for the local...
  47. 1989-01-01 This paper describes how to start or expand a paint manufacturing facility in a nonindustrial country. The business information can also apply to the manufacture of number of other products, printing inks, cosmetics, glues and adhesives, textile treatments, carpet backing, paper modifications,...
  48. 1981-01-01 This oven was designed and built for use in the Godavari School in Kathmandu, Nepal. It is built of solid brick, with a sheet iron door. A wood fire is burned in the oven, the ashes removed, and the bread slipped in to bake in the heat retained by the thick brick wall. The oven for the school has...
  49. 1984-01-01 This simple, low-cost bakery oven is fueled by waste, automotive crankcase oil. The design has undergone extensive testing. It is designed to be built from locally available materials. This oven is capable of maintaining a 160 degrees C to 190 degrees C baking temperature on .946 to 1.4 liters of...
  50. 1984-01-01 This technical bulletin briefly describes a new technique for using the spent lubricating oil removed from automobiles. This oil normally has no immediate use. It is often discarded in ways that can foul local groundwater or upset wastewater treatment systems. The "waste oil" can be burned as...
  51. 1984-01-01 Metal scrap, although unfamiliar to most people, is one of the world's larger industries with regard to the number of companies and people employed, weight of material handled and value of equipment used. It offers exceptionally good opportunities, for creating new businesses in developing...
  52. 1987-01-01 This Profile describes one plant operating with one shift and producing 15,000 dozens pairs of pants a year, and another that produces 22,000 dozens a year. It is important for a small factory to be able to produce varied styles. Therefore, it is imperative to have a designer/pattern-maker...
  53. 1988-01-01 This profile describes two plants, operating with three shifts for 52 weeks per year. The smaller has an annual manufacturing capacity of 2,220,000 barrels; the larger has an annual capacity of 4,440,000 barrels. The methods of LPG recovery fall into four general classifications: (1) absorption,...
  54. 1979-01-01 This easily operated washing machine can be built by a good carpenter from materials readily available in most countries. It is easy on clothes, effective and sanitary. The machine, which can take a 3-kilogram (6-pound) load of clothes, can be shared by several families. Clothes will last much...
  55. 1979-01-01 Read this manual carefully before deciding which loom to build. The manual has been written to assist with thinking about the questions which must be answered before a loom is built. For example: -- What types of fibers are available and how much do they cost? -- What product or articles will be...
  56. 1990-01-01 Strong, water-resistant casein glue, which produces joints as strong as or stronger than most of the common species of wood, is made from skim milk and common chemicals. Casein glue joints are water-resistant but not waterproof. They will withstand occasional soaking, but if soaked and dried,...
  57. 1990-01-01 The product is clear, colorless, glucose syrup, extracted from dried cassava starch or cassava chips. It is sold in drums or tank wagons. Glucose, also called dextrose, was first manufactured in France early in the 19th century as a sweetener to replace sucrose (table sugar) which had become...
  58. 1986-01-01 This paper briefly describes the production of glass and its properties, and gives some methods for recycling it. The uses of glass are not limited to these examples and there may indeed be far more inventive ways to reuse glass than are cited here. It is important to remember that any effort to...
  59. 1991-01-01 There are many processes by which the hot, viscous glass can be formed into the desired shapes. Bottles are made by blowing a thick bubble of glass into a mold to give it the desired external shape and to form such features as screw threads or emblems. Such articles as dishes and electrical...
  60. 1985-01-01 This paper provides an introduction to the process of evaporative cooling. In addition, the natural limitations and problems associated with this process, along with some practical applications of evaporative cooling are examined.
  61. 1985-01-01 The purpose of this manual is to help development workers and others to become aware of the environmental factors that should be considered in planning small-scale energy projects that are environmentally sound and therefore more likely to be sustained. Environmentally sound planning includes the...
  62. 1985-01-01 Energy storage capability is essential if the maximum economic advantage is to be gained from small power plants. Unless the power plant is operated at full load on a continual basis, there will be periods when there is a lower load demand upon the plant. As a result of this lower demand, excess...
  63. 1987-01-01 Moving soil for irrigation and road-building is important to good farming. Careful preparation of land for irrigation and good water usage saves water, labor, and soil, and improves crop yields. Improved roads make communication easier between farmers, their suppliers, and their markets. Although...
  64. 1987-01-01 This Profile describes a plant operating with one shift and manufacturing 72,000 women's dresses a year (1,440/week, 288/day). It also describes a larger plant running a single shift and producing 104,000 dresses a year. Other similar products such as women's and girls' blouses, cotton skirts,...
  65. 1989-01-01 The product is hardwood, kiln dried and machined to dimensions required by customers. Products of the mill may include cut-to-size rectangular pieces, edge-glued panels, moldings, turnings, cabinet parts, stair treads and risers, and shaped pieces, as well as by-products useful as fuel. Most...
  66. 1986-01-01 Passive cooling systems use simple, low-cost techniques to provide summer comfort in warm climates for people and animals in buildings. Such systems can also be used to keep food, liquids, and other materials at temperatures that will prevent spoiling or other deterioration. Passive cooling is...
  67. 1983-01-01 *Publication not Available in English
  68. 1981-01-01 This bulletin contains step-by-step procedures for parts manufacture and assembly of a hand-operated machine for making chain link fencing. The machine here is designed to produce fencing up to 244 cm (96") but can be used to produce fencing of any height. The size of the openings in the fencing...
  69. 1981-01-01 This Technical Bulletin shows an inexpensive way to make bellows, the air pump traditionally used by blacksmiths to make fires hotter. The design here will supply enough air to make a fire that is hot enough to melt steel. It can be built entirely from locally available scrap materials, with the...
  70. 1991-01-01 In areas without electricity, lanterns, candles, and cooking hearths often provide the only source of light at night. Candles are easy to make at home for home use. With attention to quality control, they can be made in a small workshop for sale in the shops and markets. The directions given here...
  71. 1991-01-01 This profile describes a small bakery operating with a single shift and producing 100 tons of baked products a year. It also describes a medium-sized plant operating on the same basis but producing 250 tons of baked goods a year. Dry materials are received and water added to make dough, which is...
  72. 1987-01-01 This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries, The Profiles provide basic information for starting manufacturing plants in developing nations. Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions, financial, and technical factors for their...
  73. 1985-01-01 This nest of three beds will save space in a small room during the daytime because it takes up only the space needed for one bed. The beds are low in cost and easy to make from local materials. Dimensions suggested here are approximate. The exact dimensions depend on the kind of wood used.
  74. 1985-01-01 Batteries have been in use for many years, but today there is a greater demand for battery power than ever before. This renewed interest has been brought about not only by new developments but also by the diversity of uses for batteries in civilian, industrial, and military applications. This...
  75. 1992-01-01 The intent is to offer suggestions to drivers or mechanics who operate in an area where service facilities and technical assistance are not readily available and they must be their own advisers on every problem that may arise. In the event that readers happen to have some service facilities at...
  76. 1978-01-01 "Assessing Rural Needs: A Manual for Practitioners" is based on a system developed by AITEC and tested over two years in 860 villages as part of a contract with the Costa Rican Government . It reflects our goals of popular participation and employment generation through the stimulation of very...
  77. 1986-01-01 Over the centuries, the treadle has been the most common method of using the legs to produce power. Treadles are still common in the low-power range, especially for sewing machines. Historically, two treadles were used for some tasks, but even then the maximum output would have been quite small,...
  78. 1983-01-01 Complete instructions for building each pump are included in the manual, with detailed drawings to guide construction. Operating and maintenance directions are also given. Efficiency comparisons enable the user to choose the best design for a particular situation. Readers who may be using this...
  79. 1983-01-01 Soap is an essential cleaning agent, helping people to keep themselves and their surroundings clean. When soap is mixed with water, it forms a lather that washes out dirt and grease far better than water alone. Soap can be made on a small scale in the home or village cheaply and easily. The main...
  80. 1983-01-01 This study is an assessment of the "appropriateness" of biogas technology in meeting some of the needs of India's rural population. Such an assessment is quite complicated, despite claims that a biogas system is a simple village-level technology. While there is evidence that biogas systems have...
  81. 1980-01-01 A biogas digester is the apparatus used to control anaerobic decomposition. In general, it consists of a sealed tank or pit that holds the organic material, and some means to collect the gases that are produced. Many different shapes and styles of biogas plants have been experimented with:...
  82. 1984-01-01 Biogas generation is a process that takes place in an oxygen-free environment. It uses anaerobic bacteria--bacteria that live only in the absence of oxygen--to break down complex organic compounds in fairly well-defined stages. The process is called anaerobic digestion. It produces biogas, a gas...
  83. 1984-01-01 The objectives of the project were to: 1. substitute local renewable fuel for imported fuel, 2. use the forest resource wisely, and 3. create local industry and employment. More specifically for the charcoal portion of the project, we wanted to find the best charcoal production techniques in...
  84. 1980-01-01 The objectives of the Montserrat Fuelwood/Charcoal/Cookstove Project were to: 1. Substitute local renewable cooking fuel from the forest for imported liquid fuels, 2. Use the forest resource wisely, and 3. Create local industry and employment. Specifically for the cookstove portion of the...
  85. 1980-01-01 The retort is one of the most efficient means of producing good quality charcoal. Wood is placed in a large steel cylinder (or "retort"). This has a tightly closed door, and some means to let tar and gases escape. The cylinder is heated from the outside. No air enters the barrel. When the wood in...
  86. 1988-01-01 Ceramic kilns that burn waste oil from automobiles and other industries have been operating in Tanzania, Haiti, and several other developing countries for several years. These kilns offer the advantages of good operational control that is easily achieved with fuel oil, but lower fuel cost because...
  87. 1988-01-01 In the United States, sawdust traditionally has been burned in large furnaces for industrial heating, in smaller furnaces for home heating, and in fireplaces in the form of compressed logs. In other parts of the world, loose sawdust has been burned for years in inexpensive double-drum stoves....
  88. 1988-01-01
  89. 1983-01-01 In this study, a wide variety of one-pot chimneyless stoves were tested a few times each in order to provide some direction for future efforts to develop optimal stove designs. Such an effort has recently begun at the Voltaic Institute of Energy (IVE). As in the first field report, from October...
  90. 1985-01-01 Where fuel is scarce, this easy-to-build fireless cooker can be a contribution to better cooking. It keeps food cooking with a small amount of heat stored in hot stones; loss of heat is prevented by a thick layer of insulating material around the pot. Fireless cookers have been successfully used...
  91. 1985-01-01 This document includes the step by step procedures for each of the standardized tests, followed by Procedural Notes that give specific suggestions for conducting the tests. The sample data and reporting forms included for each test are designed to simplify the recording of essential information....
  92. 1980-01-01 These three improved stove construction and dissemination projects are augmented by two research projects. One concerns technical and scientific research to formulate mathematical rules for the construction of fuel efficient stoves. It is being conducted by the University of Eindhoven and the TNO...
  93. 1987-01-01 These three improved stove construction and dissemination projects are augmented by two research projects. One concerns technical and scientific research to formulate mathematical rules for the construction of fuel efficient stoves. It is being conducted by the University of Eindhoven and the TNO...
  94. 1986-01-01 Hot water is not always necessary, and in warm climates it may be relatively easy to do without. It is, however, more effective than cold water for many purposes. Even so, in some areas hot water is not used because fuel is so expensive it is used only for essential tasks. A solar heater can...
  95. 1986-01-01 The easiest and most practical application of solar energy is for heating water. It has been technically feasible to heat household water using solar energy since the 1930's. Solar water heaters for homes and industry have been employed extensively in Israel, Australia, and Japan, and were quite...
  96. 1980-01-01 A solar still is a device that uses energy from the sun to purify salt- or brackish water. Solar stills (as shown in Figure 1) can be easy to construct and maintain. Depending upon their size, they can provide water for many uses. And in desert areas where sunshine is plentiful and water is not,...
  97. 1985-01-01 Solar distillation uses the heat of the sun directly in a simple piece of equipment to purify water. The equipment, commonly called a solar still, consists primarily of a shallow basin with a transparent glass cover. The sun heats the water in the basin, causing evaporation. Moisture rises,...
  98. 1985-01-01 This paper examines water pumping systems that use solar radiation as a direct source of energy. We look primarily at small-scale rural applications in the Third World, where the potential benefits are greatest and the near-term economics seem most favorable. Two generic technical approaches for...
  99. 1985-01-01 Developing countries are in a particularly good position to use solar energy because so many receive an abundance of sunshine. More important, the inhabitants of these countries are frequently scattered over vast areas, making access to electricity or conventional fossil fuels difficult as well...
  100. 1985-01-01 In many equatorial regions, native trees and bushes are being cut at an alarming rate to meet the growing demands for agricultural land, industry, and fuelwood and charcoal. The environmental consequences of this deforestation are severe, ranging from soil erosion and climate changes to flooding...
  101. 1967-01-01 The VITA Solar Cooker was especially designed to be sturdy, relatively easy to make, easy to repair, and low in cost. It uses the principle of the Fresnel reflector which concentrates light and heat by using several simple reflecting surfaces. Most other cookers use a doubly-curved reflecting...
  102. 1986-01-01
  103. 1986-01-01 The use of waste wood is as old as humankind. Stone-age people probably used wood waste to fuel fire since greenwood is very difficult to burn. Manufacture of items from wood also began very early. Wood was used for tools and weapons and, no doubt, cut-offs from the production of long implements...
  104. 1986-01-01 This paper describes a number of uses of wood wastes as fuel, which is how the greatest proportion of wood wastes are used. Non-fuel uses of wood wastes, for example in building materials, industry, and agriculture, are described in another paper, "Understanding the Non-fuel Uses of Wood Wastes."...
  105. 1984-01-01 This paper describes the production and use of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as a liquid fuel. The production of ethanol is a well-established technology; however, the use of ethanol as a liquid fuel is a complex subject.
  106. 1986-01-01 Most animal science manuals have focused on the care and management of common breeds of domestic animals to achieve greater production. This manual emphasizes the environmental factors that affect livestock and livestock interactions. Standard livestock texts should be consulted for detailed...
  107. 1990-01-01 This manual is designed to assist those who plan and implement small-scale agricultural projects. By promoting awareness of environmental concerns, the manual can increase the development worker's ability to design projects that are both environmentally sound and potentially more sustainable....
  108. 1985-01-01 Swine production provides red meat for the human diet, uses less feed than is required to produce beef or lamb, and is also a source of bides and cooking fat. Swine are also scavengers, and can make productive use of many materials that would otherwise be wasted. Pigs (young swine of either sex...
  109. 1989-01-01 This manual presents construction details for several kinds of hives, guidelines for selecting sites and caring for hives, instructions for proper clothing, etc. It is based on the experiences of the Sylhet Package Program of International Voluntary Services, Inc., a community development effort...
  110. 1985-01-01 Multiple cropping, simply defined, is the growing of two or more crops on the same field during the same year. When the crops are grown one after another the term "sequential cropping" is applied. If the second or later crops are the result of regrowth of the first crop, then the term "ratoon...
  111. 1981-01-01 This bulletin contains easy-to-follow, well-illustrated directions for making fertilizer with materials likely to be found in a village situation. Included are instructions for making the fertilizer in a simple frame or container, a list of possible raw materials, and a list of general...
  112. 1985-01-01 Every farmer and gardener realizes that plants receive some of their substance from the soil. Just how much plants depend on soil fertility is not always obvious, however, because so many other factors also influence plant growth--water, sunlight, pests, and plant variety (genetics). In regions...
  113. 1989-01-01 This paper will describe the basic features of a medium- to large-scale hydroponics system and prefabricated greenhouse appropriate for cold climates. Some modifications for a system suitable for hot climates are also discussed. Home gardeners in any climate can use the basic theories contained...
  114. 1985-01-01 The two groups of plants of greatest importance to world agriculture are grasses (such as maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, pearl millet, sugar cane, and forage grasses) and legumes (such as peas, beans, soybeans, alfalfa, clovers, cowpeas). Legumes are extremely important because of the high...
  115. 1989-01-01 This paper examines the complex nature of pest problems and evaluates both chemical and nonchemical controls. The objectives of IPM are assessed, together with its current accomplishments and its future as a pest-control strategy. Although the paper emphasizes agriculture, the concepts and...
  116. 1985-01-01 Insect control is the effort made to protect crops, animals, or other targets of insect attack from unacceptable injury or loss. If destructive insect populations are allowed to cause significant damage or injury to their target host, economic loss or a decline in human health may result....
  117. 1984-01-01 The purpose of soil preparation is to develop a planting medium that will foster the best possible growth of agricultural crops while preventing the deterioration of the land through erosion, destruction of soil structure, or nutrient loss. The soil preparation system used must be economical,...
  118. 1984-01-01 This paper discusses the general theory involved in recycling agricultural wastes and several popular methods. It does not present detailed practical examples. It is important to stress that the choice of recycling method will depend on the type of waste available and on the end use the farmer...
  119. 1981-01-01 The purpose of this book is to show local farmers and others the basic steps to design, execute, and measure an agricultural experiment. This book does not cover statistical anlysis; it is assumed that trained statisticians are available for this purpose.
  120. 1981-01-01 This prefabricated greenhouse can be added to the south side of an existing house for under $225.
  121. 1990-01-01 Intensively cultivated vegetable gardens can supply a great deal of a family's food from very little land. However, to maintain their productivity, these gardens require a lot of fertilizer and some special techniques, which are discussed below. As one crop is finished, another is put in its...
  122. 1990-01-01 Since 1950, soybeans have become a valuable part of the world's food supply and of the systems that produce and deliver food. Production of soybeans has grown rapidly and in 1990 amounted to approximately 100 million metric tons (MMT) annually. This compares with about 500 MMT each for rice and...
  123. This seed cleaner was developed in Afghanistan to remove round seeds of weeds from wheat grains. The round seeds could not be separated by a sieve because they were the same size as the wheat grains. The cleaner described here takes advantage of the round shape of the weed seeds to separate them...
  124. 1986-01-01 This report notes general considerations in seed harvesting, handling, and storage, and it focuses attention on methods to enhance germination for seeds started in seedbeds. The paper is intended to be especially useful for persons interested in setting up a small business that produces seed for...
  125. 1986-01-01 Cereal crops, or grains, include a wide variety of plants that are members of the grass family (Gramineae) grown for their hard seeds or kernels, which are used primarily for food. Grains are rich in carbohydrates and contain substantial amounts of protein, as well as some fat and vitamins. They...
  126. 1986-01-01 Cereal crops, or grains, include a wide variety of plants that are members of the grass family (Gramineae) grown for their hard seeds or kernels, which are used primarily for food. Grains are rich in carbohydrates and contain substantial amounts of protein, as well as some fat and vitamins. They...
  127. 1984-01-01 Root crops is a general term commonly used for a wide variety of food plants that have an underground storage organ known as a root, tuber (rhizome), corm, or bulb. Root crops are rich in starch, and low in protein and oil. They are excellent sources of calories. Some are consumed as major...
  128. 1989-01-01 Agroforestry refers to the integration of trees and shrubs as essential elements of agricultural and other land use systems, with the idea of improving the fertility and productivity of the soil. In this concept, trees and shrubs can be deliberately managed (that is, established, tended,...
  129. 1979-01-01 Gardening with the Seasons has been adapted from a booklet prepared as part of an innovative and meaningful approach to community development that is underway in Bangladesh. The Sylhet Package Program is funded by International Voluntary Services, Inc. (IVS), a respected US-based private...
  130. 1977-01-01 This manual presents an overview of the entire process of raising rabbits--from selecting healthy animals to preparing proper foods to treating disease. A separate section of the manual includes step-by-step procedures for the construction of a hutch unit to house two does and one buck.
  131. The brooder is heated by a regular electric light bulb, placed under the brooder floor. Depending on the temperature rise required, the wattage of the light bulb will have to be chosen by experimentation. The metal floor and roof prevent predators such as rats from entering the brooder. If...
  132. 1990-01-01 Because chickens and ducks can utilize surplus grain, table scraps, garden trimmings, and by-products, they can provide a valuable food reserve. Some farming communities produce more grain than their people need. Of course the excess could be sold, but if not, it can be fed to poultry. Then, if...
  133. 1984-01-01 Since ancient times, chickens, ducks, and geese have served farming communities by gleaning the fields of grain that otherwise would be lost; picking up grain that is dropped by the wayside in threshing, drying, and transportation; making productive use of the scraps from the family table; and,...
  134. 1985-01-01 The dairy industries in many industrialized countries have developed elaborate facilities in an effort to: (1) save labor, which is plentiful and inexpensive in most developing countries; (2) provide protection for both the cattle and their caretakers from cold in winter; and (3) provide...
  135. 1990-01-01 Goats are among the smallest domesticated ruminants and have served mankind longer than cattle or sheep. They thrive in arid, semitropical, or mountainous countries. More than 460 million goats in the world produce over 4.5 million tons of milk and 1.2 million tons of meat annually, besides...
  136. 1990-01-01 The sheep was one of the earliest animal species to be domesticated, with evidence that they were kept and not hunted as early as 10,700 years ago in the gorge of the Greater Zab River in Northern Iraq. Wool has been found in the remains of 20,000-year old villages in Switzerland (Blakely and...