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By: Jeffrey Ashe
Published: 1978-01-01


ACCION/AITEC

10-C Mt. Auburn Street

Cambridge, Mass. 02138

September 1978

ACCION/AITEC is an independent, non-profit agency that has specialized in applied research and the implementation development programs since 1961. We currently have programs in:  Brazil, Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Guatemala, United States

"Assessing Rural Needs: A Manual for Practitioners" is based on a system developed by AITEC and tested over two years in 860 villages as part of a contract with the Costa Rican Government . It reflects our goals of popular participation and employment generation through the stimulation of very small business enterprises and small farms by providing a well structured opportunity for villagers and small farmers to clearly articulate their needs to the government.

The publication of this manual reflects another ACCION/AITEC goal; to create innovative models and to disseminate them as widely as possible.

If the questionnaire and other materials in this manual are used or modified to mount a research program we kindly request that we be informed so we have a record of the applications of this research manual.

ACCION/AITEC can provide consultant services for setting up similar studies. Please direct all inquiries to ACCION/AITEC, 10C Mt. Auburn St., Cambridge, Mass. 02138 attn: Jeffrey Ashe.

John C. Hammock

Executive Director

TABLE OF CONTENTS Prologue

PART I

  • The Research Project

  • Goals for Development

  • Linking Research with Action

  • Defining the Content of a Research Project

  • Developing a Research Methodology

  • Use of Secondary Sources of Information

  • Questionnaire Development and Testing

  • Administering the Research Project

  • Training

  • Conclusions

PART II

  • Questionnaire

  • Code Book

  • Table Formats

  • Format for County Summaries

  • Format for Community Profile

RURAL RESEARCH MANUAL

PROLOGUE

Planners face a problem of making decisions affecting specific small communities without adequate information. When they try to inform themselves about conditions in these communities, they find that collecting information is costly and time consuming and that when made available is often unrelated to their practical needs. A similar problem is faced at the local level; promoters seldom ask questions that will allow the community to focus on key economic problems; and projects that result are often little related to real community needs. Development programs that emphasize small farmers, services and infrastructure in small communities, rural enterprises and local participation in the development process have created an increasing demand for up-to-date information in the rural areas. Yet, a methodology to collect this information rapidly and cheaply has been largely neglected. Census are expensive, and often out of date, and offer a limited range of information; survey research suffers from similar limitations. Techniques are well established for feasibility studies, but these are too costly and time consuming to detect the development needs of hundreds of small communities.

Through more than two years of technical assistance to the Costa Rican Institute of Municipal Development (IFAM), AITEC, working jointly with that institution, developed a low-cost, rapid system to determine conditions in rural communities and their priority needs for development that is oriented to policy makers. "Assessing Rural Needs, A Manual for Practitioners" systematizes the experience gained through the IFAM/AITEC project and provides a guide for other groups, agencies and individuals.

Based on information collected through community surveys, this system:

  1. establishes basic social and economic trends such as migration, employment, and changes in agricultural production;
  2. specifies the problems faced by farmers such as marketing credit and roads;
  3. provides a comprehensive inventory of infrastructure, services, rural enterprises, and businesses in small communities;
  4. indicates the magnitude of development problems such as kilometers of roads that need construction and improvement, the number of villages that need water, electricity, and schools, and the needs for rural industries;
  5. establishes priorities for these types of projects between regions, counties and communities;
  6. indicates perceived community priorities for development projects, and
  7. provides a baseline against which the effectiveness of programs can be measured by comparing the number, type and location of projects completed compared to the needs established by the research program.

This manual is divided into two parts; the first concerns the research project and includes:

  • clarifying development goals
  • linking research to decisions about projects
  • choosing variables
  • approaches to data collection
  • secondary sources of information
  • writing and testing the questionnaire
  • administering the research project, and
  • training interviewers, coders and analysts.

The second part is more specific and includes:

  • the questionnaire
  • coding procedures
  • systems for establishing priorities, and
  • formats for report preparation for community profiles and county summaries.

All research projects are different and the "cookbook" presented here will not be usable in its entirety in another project. We feel, however, there are enough common elements in research projects in rural areas that focus on the problems of smaller farmers and communities to warrant the writing of this manual. We hope this manual is used by researchers and administrators in their efforts to develop programs in the rural areas.

THE IFAM/AITEC PROJECT

The IFAM/AITEC project was a response to IFAM's need to define problems and specify projects in rural areas and provide loans and assistance to municipal governments. In Costa Rica, the counties have a broad mandate to promote the development of communities within their boundaries.

If IFAM was to provide both financial and technical assistance to the rural counties, it faced the difficult decision of where to concentrate its limited resources. Historically, most of IFAM's projects were located in the county seats in the counties near the capital city. But the government and the international lending agencies urged the funding of rural projects. Lacking baseline information on the hundreds of small communities in these areas, IFAM contracted AITEC to develop a system of data collection and to jointly carry out this investigation. AITEC's participation was financed through loans from the Agency for international Development to IFAM for the contracting of technical assistance.

Over the two and one-half year life of the project, the IFAM/AITEC team developed a research methodology based on group interviews with community leaders and carried out interviews in 860 communities (all of those with a population of more than 200). These communities are located in 56 of the 80 counties of Costa Rica, and include 96.5% of the surface area and 54% of the population. Based on this information, the team prepared reports including:

  1. community profiles on basic services.
  2. county summaries of social and economic trends and priority needs for infrastructure and basic services,
  3. specialized reports on employment, roads, rural industries, basic services, housing, health care and educational facilities, and evaluation, and
  4. a final report indicating the problems of the five rural regions and presenting a strategy for the integrated development of these rural areas.(1)

Showing the close relationship between the research program and decision making, the reports have been used to:

  1. orient the general policy of IFAM in the rural areas,
  2. aid in the planning efforts of other government agencies,
  3. provide basic information for the selection of road and infrastructure projects;
  4. provide baseline data for requests to international agencies for the construction of farm-to-market roads and basic services in small communities
  5. justify an integrated rural development program in two of these counties to put into effect the recommendations in the reports; and,

(1) A translated and edited version of that report, "Rural Development in Costa Rica," ACCION/AITEC, 1978 is available from the AITEC office in Cambridge, Mass.

  1. provide information on rural conditions to other researchers.

In addition, national agencies for planning, economic development, agriculture, cooperative extension, health, agrarian reform, and community development, who have a pressing need for up-to-date information, have used these reports extensively.

PART I

THE RESEARCH PROJECT

I. GOALS FOR DEVELOPMENT

Researchers want the findings of their studies to be used. They also hope the projects they recommend will have a positive impact when put into effect. To insure that research will be used implies a conscious strategy at each step in the research process which will be detailed below. To help insure that projects based on recommendations will have a positive impact requires clearly articulated goals for the development process. Once goals have been defined, the information needed to make recommendations to meet these goals is clear.

If efforts to promote rural change are critically analyzed, we find that for the most part these programs have:

  1. favored large farms, industries and towns, thus concentrating power and eroding the viability of the labor-absorbing production of the poor;
  2. fostered capital and energy intensive technology in the face of unemployment and dwindling energy resources; and
  3. sped migration to cities where the new migrants often remain mired in poverty because of lack of jobs and services.

We felt strongly that development programs should counter these trends. It follows that information should be collected that would allow projects to be proposed that would:

SLOW RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION BY INCREASING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND IMPROVING SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE IN SMALLER COMMUNITIES WHILE INCREASING THE VIABILITY OF EXISTING SMALLER FARMS AND ENTERPRISES AND MAXIMIZING LOCAL PARTICIPATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS.

Projects that encouraged this set of development priorities would, we felt, have the greatest impact in terms of slowing migration and improving the level of living at the lowest cost with the least dislocation of the rural population. The wisest strategy to create more jobs and income is to use the land already in production wore intensively given rapidly dwindling land resources and a mushrooming rural population. It is also important to reach smaller farms and enterprises because with their more labor-intensive production, income is better distributed than if production were concentrated in larger units.

To help achieve these goals would require thousands of small projects in hundreds of small communities. A methodology was needed to determine priority needs in these communities rapidly and at low cost.

II. LINKING RESEARCH WITH ACTION

Much research is carried out, very little is used. However important the research or competent the researcher, findings have little chance of being implemented without the active participation and involvement of the sponsoring institution. It is naive to work as an isolated technician and expect that decisions will be based on research findings. To insure the research will be used, it is necessary to:

  1. Involve key decision makers to develop a clear understanding of why the research is being carried out, what is to be studied, and how it is to be used. It is likely these issues have not been thought through carefully. Interest is developed through participation and the enthusiastic support of these decision makers is essential to insure findings are used.
  2. All groups and agencies that may be able to use the research should participate in the design if possible. This will help develop a demand for the research findings.
  3. Get to know middle level personnel and solicit their opinions. As they ultimately carry out projects, the more they understand the research and see it as directly relevant to their tasks, the more likely they are to use it.
  4. Recognize that a large scale research effort takes resources away from other activities and is likely to cause jealousy and hostility.
  5. Keep the findings of the research project continually in view. Instead of preparing a single final report, prepare simpler, smaller reports throughout the life of the study. This will develop a continuing and increasingly sophisticated interest in the investigation.
  6. Link the investigation to decisions about specific projects. Forging these links is difficult and time consuming as it involves a basic reorientation in the decision making process within the agency. Unless the research team accomplishes this linkage, there is little chance the research findings will be used at the operational level.
  7. An important role of the researcher is to educate. Few agencies have thought through their projects' impact on development. The way reports are written and presented and the informal contacts of the research team with the agency can help clarify or modify priorities.

III. DEFINING THE CONTENT OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT

The specific needs of the institution tempered with the researcher's vision of the goals of the development defines the content of the investigation. Once this has been outlined the next problem is to decide on the specific questions that will be addressed.

A common error is to collect far more data than is used. At the same time, only the most careful testing will insure that all the data needed is included. The questionnaire in Part II is the product of continuing modification throughout the project and since the project was completed. The specific questions for each variable can be checked in part two, it is instructive however, to indicate the kind of information that was collected. Determining priority needs for water systems is presented as an example.

Most studies of water systems include complex calculations on the flow of water per second, the size of piping, the adequacy of the distribution, etc. This information, which requires a day's visit by an engineer, is needed to determine the cost of a proposed project. To merely determine whether a community has a priority need for water much less information is needed. We ask first whether or not the community has a water system. If so, what proportion of the houses have water service. A water system with insufficient water or that functions poorly also has a priority need for improvement. We ask the number of months water was rationed last year and how long the system was shut down for maintenance problems. Finally, we ask if the improvement of the water system is considered to be one of the priority needs for development in a community and if it is, how the community is willing to contribute to the installation of the system.

This information, which may require only a few minutes to collect, is adequate to establish a first approximation of a priority need for this service. More complete information would not significantly improve an ability to establish priorities, and would greatly increase the costs of data collection, coding, and analysis. IV. DEVELOPING A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

It was agreed by IFAM that the study should focus on a first approximation of conditions and the development needs of hundreds of small communities. Once this was decided, the first problem was to develop a research methodology that would determine these needs at an acceptable level of accuracy while keeping within tight budgetary constraints.

Given the need for quick results and the relatively low level of training of those who were to carry out the investigation, the following methodology was decided upon:

A SINGLE INTERVIEW WOULD BE COMPLETED FOR EACH COMMUNITY THROUGH A CONVERSATION WITH A GROUP OF LOCAL PEOPLE CONSIDERED TO "KNOW THE AREA."

Obviously, it is much faster, and therefore cheaper, to fill out a single questionnaire with a group of people than identify a sample within a community and locate and interview these people. This decision cut down the time required to collect information in each community to about three hours. Since all information was collected in a single interview, the most time consuming part of the interview process, transportation to these isolated communities and gathering together a group of people to be interviewed was sharply reduced. This interview was supplemented by observations made by the interviewer and census data and other secondary sources of information.

The most controversial part of this methodology was the collection of all information in a single, omnibus questionnaire. Many believed that:

  1. The information would not be sufficiently accurate, and
  2. information would be biased in favor of an elite within the community.

The basic hypothesis underlying the group interview is that a group of people who have lived in a community for several years and who are locally recognized as "those who know," have an excellent "feel" for community problems and conditions. While in a survey the respondent is asked to generalize about himself, his family or his farm or business, here we asked the group to generalize about the community. A typical community group included the teacher, large and small farmers, municipal officials, large and small businessmen, and community and civic leaders. We found that the answers given by the group are similar to those reported by the census of households taken the year before. The household census and the groups we interviewed were almost always in agreement about migration, employment, major crops and the number of houses with basic services (the only variables where the community survey overlapped with the census).

The criticism that the responses reflected the opinion of the elite is also seen to be invalid, at least in the fairly homogeneous communities of the Costa Rican countryside. As indicated before, the group responses correspond to the census data for factual information -- migration, basic services, etc.; they also correspond very closely to opinions in the one area where we had comparable data -- the perception of priority community problems.

The ordering of community problems was the same in these interviews as with a random survey of 1,500 household heads taken three years before, with roads being the most frequently mentioned problem, followed by water, electricity, education.

Indeed, we felt some of the data collected was more accurate when asked of a group of knowledgeable people than if asked of a random sample of respondents. The respondents were locally recognized as responsible and as worthy of confidence. Also, since the interview was held in a group, a consensus was reached and "wild" responses were avoided. Additionally, the group was asked only to generalize about conditions within the community; questions were not asked about one's family farm or business so there was less temptation to distort information. This is a problem in many developing countries since the researcher is often confused for a tax collector.

The major disadvantage of group interviews is that accuracy decreases as the size of the community increases. We estimate that a well selected group can give accurate responses for a community as large as 1,500 to 2,000 inhabitants. Care must be also taken to get a truly representative sample of respondents. In Costa Rica, every effort was made to include small farmers, businessmen and teachers in the group interviewed. This ensured that one respondent or another would know the answers to all the questions.

V. USE OF SECONDARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Secondary sources can simplify data collection and provide a wider range of information but these sources are often under-utilized or overlooked and too many studies needlessly cover the same ground. The availability and reliability of secondary sources of information varies greatly from country to country. These are the secondary sources of information used in the investigation in Costa Rica. It is likely similar sources will be available in other countries:

  1. Census: Data from the 1973 population, housing and agriculture census was available when the study began. Census data was stored on computer tapes so information could be requested at the community, district or county level. Census data was used to specify:

a. Existing conditions: number of inhabitants, levels of education, employment, agricultural production, land use and levels of basic services, etc.

b. Establish trends: e.g. between 1963 and 1973 censuses.

c. Make comparisons: between districts, counties, regions and urban and rural areas, etc.

Census data complemented the community interviews. Community leaders would report if employment conditions were improving or worsening and why this was occurring; the census would indicate the percentage employed. Community leaders could indicate if the water system was functioning or not, or if there were maintenance problems; the census indicated the number of houses that had piped-in water.

Although up-to-date census information is useful, it is not indispensable for the type of reports we are discussing here and the system as presented in Part Two assumes no secondary data will be available. It is rare to find data as up-to-date and accurate as in Costa Rica:

  1. Maps: The good maps available in Costa Rica also facilitated the investigation. Census maps indicated the number of houses in each community which helped us to select the sample of communities to be studied. These maps also indicated the existing road network which provided a good reference point for the study of priority needs for farm-to-market roads.
  2. Population Projections: Population and age profile projections provided a base line to calculate the number of jobs that would need to be created in the future and allowed us to set goals for economic development.
  3. Land Use Potential: Comparing land use potential with actual land use as reported in the census indicated the degree to which agricultural production could potentially be expanded and intensified.
  4. Labor Requirements for Agricultural Crops: The number of jobs in the agricultural sector that could be created under varying land uses could be estimated with this information.
  5. Agency Reports: The location of facilities or projects is usually adequate.
  6. Other Specialized Reports: Many specialized studies have been generally compiled in areas of interest to the investigation such as marketing, credit, agricultural production, or basic services.

VI. QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

Once the content of investigation is specified and a research methodology is decided upon and the availability of secondary information is determined, the next problem is to develop and test the community questionnaire. These guidelines can avoid many potential problems:

  1. Carefully check the questionnaire with the agreed upon content of the study and the availability of secondary data. It may become evident that some information cannot be collected or that the form in which it can be collected is different from that agreed upon.
  2. Avoid the temptation to add questions thus complicating data collection and coding, and leaving less time for report writing, which is usually more time consuming than expected. It is usually better to cut questions than to add them.
  3. Certain questions are unsuitable for group interviews and should be avoided:

a. specific quantities, i.e., pounds of beans produced, numbers of industries, number of inhabitants;

b. specialized knowledge unlikely to be shared by a group, i.e., problems concerning specific industries, or the type of water distribution system;

c. information about attitudes: do the people in this community, for example, feel that things are getting better, worse, or staying the same.

d. Also be careful of questions that are:

  • too vague + combine two questions into one + indicate too many choices + are too long. A good questionnaire should resemble a conversation -- the words used should reflect the vocabulary of the people interviewed.

Once a draft of the questionnaire is ready, it should be tested. The first tests should be completed by the study director; errors can usually be detected by seeing which questions are not understood. Once a workable questionnaire is written, it should be tested by the interviewers. Interviewers should be quizzed concerning the problems with each question. The questionnaire should be tested and retested until the study director is comfortable with it.

VII. ADMINISTERING THE RESEARCH PROJECT

Good administration of the project is as important as a good research design. Good administration involves at least eight points:

  1. Maintain good relations with the sponsoring agency at all levels. Good relations determine in large part if the research will be used or not.
  2. Hire new personnel carefully even though there is considerable time pressure. Carefully check references and listen carefully to the opinions of the people you trust about the suitability of candidates.
  3. Reward good employees with increased responsibility. The outstanding coder can become the supervisor of coding. New positions can be created as responsibility is progressively delegated and the research gets into full swing.
  4. Be well organized. Everyone should have more than enough to do and accuracy and speed should be rewarded. Poor organization invariably leads to low morale.
  5. Keep the work interesting.
  6. Work to develop a sense of what Costa Ricans call "mistica" - a sense of mission in the research team.
  7. Keep all materials meticulously organized. This will save time in the long run.
  8. Use your time wisely and delegate responsibility. While virtually all the directors time at the beginning will be occupied with training, setting up coding systems, and administering personnel, these activities must rapidly be delegated to provide time to supervise data analysis, write reports and make presentations.

VIII. TRAINING

Good training is the foundation for accurate data and high quality reports. Three groups must be trained: interviewers, coders, and analysts.

  1. Interviewers: It is likely those available to work as interviewers will have little experience. Those interviewers with some experience will still need some training. The first step of training should be combined with selection. Interviewers should be hired for a one-month probationary period and should be let go if they are:

a. undisciplined in the field or in the office, b. consistently make errors, c. write illegibly, d. falsify data, and e. lack a real interest or motivation for the job.

Interviewers should be high-school graduates; some university experience is preferable.

The best training for interviewers is practice; lectures on social science research or interviewing will not in themselves produce good interviewers. This training sequence was found useful in Costa Rica: a. Introduction to how the information is to be used and an orientation to the sponsoring institution.

b. Completion of a questionnaire with trainer taking the role of the interviewer and respondent. Common interviewer problems should be role-played and discussed.

c. Division into teams of two with each trainee taking the role alternatively of interviewer and respondent. Interviews are then checked by trainers and errors are discussed. Later, each trainee completes an interview before the group with a trainer acting as respondent.

d. Visits to nearby communities are taken to complete interviews. Trainers should observe each interview and interviews should be thoroughly checked and all errors discussed.

By this time, interviewers should be ready to collect data in the field. Interviews from each day should be checked by field supervisors. An on-going problem is to get good responses to open-ended questions. The need to probe and write down complete responses should be continually emphasized. By this time, interviewers should be ready to collect data in the field. Interviews from each day should be checked by field supervisors. An on-going problem is to get good responses to open-ended questions. The need to probe and write down complete responses should be continually emphasized.

  1. Coders: Good data from the field is of little value if it is not properly coded.

a. Like the interviewers, coders should be on probation until they have shown their capacity to code and tabulate rapidly and accurately. Coding is often boring and tedious -- few people are able to code well.

b. The first task of the coders is to recheck interviews from the field. This work should be revised until a high level of accuracy is reached.

c. Since the questionnaire is long and complex, coding should be broken into sections. Information for the community profile report is simple to code and provides training for the more complex codes of the cantonal summary. (See Section Two for Community Coding/Community Profile).

Coding for each new section should be thoroughly explained by the coding supervisor or study director and work should be carefully checked.

d. All coding should be done twice to ensure a high level of accuracy.

e. The most able coder should be given the most complex coding and tabulating jobs and more supervisory responsibility.

  1. Analysts: Training for analysts should begin by supervising interviews in the field. Only in this way will they thoroughly understand the study and develop "a feel" about conditions in rural communities. Through considerable trial and error we found that the best use of the analysts time occurred when the analysts were required to follow a detailed outline of the report they were to write. Once the studies were well outlined by the study director, the analysts were found capable of writing good reports rapidly. All work was carefully revised and analysts were required to rewrite their county summaries until an acceptable level of quality was reached and between two and four rewrites were usually required for the first report; quality in subsequent reports improved considerably and revisions were reduced to one or two.

IX. CONCLUSIONS

This manual is practical, and we hope, useful. Though all research projects are different, parts of the questionnaire, the coding system, and the reports format should be useful. The questionnaire, the coding sheets and report formats can easily be modified to incorporate new information.

Looking over the calm order of this manual, it is easy to forget the chaos and uncertainty of administering a major research project. Expect the totally unexpected. Once, the jeeps needed for transporting the interviewers were recalled for a month during the few precious months of the dry season; another time an interview team was thrown into jail because of a misunderstanding with one of the rural policemen. In this respect, all research projects are unique and challenging.

The section which follows presents the questionnaire, the code book, the formats, and the outlines of the county summaries and community profiles. By closely following this guide it should be possible to mount a similar research program.

QUESTIONNAIRE COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE #

Date:

By:

QUESTIONNAIRE APPROVED QUESTIONNAIRE CODED

Date: Date:

By: By:

COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE

Interviewer: ____________________

Community: ____________________

District: ____________________

County: ____________________

Respondents:

Name Occupation

MIGRATION

1. How many people have moved to this community in the last five years?

Many ______ Some _____ A few ______ None ______

1.1 Where do most of them come from? Around here _______ (SPECIFY) ________________________________ From other parts of the country __________ (SPECIFY) _________

1.2 Why have they moved here?______________________________________




2. How many have left this community to live somewhere else in the last five years?

Many _______ Some ______ A few ______ None _____

2.1 Where do most of them go? Near here _________ (SPECIFY)


To other parts of the country


(SPECIFY) ____________


2.2 Why have they left here?




(1) Migration "from other parts of the country" usually indicates attractiveness of area to colonization. Emigration "to other parts" often indicates employment opportunities have not kept pace with population increase.

EMPLOYMENT

3. How hard is it to find permanent employment here? (Not seasonal work)

Very hard _____ Hard ______ Fairly easy ____

3.1 Why?




4. How many people here are looking for work and can't find it?

Many _____ Some ____ A few ____ None ___

5. Compared to five years ago, is there more work, less work, or the the same amount of work?

More _____ Less ______ Same _____

5.1(1) Why is there (more/less) work now?(1)




(3) & (4) deal with difficulty in finding work now; (5) establishes trends.

(1) Reasons given for more work now in Costa Rica: new farms, better marketing, more and better roads, new industries, more access to credit, more agricultural production (as opposed to more cattle production). Reasons given for less work in Costa Rica: more mechanization of agriculture, higher salaries expansion of cattle-raising at the expense of agriculture, little work available to clear land as all available land is in production, disappearance of non-agricultural work.

SEASONAL MIGRATION

6. Are there people in this community who leave every year to work? (in the harvest or some other activity)

Yes ______ No _____

6.1 How many leave? Many


Some ______ A few


6.2 Where do most of them go? To neighboring areas?


(SPECIFY) ____________________ To other parts of the country?


(SPECIFY) ___________


6.3 Compared to five year ago, do more _________ less


or the same number


leave?

SALARIES

7. What is the daily wage of an agricultural worker in this area? _________ daily (NOT SPECIALIZED WORKERS WHO EARN MORE).

7.1 For how many hours?________

7.2 Does this include: yes no

food ______________________________________

housing ___________________________________

land for growing own food _________________

(6) A high number leaving for seasonal work "in other parts of the country," indicates insufficient employment generated through local production.

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

8. Which is more important in this area: beef cattle, dairy cattle or agriculture?

Type of Production Order 1, 2, 3 No significant production beef cattle

dairy cattle

agriculture

8.1 IF MENTIONED BEEF CATTLE: In the last five years, has the importance of beef cattle production increased or decreased here? Increased _____ Decreased


No change _________

8.1a Why has the importance of beef cattle production increased (or decreased)?




8.2 IF MENTIONED DAIRY PRODUCTION: In the last five years, has the importance of dairy cattle increased or decreased here?

Increased _____ Decreased ______ No change _________

8.2a Why has the importance of dairy products increased (or decreased)?




(8) Indicates basic trends in production and the factors related to these changes.

8.3 IF MENTIONED AGRICULTURE: In the last five years, has the importance of agriculture increased or decreased here?

Increased _____ Decreased _____ No change ____

8.3a Why has the importance of agriculture increased (or decreased)?




9. Which are the three main crops grown near here?

9.1 Which is the most important? the second most important? Note in 9.2 the third most important?

9.2 How much is sold commercially?

Sold Commercial Product almost more than less than little all half half

1.

2.

3.

(8.1a), (8.2a) & (8.3a) Reasons for increase given in Costa Rica: more credit, more land, favorable terrain and climate, low salaries, greater demand, low costs in general, good prices, sufficient labor, good roads, more technical assistance. Reasons for decrease: Lack of credit, lack of land, unfavoarable terrain and climate, high salaries, less demand, high costs in general, low prices, insufficient labor, poor roads. inadequate technical assistance. 9.3 Are any of these crops more important now than five years ago?

yes _____ no _____

9.3a Which crop has increased most in importance?



9.3b Why?




(9.3) Indicates basic trends in production and the factors related to these things.

10. Do you have a (name of facility) here?

IF FACILITY EXISTS:

10.1 Does (name of facility) have excess capacity, or is the size about right, or is it too small?

10.2 Is (name of facility) in good condition or poor condition?

10.3 Is what is (stored/processed/marketed) sold maily around here, throughout the country or abroad?

Facility(*) Number No Capacity Condition Where principally sold Excess Adequate Lacking Good Poor Local National Export

- Municipal market

- Slaughterhouse

- Meat packing plant

- Milk cooling/storage

- Rice huller

- Grain dryer

- Coffee collecting station

- etc.

(*) Examples of types of facilities. An exhaustive list should be developed depending on what is locally produced.

(10) With this information, an up to date listing of most all processing storage and marketing facilities can be obtained that also indicate if these facilities are adequate for local production, their state of repair, and whether there are oriented to the strictly local or national and international market.

11. Are any other facilities needed to process or store what is produced here? yes _____ no


11.1 IF YES, SPECIFY ____________________________________________

11.1a Why? (What happens now because this facility does not exist or needs to be expanded?) _____________________


Any others? yes ____ no _____

IF YES, SPECIFY _____________________________________

Why? ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

INDUSTRY

12. Is there a


(saw mill, etc.) here?

MARK IN THE BOX "QUANTITY" THE NUMBER OF INDUSTRIES OF EACH TYPE. ASK IF PRODUCT IS PRINCIPALLY SOLD LOCALLY (L), NATIONALLY (N) OR IS PRINCIPALLY FOR EXPORT (EXP).

Where Product is sold principally (*)Type of Local National Export Industry No Quantity (L) (N) (EXP) Comments

Sawmill

Machine shop

Box factory

(*) Develop a comprehensive list based on types of industries that exist in rural areas.

The following industries are commonly present in rural Costa Rica:

a. Construction materials: brick factory, concrete blocks. gravel pit, saw mill, etc. b. Manufacturing: foundaries, metal working shop, clothing factory, box factory, shoe factory, etc. c. Artisan: dress maker, tailor, show maker, jeweler, musical instruments, etc.

13. Other than the processing facilities mentioned before, are there any other industries that should be developed here?

yes _____ no _____

13.1 IF YES, WHICH ONES?

13.2 Why? (Resource available, urgent demand, etc.)

Industry Reason

____________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ____________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ____________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

(11) Provides a prelimiary listing of the priority needs for improved processing, storage and marketing facilities.

(12) Provides comprehensive list of all industries in rural areas. If product is sold locally, this usually indicates a small cottage industry. Industries oriented to the national and international markets are larger and more sophisticated.

ROADS AND TRANSPORTATION

14. Where do People generally go to buy the things they can't buy here?

____________________ ___________________ __________________ Community District County

14.1 How do they get there?

14.2 How long does it take? (In cases of roads, specify by cargo trucks)

Time of Transport Access Dry season Rainy season

Paved road Indicate surface of Gravel road road as it enters community

Dirt road

Path or trail

Railroad

Boat, canoe

Airplane

15. Is there scheduled (bus, rail, boat, air) service to PLACE INDICATED IN

14?

yes ______ no


15.1 IF YES, How often?

____ bus (or other motorized _____ daily/weekly departures vehicle) ____ railroad _____ daily/weekly departures

____ boat _____ daily/weekly departures

____ airplane _____ daily/weekly departures

(14) Indicates spheres on influence of market towns. Could indicate where services should be located to influence a large area.

(14.1, 14.2,) Specifies transportation and communication network.

16. Is there a public phone here? yes ____ no


17. Is there phone service to individual homes? yes ____ no


18. Is there telegraph service? yes


no ____

BASIC SERVICES

WATER SOURCES

19. Does drinking water here come from: MARK ALL SOURCES INDICATED:

Sufficient amount all year? yes no sufficient insufficient Wells

Rivers or creeks

Irrigation ditches

Springs

Brought from other communities in tanks

Rain water collected

Other (Specify)

(15, 16, 17, 18) Specifies transportation and communication network.

WATER SYSTEM

20. Is water piped into homes here? (A WATER SYSTEM, NOT ONE OR TWO HOUSES) yes ____ no


20.1 How many homes have piped-in water?

all or almost all ______ most _____

some _____ a few ______

20.2 IF YES, Who operates the system?

community _____ municipality _____

national water service _______

21. Did all the houses have enough water last year?

yes ____ no ____

21.1 How many months was water rationed last year?


22. Did the water service break down last year? (due to maintenance problems or the need for repair?) yes _____ no


22.1 IF THE RESPONSE Is POSITIVE, For how long?


22.2 What was the problem?



23. Is there a plan approved for the (construction/improvement) of the water system? yes _____ no


IF THE RESPONSE IS POSITIVE,

23.1 a. Who is sponsoring it?


b. How many houses will be served when it is completed? all or almost all _____ most _____ some ______ few _____

c. When will it be completed? _____________________________

(20, 20.1, 21, 21.1, 22, 22.1, 23, 23.1b) are objective measures to determine priority needs for water service. Other information is descriptive.

ELECTRIC SERVICE

24. Does this community have electric service? yes _____ no


IF THE RESPONSE IS POSITIVE,

24.1 Who operates it? a. community


b. municipality _____

c. national electricity service _____

d. other (specify) __________________

25. How many homes have electric service? all or almost all


most _____ some ______ few ______

26. Is there enough electricity when the system is working well?

yes _____ no _____

27. Is the system part of a larger network


or is power produced here _____ ?

27.1 IF PRODUCED IN THE COMMUNITY, is it hydroelectric


or diesel ______ ?

28. IF HYDROELECTRIC, Did the electric system shut down or reduce its capacity in the last year due to lack of water? yes ____ no ____

28.1 IF THE RESPONSE IS YES, For how long?


29. Was the service reduced or shut down for maintenance or some other problem? yes


no ____

29.1 IF THE RESPONSE IS YES, For how long?


29.2 What was the problem?


(24, 25, 26, 28, 28.1, 29, 29.1, 30, 30.1b) are objective measures to determine priority needs for electrical service. Other information is descriptive.

30. Is there a plan approved for the (construction/improvement) of the electric system? yes


no _____

30.1 IF THE RESPONSE IS YES, a. Who is sponsoring it?


b. How many houses will be served

when it is completed? All or almost all ____ Most ______

Some _______ Few _____

c. When will it be completed? ________ ____________________________________________________________

31. Are there public street lights? yes ______ no


31.1 IF YES, In the center or throughout the community? center


throughout


SANITARY SERVICE

32. How many homes have a toilet or a latrine? All or almost all


Most _____ Some _____ Few _____ Very few or none ___

GARBAGE COLLECTION

33. Is there garbage collection here? yes ____ no


33.1 IF YES,Is garbage collected only in the center


or throughout the community?


PUBLIC STREETS

34. SPECIFY TYPE OF PUBLIC STREETS.

34.1 SPECIFY MAINTENANCE FOR EACH TYPE.

34.2 SPECIFY SURFACE OF PUBLIC STREETS MOST FOUND IN THE CENTER OF TOWN AND OUTSIDE THE CENTER.

Type Good Regular Poor Most in Outside (few holes) (some holes) (many holes) Center the Center

Paved

Grave

Dirt

HEALTH

35. Which health services does your community have?

(*)Health Services yes no Comments

  1. Hospital
  2. Clinic
  3. Health post
  4. Laboratory
  5. Drugstore
  6. Mobile health unit (arrives)
  7. Ambulance (based in community)
  8. Doctor
  9. Dentist
  10. Nurse
  11. Midwife
  12. Health inspector (arrives)
  13. Malaria eradication team (arrives)

(*) Modify according to local conditions.

36. In case of an emergency or major illness, where do people generally go to get help? Name of Institution ______________________________ Location _________________________________________

36.1 How much time does it take to travel to (NAME OF INSTITUTION IN QUESTION #36? Dry season ______ Rainy season _______

36.2 How do people usually get there? ____________________________ (ON FOOT, HORSE, BUS, BOAT, AIRPLANE, RAILROAD, ETC.)

36.3 In case of an emergency is transportation available? Always ______ Sometimes ______ Rarely _____

37. Is there a high school here? yes _____ no _____

38. Is there a grade school here? yes _____ no _____

39. Does any grade school need: yes no Name of school(s)

major repair?

an addition?

or be rebuilt?

(36, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3) Indicates sphere of influence of major health care facilities and problems of reaching facilities.

(39) Provides preliminary listing of need to improve schools.

40. Which of these agencies worked here last year? (PUBLIC MEETING,

WORKED WITH INDIVIDUAL, STARTED PROJECT).

(*) AGENCY yes no Comments

Agricultural Extension

Cooperative Development

Social Welfare

Public Works

Agrarian Reform

Training Institute

National Purchasing Agency

Community Development Office

Municipal Development Office

(*) Examples from Costa Rica.

41. Has the municipal government completed a project here in the last two years? yes _____ no


41.1 SPECIFY ____________________________________________________

(40) Indicates which governmental agencies have effectively projected themselves into rural areas.

RECREATION

42. Does this community have a ....

FACILITY yes no

1. Plaza

2. Park

3. Sports field

4. Other athletic areas/buildings (SPECIFY SPORT)

5. Community meeting hall

6. Library

7. Other recreational facilities (SPECIFY)

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS

43. Does this community have a ....

(*) COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION yes no

School Committee

Community Development Association

etc. (*) List types of community organizations that exist in rural areas.

43.1 Which organization would most likely sponsor a community betterment project?


43.2 Which projects were carried out by community organizations last year? _________________________________________________



AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS

44. What are the problems of small farmers here?






(43, 43.2) Serves to educate government of the great importance of local organizations in solving community problems.

(43.1) Specifies group to be contacted.

(44) Indicates general problems of small farmers. Later questions specify each issue. The following problems were mentioned in Costa Rica: High price or lack of insecticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers and seed; lack of and high price of tools and machinery; lack of credit; lack of economic resources; lack of land; lack of roads; lack of/or high price of transportation; lack of technical assistance; low prices for products; over production; lack of markets to sell products. CREDIT

45. In this community is there a ....

(* )Credit Source yes no

Bank

An agency of the National Production Council that extends credit for farming

A cooperative that loans money for farming

(*) Examples from Costa Rica

46. When a small farmer here needs credit to work, where is he most likely to get it?


46.1 What other sources of credit are used for agricultural production by small farmers here?


46.2 What problems does the small farmer face when he tries to obtain credit from (SPECIFY ANSWER IN QUESTION #46)?




46.3 What problems does the small farmer face when trying to obtain credit from (SPECIFY ANSWER IN QUESTION #46.1)?




(46) In Costa Rica the following sources of credit exist: Bank, Cooperatives National Production Council, private moneylenders, large farm owners, store owners, intermediaries.

(46.2) In Costa Rica the following types of problems were mentioned: GUARANTEES: Difficulties in getting co-signers; lack of land titles, etc. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES: Excessive red tape; slowness in getting money. AVAILABILITY: Credit not available. CREDIT SOURCES DO NOT EXIST OR SERVICE 15 TOO FAR AWAY. INTEREST: High interest rates, etc.

MARKETING

47. IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE, SPECIFY THE THREE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS INDICATED IN QUESTION #9. READ THE CATEGORIES AND MARK THOSE THAT ARE MOST USED FOR THE PRODUCT.

What system of marketing is most used here for:

Sold directly Producer to a packer, Sold to brings refinery, Sold to national own crop Sold to processor, Coopera- buying to market Product Intermediary etc. tive Agency to sell

47.1 Beef cattle

47.2 Milk

47.3

47.4

47.5

48. What problems does the small farmer have selling his products?




LAND

49. What size are most of the farms here? Small ________ Medium ______ Large _____

50. In this community are there: (Order from the category with the most to that with the least).

Categories yes no order

Private farms with land titles

Private farms without land titles

Farmers who only rent their land

Sharecroppers

51. Are these problems here?

(*) Aspects of Problem A problem? Intensity of the problem yes no very serious serious light

a) Lack of land titles

b) Land owned by foreigners

c) Lack of land to cultivate

d) Land increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small minority

Perception of Community Problems

52. What are the important community problems here?





(*) Could be other problems

53. Of these, which are the two most urgent problems to solve in your community?

53.1 What help can the community give to solve these problems?

Problem Help from community ______________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ______________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

BUSINESS

54. Which of these businesses do you have here?

Business Number

  1. Supermarket
  2. Small grocery store
  3. Vegetable store
  4. Butcher shop
  5. Restaurant
  6. Other eating establishments
  7. Hardware store

(52, 53) These perceived community needs are combined with the objective measures mentioned earlier (water, electricity, etc) or with the observations on access roads to establish the priority needs for community development.

54. continued ...

Business

  1. Agricultural supply store
  2. Machine shop (agricultural and industrial)
  3. Gas station
  4. Construction materials/ Building supplies
  5. General store
  6. Clothing and fabric store
  7. Furniture store
  8. Barber shop
  9. Shoe store (where only shores and leather articles are sold
  10. Jewelry store
  11. Beauty salon
  12. Dance hall
  13. Bar
  14. Movie theatre
  15. Pool and billiard hall
  16. Book/stationery store
  17. Hotel
  18. Rooming house
  19. Funeral home
  20. Photography studio
  21. Others (Specify)

(54) Number and type of business indicate size and importance of community.

OBSERVATION

Observer ____________ Date ____________ Community ____________ District ____________ County ____________

A. Type of Population:

_____(a) Strong central nucleus - homes and businesses concentrated

in small central areas.

_____(b) Small nucleus of homes and businesses with disbursed houses.

_____(c) No nucleus of homes and businesses.

_____(d) Linear - most homes and businesses on highway or near railroad tracks (station) but large center of shops and homes.

_____(e) Linear - small nucleus of homes and businesses.

_____(f) Linear - no nucleus of homes and businesses.

B. _____ Number of densely settled blocks. ______

Comments ____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

(A, B) Indicator of community size and community type. Other sources of information, census data, school census, etc. Principal Access

Observer ______________________ Date ______________________ DETERMINE FROM TALK WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS

  1. Major Access to this community is from? Community _________________ District _________________ County _________________

1.1 Time last year road closed to cargo trucks _______________

  1. Information not collected: Road impassable ______ No road access: Specify type of access

Type Time(*) (*) Time interview team needed to arrive in Trail community

Boat

Train

Airplane

  1. Access by road

Odometer Total Surface from to Distance

Paved

All weather gravel

Gravel

Dirt

Ruts or tracks

TOTAL

(C) Detailed information on principal road access to establish priorities. Improved roads are the most frequently mentioned community problem, so it is important to get good information.

  1. Time: Begun ________ Ended ________ Total _______
  2. Fords:

Severity Number

No difficulty

Some difficulty

Major obstacle

  1. Rating:

Good (year round access with little reduction in speed)

Average (year round access possible but at reduced speed)

Poor (year round access difficult or impossible at times greatly reduced speed)

Marginal (dangerous, access very difficult, road closed for months each year)

  1. Comments: _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

CODE BOOK

A. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS

Coder __________________ Date ______________ Community ___________ Approved _______________ Date ______________ County ______________ Region ______________

Question Code

1. Many = 3; some = 2; a few = 1; none = 0. 1.1 Around here = 1; other parts = 0. 1.1 Specify location. 1.2 Responsibility of analyst.(1) 2. Many = 3; Some = 2; a few = 1; none = 0. 2.1 Near here = 1; other parts = 0. 2.1 Specify location. 2.2 Responsibility of analyst. 3. Very hard = 3; hard = 2; fairly easy = 1. 3.1 Responsibility of analyst. 4. Many = 3; Some = 2; a few = 1; none = 0. 5. More = 3; less = 2; same = 1. 5.1 Responsibility of analyst. 6. Yes = 1; no = 0. 6.1 Many = 3; some = 2; a few = 1.

(1) Analyst will analyze all open ended responses and include analysis in county level reports.

6.2 Neighboring areas = 1; other parts = 0. 6.2 Specify location. 6.3 More = 3; less = 2; same number = 1. 7. Daily wage. 7.1 Number of hours. 7.2 Food: yes = 1; no = 0. 7.2 Housing: yes = 1; no = 0. 7.2 Land for growing own food: yes = 1; no = 0. 8 1st: beef cattle = 3; dairy cattle = 2; agriculture = 1; no significant production = 0. 8 2nd: beef cattle = 3; dairy cattle = 2; agriculture = 1; no significant production = 0. 8 3rd: beef cattle = 3; dairy cattle = 2; agriculture = 1; no significant production = 0. 8.1 Increased = 3; Decreased = 2; No change = 1. 8.la Responsibility of analyst 8.2 Increased = 3; Decreased = 2; No change = 1. 8.2a Responsibility of analyst. 8.3 Increased = 3; Decreased = 2; No change = 1. 8.3a Responsibility of analyst. 9.1 Most important crop. 9.2 Almost all = 3; more than half = 2; less than half = 1; little = 0. 9.1 Second most important crop 9.2 Almost all = 3; more than half = 2; less than half = 1; little = 0. 9.1 Third most important crop. 9.2 Almost all = 3; more than half =2; less than half = 1; little = 0. 9.3 yes = 1; no = 0; 9.3a Specify 9.3b Responsibility of analyst. 10

10.1 Code on tabulation form. (2) 10.2 10.3 11.1, 11.1a Responsibility of analyst. 12 Code on tabulation form. 13, 13.1, Responsibility of analyst. 13.2

B. INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES

Coder __________________ Date ______________ Community ___________ Approved _______________ Date ______________ County ______________ Region ______________

Question Code

14. Community, District, County 14.1 Airplane = 7; boat, canoe = 6; railroad = 5 path or trail = 4; dirt road = 3; gravel road = 2; paved road = 1. 14.2 Not at county level.(3)

(2) It has been found that certain questions such as #10 that have a long list of alternatives are easier and more accurately translated directly onto work sheets.

(3) Indicates data is only included at level of community profile and is not used in county level report.

15. Yes = 1; no = 0. 15. Bus = 4; railroad = 3; boat = 2; airplane = 1. 15.1 More than 1 per day = 4; 1 per day = 3; more than 2 per week = 2; fewer than 2 per week = 1. 16. Yes = 1; no = 0. 17. Yes = 1; no = 0. 18. Yes = 1; no = 0. 19. Not at county level. 20. yes = 1; no = 0. 20.1 All = 4; most = 3; some = 2; a few = 1. 20.2 Community = 3; muncipality = 2; national water service = 1

21. yes = 1; no = 0. 21.1 If not, indicate months. 22. yes = 1; no = 0. 22.1 Indicate. 22.2 Not in county report. 23. Yes = 1; no = 0. 23.1A Not in county report. 23.1B All = 4; most = 3; some = 2; few = 1. 23.1C Not in county report. 24. yes = 1; no = 0. 24.1 Not in county report. 25. All, most all = 4; most = 3; some = 2; few = 1. 26. yes 1; no = 0. 27. larger network = 1; power produced here = 0 27.1 hydroelectric = 1; diesel = 0. 28. not in county report. 28.1 not in county report. 29. yes = 1; no = 0. 29.1 Indicate time. 29.2 not in county report. 30. yes = 1; no = 0. 30.1a not in county report. 30.1b all, most all = 4; most = 3; some = 2; few = 1. 30.1c not in county report. 31. yes = 1; no = 0. 31.1 not in county report. 32. all, most all = 4; most = 3; some = 2; few = 1; very few/none = 0. 33. yes = 1; no = 0. 33.1 throughout = 1; center only = 0. 34.1 In center: paved = 2; gravel = 1; dirt = 0. 34.1 Repair: good = 2; regular = 1; poor = 0. 34.2 Outside Center : paved = 2; gravel = 1; dirt = 0. 34.2 Repair: good = 2; regular = 1; poor = 0. 35. Code on tabulation sheet. 36. name/location 36.1 Time / rainy season. 36.2 Type of transportation. 36.3 Always = 3; sometimes = 2; rarely = 1. 37. yes = 1; no = 0. 38. yes = 1; no = 0. 39. Repaired: yes = 1; no = 0. 39. Addition: yes = 1; no = 0. 39. Rebuilt: yes = 1; no = 0. 40. Code on tabulation sheet. 41. Yes = 1; no = 0. 41.1 Specify. 42. Code on tabulation sheet. 43. Code on tabulation sheet. 43.1 Indicate. 43.2

Indicate

C. PROBLEMS OF SMALL FARMERS AND COMMUNITY PROBLEMS

Coder __________________ Date ______________ Community ___________ Approved _______________ Date ______________ County ______________ Region ______________

Question Code 44. Responsibility of analyst. 45. Bank: yes = 1; no = 0. 45. Production Council: yes = 1; no = 0. 45. Cooperative: yes = 1; no = 0. 46. Indicate. 46.1 Indicate. 46.2 Responsibility of analyst. 46.3 Responsibility of analyst. 47.1 Intermediary = 4; packer = 3; cooperative = 2; national agency = 1; direct to market = 0. 47.2 Intermediary = 4; packer = 3; cooperative = 2; national agency = 1; direct to market = 0. 47.3 Name most important crop. 47.3 Intermediary = 4; packer = 3; cooperative = 2; national agency = 1; direct to market = 0. 47.4 Name second most important crop. 47.4 Intermediary = 4; packer = 3; cooperative = 2; national agency = 1; direct to market = 0. 47.5 Name third most important crop. 47.5 Intermediary = 4; packer = 3; cooperative = 2; national agency = 1; direct to market = 0. 48. Responsibility of analyst. Question Code

49. Small = 2; Medium = 1; large = 0. 50. First: private titles = 4; private no title = 3; rent = 2; sharecroppers = 1; no = 0. 50. Second: private titles = 4; private no title = 3; rent = 2; sharecroppers = 1; no = 0. 50. Third: private titles = 4; private no title = 3; rent = 2; sharecroppers = 1; no = 0. 50. Fourth: private titles = 4; private no title = 3; rent = 2; sharecroppers = 1; no = 0.

51. a) yes = 1; no = 0. 51. Very serious = 2; not serious = 1; slight = 0. 51. b) yes = 1; no = 0. 51. Very serious = 2; not serious = 1; slight = 0. 51. c) yes = 1; no = 0. 51. Very serious = 2; not serious = 1; slight = 0. 51. d) yes = 1; no = 0. 51. Very serious = 2; not serious = 1; slight = 0. 52. 52. Indicate Problems 52 53. Indicate. 53.1 Labor = 4; finance = 3; land = 2; tools = 1. 53. Indicate. 53.1 Labor = 4; finance = 3; land = 2; tools = 1. 54. Tabulate from questionnaire.

OBSERVATION

A. Indicate a, b, c, d, e, f. B. Indicate number of densely settled blocks C.1 Community. District County C.1.1 Indicate time - days/months. C.2 Not collected. Road impassible = 5; trail = 14; boat = 3; train = 2; airplane = 1. C.2 Indicate time. C.3 Paved; indicate distance. All weather gravel; indicate distance. Gravel; indicate distance. Dirt; indicate distance. Ruts tracks; indicate distance. Total distance; indicate. C.4 Indicate total time. C.5 Fords;no difficulty. Fords;some difficulty. Fords;major obstacle. C.6 Bad = 4; average = 3; poor = 2; marginal = 1. TABLE FORMATS

INTRODUCTION:

Once the questionnaire has been coded, the next step is to tabulate the results and to prepare the tables that will permit the analysts to write the reports. Since tabulation follows essentially the same sequence for each question detailed instructions are prepared only for question one. By following the same patterns the study team should be able to develop their own tabulation sheets.

Step I

The questionnaires for the county (or district or any other unit analysis which has been decided on) are coded.

Step II

The various responses for each question are summed and placed on the "county tabulation sheet."

Step III

The tabulation sheets for the county are assembled and totaled to obtain the distribution of responses at the regional level.

Step IV

The tabulation sheets at the regional level are assembled and totaled to obtain the distribution of responses at the "area studied level."

Step V

With all tabulation now complete the table for question #1 can be prepared. This table will be used by the analysts to write the report.

Depending on the specific question the data from the county will either be compared with the region and area studied, or will be presented in the context of the county only. Occasionally, it has been found useful to "collapse categories" to reduce the number of alternatives. An example of collapsed categories is presented in Table One. After the questionnaire is tablulated and the tables are prepared, the entire package of tables and the original questionnaires are given to the analysts to use in the preparation of the county level reports. The analysts adhere closely to the "county level format" presented in the next section. The inclusion of these tables in the county level reports is at the discretion of the analyst. Often, only the most significant data from a table will be indicated in the text of the report.

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR QUESTION # 1

The Question: How many people have moved to this community in the last five years? Many _____ Some X A few _______ None _______

Step I: CODING (Each questionnaire in the county coded)

Question Code 1 2 Many = 3; some = 2; A few = 1; None = 0.

Step II: TABULATION AT COUNTY LEVEL: (The number of questionnaires with each response in the county marked on the following form)

Question 1 Tabulated JA Date 5/16/78 Approved MZ Date 5/18/78

Name of County: SAN PEDRO (3) Many 15 (2) Some 6

TOTAL 21

(1) A few 3 (0) None 2

TOTAL 5

No data _________

TOTAL 0

Step III: TABULATION AT REGIONAL LEVEL (The number in each county in the region that chose each response is indicated on the "regional form."

Question 1 Tabulated JA Date 5/18/78 Approved MZ Date 5/19/78

Name of Region: NORTH PACIFIC

Many / Some Few / Some No data County # communities # communities # communities Total

SAN PEDRO 21 5 0 26 HO JANCHA 8 10 1 19 NICOYA 18 15 0 33 CARRILLO 4 8 1 13 LANCS 2 12 1 15 Total 53 50 3 106

Step IV: TABULATION AT AREA STUDIED LEVEL (The number each region in the area studied is indicated in the "area studied" form.)

Question 1 Tabulated JA Date 5/25/78 Approved MZ Date 5/28/78

Area Studied: Many / Some Few / None No data Region # communities # communities # communities Total

NORTH PACIFIC 53 50 3 106 SOUTH PACIFIC 100 40 2 142 ATLANTIC COAST 85 31 1 117 NORTHERN PLAINS 27 80 0 107 Total 265 201 6 472

Step V: PREPARATION OF TABLE

Quantities from county, regional and area studied forms are placed in appropriate spaces in Table I. Percentages are calculated. Question 1 Tabulated JA Date 6/3/78 Approved MZ Date 6/8/78

 

TABLE I IN-MIGRATION

Number Moving County Region Area Studied to communities 

Many or Some 21 81% 53 50% 265 56% Few or None 5 19% 50 47% 261 43% No data 0 0% 3 03% 6 01% TOTAL 26 100% 106 100% 472 100%

In the remaining pages of this section the table formats for each of those questions that will be included on the county level report are presented.

Question 2

Tabulated _________ Date ________

Approved _________ Date _______

 

TABLE II OUT-MIGRATION

Number Moving out of com- County Region Area Studied munities 

Many of Some Few or None No data TOTAL

Many questions in the questionnaire do not warrent a full table where the responses from the county will be compared with the region and area studied. Nevertheless this information is important within the context of the county report so an "additional information table" is prepared.

Additional Information

 

Question 1.1

Around here (1) Tabulated: _________ Date ________

Other parts (0)

Approved: _________ Date ________

 

POINT OF DEPARTURE AND DESTINATION OF MIGRANTS

Around here Number Other parts Number

(Indicate (Indicate point of point of departure departure of migrants) of migrants)

Question 2.1 Around here (1) Other parts (0)

Around here Number Other parts Number

(Indicate (Indicate destination destination of migrants) of migrants)

Note: No regional or area studied calculations.

Question 3

Tabulated _________ Date __________

Approved _________ Date __________

 

TABLE III DIFFICULTY IN FINDING FULL TIME EMPLOYMENT

Difficulty in County Region Area Studied finding employment 

Very Hard

Hard

Fairly easy

No data Total

Question 4

Tabulated __________ Date __________

Approved __________ Date __________

 

TABLE IV NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Number of County Region Area Studied unemployed

Many

Some

A few

None

No data

Total

Question 5

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

Question 6, 6.1

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE V SEASONAL MIGRATION

Number of workers who migrate seasonally to find employment County Region Area Studied 

Many

Some

Few

No data

Total

Question 6.2

Tabulated _____ Date


Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

DESTINATION OF SEASONAL WORKERS

Neighboring Areas _____ #

Other parts _____ #

Note: Specify location in the blanks.

Question 6.3

Tabulated _____ Date


Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

CHANGES IN NUMBERS WHO WORK SEASONALLY Changes #

More

Less

Same

No data

Total

Question 7,7.1,7.2

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE VI DAILY WAGES OF AGRICULTURAL LABORERS

Wages County Region Area Studied

Average daily wage

Average hourly wage

Additional Information

 

BENEFITS IN ADDITION TO WAGES

Benefits yes no

Total

Food

Housing

Land to grow crops

Question 8

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE VII RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF BEEF, DAIRY AND AGRICULTURE

Most Second Least No Significant No Type of Important Important Important Production Data Production 

County

Beef

Dairy

Agriculture

Region

Beef

Dairy

Agriculture

Area Studied

Beef

Dairy

Agriculture

Question 8.1, 8.2, 8.3

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE VIII TENDENCIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OVER LAST FIVE YEARS

Type of Increased Decreased No change No data Total Production 

County

Beef

Dairy

Agriculture

Region

Beef

Dairy

Agriculture

Area Studied

Beef

Dairy

Agriculture

Question 9.1, 9.2

Tabulated _____ Date ____

Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL CROPS

Crops

Most Important

Second Most

Third Most

(List all crops mentioned more than once or twice. Rank order from most frequently mentioned to least frequently mentioned)

 

Additional Information

 

COMMERCIAL SALES OF PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL CROPS

Amount Sold Commercially Crop Almost all More than half Less than half Little

("Most important" in most communities)

("Second")

("Third")

Note: To determine which crop is "Most Important," "Second," "Third," using Table assign three (3) points for each time crop was mentioned as "Most Important," two (2) points for "Second," and one (1) for "Third;" then total.

Question 9.3

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

INCREASE IN IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPAL CROPS OVER THE LAST FIVE YEARS

Increase in importance Crop Number of Communities

("Most Important")

("Second")

("Third")

Question 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE IX FACILITIES FOR PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Capacity Condition Where Principally Sold Facility Number Excess Adequate Lacking Good Poor Local National International

Note: Leave sufficient space between each type of facility for tabulating the county level. Tabulations will eventually be summed up to obtain regional and area studied totals.

Question 11, 11.1, 11.1a

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved ______ Date _____

Additional Information

 

AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING AND STORAGE FACILITES

PERCEIVED NEEDS

Type of Facility Communities Requesting Reasons

Question 12

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE X OTHER RURAL INDUSTRIES

Type of Where Sold Principal Sold Industry Number Local National International

Size of table depends on number of types of industries.

Note: Leave sufficient space between each type of industry for tabulating. The county level tabulations will eventually be summed to obtain regional and area studied totals.

Question 13.1, 13.2

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

PERCEIVED NEEDS FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

Type of Industry Communities Requesting Reasons

Question C2, C3

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XI PRINCIPAL ACCESS

County Region Area Studied Type of Access 

Road

Trail

Boat

Train

Airplane

Total

Question C1.1, C3, C6

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XII ROAD ACCESS

County Region Area Studied Access

* Surface Communities Communities Communities

Paved/all weather gravel

Gravel

Dirt/ruts or tracks

Time/Impossible to Cargo Trucks

one week or less

two to four weeks

one month

one to two months

two to four months

four months or more

(*) Largest number of kilometers in this category.

Question C3

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XIII KILOMETERS ROAD SURFACE

County Region Area Studied Surface 

Paved

All weather gravel

Gravel

Dirt

Ruts or tracks

Total

Question C5

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved ______ Date _____

Additional Information

 

FORDS

Fords 

No difficulty

Some difficulty

Major obstacle

Total

Question 15, 15.1

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XIV FREQUENCY OF SCHEDULED TRANSPORTATION

County Region Area Studied Frequency

More than 1 per day

1 per day

More than 2 per week

Fewer than 2 per week

None

No data

Total

Question 16, 17, 18

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH

Communications yes no

Public Telephone

Individual telephone in homes

Telegraph

Question 20.1

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved ______ Date _____

 

TABLE XV WATER SERVICE

County Region Area Studied Number of Houses 

All

Most

Some

A few

(*)No water system

No data

Total

(*) No water system indicates a "no" response in Question 20.

Question 24, 25

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved ______ Date _____

 

TABLE XVI ELECTRICAL SERVICE

County Region Area Studied Number of Houses

All or almost all

Most

Some

Few

None

No data

Total

(*) Note: No electrical system indicates a "no" response to Question 24.

Question 32

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XVII SANITARY SERVICE

County Region Area Studied Number of Houses

All or almost all

Most

Some

Few

Very few or none

Total

Question 13, 33.1

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XVIII GARBAGE COLLECTION

Center Throughout Communities With Yes Only Community Garbage Collection

County

Region

Area Studied

Question 35

Tabulated ______ Date _____

Approved ______ Date _____

Additional Information

 

HEALTH SERVICES

Facility Number

Hospital

(List other types of health services) Total

Question 36 Tabulated ____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

FACILITY MOST USED IN AN EMERGENCY

Name of Facility Location Number of Communities

Question 36.1 Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XIX TIME TO REACH EMERGENCY HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN RAINY SEASON

Time County Region Area Studied

Less than 1 hour

1 hour to 2 hours

More than 2 hours

Total

Note: This table may be made with time categories which seem most appropriate.

Question 36, 36.2, 36.3

Tabulated _______ Date _______

Approved _______ Date _______

 

Additional Information TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION - AVAILABILITY - LOCATION

Type of Transportation Number

Foot

Horse

Bus

Boat

Airplane

Railroad

Etc.

Question 36.3

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

Emergency Availability Number

Always

Sometimes

Rarely

Question 17, 38

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XX EDUCATION FACILITIES

County Region Area Studied Facility

Grade School

High School

None

No data

Total

Question 39

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

GRADE SCHOOL

Name of Facility Location Number of Communities

________________ ________ _____________________

Additional Information

GRADE SCHOOL CONDITION

Grade Schools that Number Names of Communities need major repair

Grade schools that need expansion Number Names of Communities

Grade schools that need to be rebuilt Number Names of Communities

Question 40, 41

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XXI GOVERNMENTAL SERVICES

County Region Area Studied Institution

Name of Institution or Agency

Example: Agricultural Extension etc.

Municipal Government completed a project in last year

etc.

etc.

No Data

List depends on existing governmental institutions.

Question 42, 54

Tabulated _____ Date ____

Approved _____ Date ____

 

TABLE XXII RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

County Region Area Studied Facility 

Public Facilities: List facility #1 through #7 in order.

*Private Facilities: List facilities in order of frequency.

Note: Private facilities are found in Items 19 - 22 of Question #54.

Question 43, 43.1, 43,2

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

Additional Information

 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS

Most likely to help Organization Number with community project.

(List organizations from most frequently mentioned to least frequently mentioned)

Additional Information

TYPES OF COMMUNITY PROJECTS COMPLETED IN LAST YEAR

Type of Project Number

(Order from most frequent to least frequent.)

PROBLEMS OF SMALL FARMERS

Question 45

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XXIII INSTITUTIONAL SOURCES FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION CREDIT

County Region Area Studied Source 

Bank

Agency of National Production Council

Cooperatives that give production loans.

No institutional source of credit

No data

Total

Question 46, 46.1

Tabulated _________ Date ________

Approved _________ Date ________

Additional Information

SOURCES OF CREDIT USED FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY SMALL FARMERS

Source of credit most frequently other sources of credit Source used by small farmers used by small farmers

(Order from most frequently mentioned to least frequently mentioned)

Question 47

Tabulated _________ Date _________

Approved _________ Date _________

 

TABLE XXIV MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Directly Natl. Takes Inter- to refinery Coop- Buying product Communi- Product mediary packer, etc. erative agency to market ties

Cattle

Milk

Most important crop

Second most important crop

Third most important crop

Total use of this system.

Question 50

Tabulated ________ Date _________

Approved ________ Date _________

 

TABLE XXV LAND TENURE

Second

Third

Type

Most 

Least

None

Private farms with land titles

Private farms without titles

Farmers who only rent their land

Sharecroppers

Question 49

Tabulated _________ Date _________

Approved _________ Date _________

 

Additional Information

PREDOMINATE SIZE OF FARMS

Size Communities

Small

Medium

Large

Question 51

Tabulated ________ Date ________

Approved ________ Date ________

 

TABLE XXVI LAND PROBLEMS

SEVERITY

Very

Not Slight

Not a Problem

Serious Problem 

Lack of land titles

Land owned by foreigners

Lack of land to cultivate

Land increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small minority

Question 52

Tabulated ________ Date ________

Approved ________ Date ________

 

TABLE XXVII TYPES OF COMMUNITY PROBLEMS

Type of Problem Number of Communities

*Examples: roads water Electricity Etc.

*Order from most frequently mentioned problem to the least frequently mentioned.

Question 53

Tabulated _________ Date _________

Approved _________ Date _________

 

TABLE XXVIII TWO MOST IMPORTANT COMMUNITY PROBLEMS

Community First Problem Second Problem

(Names of Communities)

Question 53.1

Tabulated _________ Date _________

Approved _________ Date _________

Additional Information

 

COMMUNITY ASSISTANCE OFFERED

Type of Assistance Number of Offered Projects

Labor

Finance

Land

Tools

ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

One of the major advantages of the research methodology outlined in these pages is that the information can be used to establish an initial listing of communities with priority development needs. Based on the answers to several questions a point system is worked out where a high number of points indicates a high priority. A step by step procedure is presented to establish priority needs for water, electricity, public streets, sanitary services, and access roads.

Priority Needs for Water Systems

Priorities for water systems are based on four criteria:

Points

  1. Number of houses with/without piped-in water 0 to 4
  2. Months water rationed previous year 0 to 2
  3. Months system shut down for maintenance problems last year 0 to 2
  4. Degree of community interest 0 to 2

Total 0 to 10

Answers from the code book are recorded on the following table and points are calculated according to instructions.

Questions 20, 20.1; 21, 21.1

Tabulated ________ Date ________

Approved ________ Date ________

PRIORITY NEED FOR WATER SYSTEM

Houses Without Piped- Time Time shut down Community in Water Rationed For maintenance Interest Code Points Code Points Time Points Points Total Priority 2 1 4 2 2 4 months months 1 8 FIRST

Instructions for Calculating Points:

Houses without piped-in water Questions 20, 20.1

Question Points

20 = 0 or 20.1 = 1 (1)Automatic First Priority 20.1 = 2 Fourth 20.1 = 3 Second 20.1 = 4 Zero

(1) If there is no water system or system reads "few houses" first priority automatically given.

Time water rationed last year Questions 21, 21.1

(2)Time rationed Points

3 months or more 2 1 to less than three months 1 less than one month or none 0

(2) Time intervals presented as examples.

Time water system shut down for Questions 22, 22.1 maintenance

(3)Time shut down Points

3 months or more 2 1 to less than three months 1 less than one month or none 0

(3) Time intervals presented as examples.

Community Interest, Questions 52, 53

 

Question Points

Mentioned in 52 and 53 2 Mentioned in 52 only 1 Not mentioned 0

(4)Total Priority

Points Priority

7 points or more First priority 4-6 points Second priority 3 points or less Adequate

(4) Points presented as examples only.

Question 24, 25, 26, 29, 52, 52

Tabulated ________ Date _______

Approved ________ Date _______

 

PRIORITY NEED FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Houses with Service an electrical Adequate Shut down Community service Current Reduced Interest Total Priority Code Points Time Points Time Points 6 4 0 0 2 months 2 2 6 SECOND

Instructions for Calculating Points:

Houses without electrical service Questions 24, 25

Question Points

Question 24 = 0, 25 = 7 Automatic First Priority 25 = 2 4 25 = 3 2 25 = 4 0

Adequate Current Question 20

Question Points

26 = 1 0 26 = 0 2

(1)Shut down, reduction Question 29

Time Points

3 months or more 2 1 to less than 3 months 1 less than one month 0

(1) Time interval presented by example.

Community Interest Questions 52, 53

Question Points

Mentioned in 52, 53 2 Mentioned in 52 only 1 Not mentioned 0

(1)Total Priority

Points Priority

7 points or more First 4 to 6 points Second 3 or less Adequate

(1) Points presented as example only.

Question 34, 52, 53

Tabulated ________ Date ________

Approved ________ Date ________

 

PRIORITY NEED FOR PUBLIC STREET

Streets in Streets Center of Town Outside Center Community Type Maintenance Type Maintenance Interest Total Priority Code Points Code Points Code Points Code Points

1 1 0 2 0 2 1 1 2 8 FIRST

Instructions for Calculating Points:

Public Streets in Center Question 34

Surface Points Paved = 2 0 Gravel = 1 1 Dirt = 0 2

Maintenance Points

Gravel = 2 0 Regular = 1 1 Dirt = 2 2

Public Streets Outside of Center Question 34

Surface Points

Paved = 2 0 Gravel = 1 1 Dirt = 0 2

Maintenance Points

Gravel = 2 0 Regular = 1 1 Dirt = 2 2

Community Interest Questions 52, 53

Question Points

Mentioned in 52, 53 2 Mentioned in 52 only 1 Not mentioned 0

Total Priority

Points Priority

8 and more First 5 to 8 Second 4 or less Adequate

Question 32

Tabulated _________ Date _________

Approved _________ Date _________

 

PRIORITY NEED FOR SANITARY SERVICE

Houses with Priority Service Question Priority

All or most all = 4 Adequate

Most = 3 Adequate

Some = 2 Second

Few = 1 First

Very few or none = 0 First

Question C6

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

PRIORITY NEEDS FOR IMPROVED ACCESS ROADS

Rating Priority

Question Priority

Good = 4 Adequate

Average = 3 Adequate

Poor = 2 Second Priority

Marginal = 1 First Priority

Once tabulation is complete the data is presented on the following tables:

Question __________

Tabulated _____ Date _____

Approved _____ Date _____

 

TABLE XXIX PRIORITY NEEDS FOR BASIC SERVICES

First Priority Need Service County Region Area Studied

Access Road

Water

Electricity

Sanitary Services

Public Streets

 

TABLE XXX BASIC SERVICES

Service First Priority Second Priority Adequate

Access Road

Water

Electricity

Sanitary Services

Public Streets

 

TABLE XXXI NEEDS FOR BASIC SERVICES BY COMMUNITY

Sanitary Community Access Road Water Electricity Public Streets Services

1 = First Priority

2 = Second Priority

0 = Adequate

FORMAT FOR COUNTY SUMMARIES

The section which follows, "Format for County Summaries," demonstrates one way the data from the questionnaire can be organized to write a comprehensive report. By following this outline closely analysts can write a satisfactory report even though they have little experience.

The "Format" is divided into seven parts; the first three deal with basic social and economic trends in migration, employment and, production. What emerges is a description of conditions as they are now, how conditions have changed in the last few years, and why these changes have occurred. It is usually possible to link in-migration to an improving employment situation and increased and intensified agricultural production (and vice-versa).

Part IV is a description of access roads, transportation and communication facilities and basic services in the county compared to the region and the area studied. Education facilities, governmental services, recreational facilities and community organizations are also described and compared. Part V deals with the problems faced by small farmers. The issue addressed is the obstacles to increase agricultural production (and by extention to improve the employment situation and to slow migration or stimulate more immigration). Part VI presents the types of problems that are seem by the villagers as urgent to solve and the type of assistance they would offer for their solution.

These sections lend logically to the recommendations in Part VII. In Part VII an integral development plan for the county is presented starting with measures to stimulate agricultural production. Following this community by community recommendations are made for the improvement of access roads and basic services.

PART I

Migration

1. Perception of number of persons entering county and whether more are entering than leaving or vice versa.

a) Using Table I, compare the percentage of communities in the county where many or some people were entering, with the percentages for the region and the area studied. A higher percentage for the county would mean a comparatively attractive situation for in-migration, and vice versa.

b) Data from Table II should be noted if the divergence from the regional or area studied averages is striking.

2. Origin of inmigrants and destination of emigrants.

a) Note if in most communities immigrants come from nearby or from other areas in the country. List the areas which were most mentioned. Discuss implications. (Question 1.1)

b) Note where emigrants are going near-far, rural-urban, rural-frontier, etc.) Discuss implications. (Question 2.1)

3. Reasons for leaving and entering.

Note frequently mentioned reasons for moving to the communities in the country or leaving them. Cite interesting examples from the questionnaires. (Questions 1.2, 2.2)

4. Conclusions:

Summarize: Is this an area which in general is more or less attractive to immigrants? What are the reasons for this; Discuss migration as an introduction to employment if this is relevant.

PART II

Employment, Seasonal Migration and Salaries

1. Difficulty in finding employment; reasons:

a) Using Table III compare the percentage of communities in the county where it is "hard" or "very hard" to find work with the percentage for the region and area studied.

b) Note frequently mentioned reasons for difficulty in finding work. Cite interesting examples from the questionnaire. (Question 3.1)

2. Unemployment:

a) Using Table IV, compare the percentage of communities in the county where there are "some" or "many" out of work, with the percentages for the region and area studied.

3. Employment Trends:

a) Using Figure I, compare the percentage of communities in the county in which the job situation has worsened (fewer jobs) or improved with the percentage for region and area studied.

b) Cite reasons and illustrative examples from the questionnaires. (Ques. 5.1)

4. Seasonal Migrations:

a) Using Table V compare the percentage of communities in the county in which "many or some" leave for seasonal employment to percentages for the region and area studied.

b) Indicate whether most of the workers go to areas "nearby" or to "other areas" of the country to find seasonal employment and where they most frequently go. (Question 6.2)

c) Indicate whether in general there is more or less seasonal migration compared to five years ago. (Question 6.3)

5. Salaries:

a) Using Table VI compare the average of daily and hourly wages for the county for unspecialized agricultural labor with those of the region and area studied. Indicate ranges of hourly wages among communities in the county.

b) Indicate whether agricultural labor generally includes food, housing or the use of land for subsistence production. (Question 7.2)

6. Conclusions:

Summarize findings: Is the employment situation generally favorable or unfavorable? How does it compare to the region and area studied? How does this relate to migration, the migratory situation? Are people forced to resort to seasonal migration because of a lack of permanent jobs?

PART III

Agriculture and Rural Industries

1. Farm Production: Using Table VII discuss the most important types of agricultural production. Compare with region and area studied.

2. Tendencies: Using Table VIII discuss shifts in agricultural production over the last five years.

3. Changes in Agricultural Production: Note frequently mentioned reasons for shifts in production. Cite interesting examples from the questionnaires. (Questions 8.1a, 8.2a. 8.3a, 9.3b)

4. Commercial Sale of Agricultural Products: Specify major agricultural crops, then indicate if production of principal crops is principally subsistence or commercial. (Question 9.2)

5. Storing, Marketing, Processing Facilities and Industry: Include the number and types of facilities available in the county, their state of repair, capacity, and where products are sold principally. Do the same for industry. Present Table IX and X, discussing anything of particular significance. (Questions 11 & 13, discussed in recommendations)

6. Sum up important points in this chapter and relate to findings in Parts I and II if significant.

PART IV

Infrastructure and Services

1. Introduce the chapter by stating that the following topics will be discussed:

Roads, Transportation, and Communication Basic Services Health Services Governmental Services Recreational Services Community Organizations

2. Access Roads:

a) Using Table XI compare the principal type of access in the county compared with the region and area studied.

b) Using Table XII, indicate the surface of roads, and the time roads are impassable to cargo trucks compared with the region and area studied.

c) Using Table XIII, compare the percentage of Kilometers of access roads with poor surfaces with the region and area studied.

3. Transportation and Communication

a) Using Table XIV compare frequency of transportation between the county, region and area studied.

b) Note the number or percentage of communication with telephone and telegraph service. (Questions 16, 17, 18)

4. Basic Services:

a) Using data from Tables XV, XVI, XVII, and XVIII, compare basic services of water, electricity, sanitary service, and garbage collection for the county, the region, and the area studied. It may be useful to develop a single table or graph to point out the most important differences.

5. Health Services:

a) Describe briefly the types of health services which exist and their location. Note which health care facilities are most used in an emergency and by how many communities. (Question 36)

b) Using Table XIX indicate the time required to reach emergency health care for the county, with the region and area studied. Indicate the type of transportation commonly used to reach these facilities and whether or not it is available. (Questions 36.2, 36.3)

6. Educational Facilites:

a) Using Table XX, compare the percentages of communities that have grade schools and high schools with the region and area studied.

b) List the names of communities where grade schools are considered to need major repair, expansion or where they need to be constructed. (Question 39)

7. Governmental Services:

Using Table XXI, indicate number of communities where each governmental agency is working (hold a meeting, helped an individual, constructed a project, etc.), compare with region and area studied. Stress that this is the interviewer's perception of the governmental agencies that were working in the community.

8. Recreational Facilities:

Using Table XXII, compare number and type of recreational facilities with the region and area studied.

9. Community Organizations:

a) Indicate the total number of community organizations and types of organizations which are most likely to help out with a community (Questions 43, 43.1)

b) Indicate the types of projects completed by community organizations in the last year. (Question 43.2)

PART V

Problems of Small Farmers

1. Introduce in order of frequency mentioned the problems of small farmers in this area as perceived by the people interviewed. Then, proceed to discuss in more detail. (The following discussion reflects the problems of small farmers in Costa Rica. Other problems can be treated in a similar manner.) (Question 45) 2. Problems in Obtaining Credit: a) Using Table XXIII compare the percentage of communities with institutional credit facilities with the region and area studied. b) Discuss the sources of credit and the ones most used by farmers for financing production. c) Discuss frequently mentioned credit problems -- include significant comments from the questionnaires. (Questions 46.2, 46.3)

3. Problems Related to Marketing: a) Using Table XXI, discuss which marketing systems are most used for various products. Note those crops where institutional systems are used (i.e. cooperatives, national buying organization, etc.) compared to middlemen and truckers. Discuss implications.

b) Discuss the types of marketing problems and indicate illustrative comments from the questionnaires. (Question 48)

4. Problems Related to Land:

a) Discuss land tenure patterns and predominant farm size and their implications. (Question 49)

b) Using Table XXVI, discuss types of land problems and their implications for agricultural development.

5. Problems Related to Roads:

a) Note the number of communities where roads were mentioned as a problem of small farmers and how often roads were mentioned as a marketing problem and as a community problem. Include significant quotes.

b) Indicate the number and percentage of communities where access is difficult (dirt, trail or river) from Table XII. Summarize the problems of small farmers and their implications in terms of limiting production and profits.

PART VI

Perception of Community Problems

1. Using Table XXVII, point out most frequently mentioned community problems.

2. Using Table XXVIII, comment on two most important community problems.

3. Discuss the help offered by the community to solve the two most important community problems. (Question 53.1)

a) The type of help offered. b) Indicate the importance of community participation in lowering project costs.

PART VII

Recommendations

1. Development Plan Present an outline of an integrated development program for the county.

2. Agricultural Development Needs

a) Base recommendations on trends and problems identified earlier in the report. b) Stress need for generating employment, given population increase.

3. Rural Industry Needs a) Using information tabulated for questions 11, 11.1, 11.1a, indicate the communities that need agricultural processing and storage facilities and the reasons these facilities were reported. Use data from Table IX to facilitate develop argument especially as it relates to facilities in poor repair or with inadequate capacity. b) Using information tabulated for Questions 13.1, 13.2 indicate the communities that need non agricultural processing industries and the reasons given.

4. Road and Basic Services Needs

a) Indicate briefly how priority needs were determined.

b) Using Table XXIX, compare the need for access roads and basic services for the county with the region and the area studied. c) Using Table XXX, summarize the needs for priority basic services in the county.

d) Using Table XXI specify the priority road and basic service needs of each community

5. Conclusions

Make a brief summary of the recommendations made and stress the kind of impact their implementation would make for the development of the county.

FORMAT FOR COMMUNITY PROFILE

This community profile format avoids the need to actually compose reports for each community. Referring to the questionnaire a coder simply circles the correct response in the format. A secretary can then transfer this information directly into a report. This avoids having to use analysts for the more routine work and thus cuts down the cost of report preparation considerably.

COMMUNITY PROFILE

Question General Profile

Obs A __________________________ is a community (community)

/with a - which is /

Strong central nucleus of homes and businesses

concentrated in a small central area.

small nucleus of homes and businesses with

disbursed houses.

No nucleus of homes and businesses.

Linear with most homes and businesses located on

a highway or near a railroad track, but with

large center of shops and homes.

Linear with a small nucleus of homes and businesses.

Linear with no nucleus of homes and businesses.

Obs B The community has _____________ densely settled blocks.

14 The people generally go to _______________________ to

obtain needed services and to do most of their buying.

14.1 It can be reached by: /railroad, boat/canoe, airplane,

path or trail/

14.2 /dirt - gravel - paved / road / in approximately

__________________________ . / minutes - hours /

Question General Profile (continued...)

14.2 /all year round - during the dry season/ and in

____________________________.

14.2 /minutes - hours/ during the rainy season.

_______________________________ has the following services, (community)

industries, and businesses:

38 a primary school

37 an / academic - agricultural - high school

45 a bank

45 an agency of the National Production Council

45 a cooperative

35 /a hospital - clinic - health post/

35 ___________________________________.

35 ___________________________________.

35 ___________________________________.

Socio-Economic Data:

Migration: During the preceding five-year period

(*)1,2 /more - fewer - approximately the same number of/

people have entered ___________________________ (community)

1,2 /than - as/ have left it to live in other communities.

(*) Compare answers to Questions 1 and 2.

Question Socio-Economic Data (continued...)

The principal reason given for more people

1,2 /entering - leaving / than

1,2 / entering - leaving / was

1.2 or


2.2


_____________________________________________________

Employment: It is considered to be

3 /very - hard - fairly easy / to find permanent

work here because

3.1


____________________________________________________

Compared to five years ago, there is

5 /more - less - about the same amount of / work available

due to

5.1


_____________________________________________________

4 /Many - Some - A few people - virtually nobody/

/is - are/ looking for work but

/is - are/ unable to find it. Question Agricultural Data:

49 /small - medium - large/ sized farms predominate.

8 /agriculture - and - beef cattle raising - and - dairy

farming/

/is - are/ practiced in this community of which 8 /agricultural - cattle raising - dairy farming/is the most important activity. The three most important agricultural crops are:

9 _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________ and ______________________________________________.

Basic Services Profile:

The Water System: In _____________ there (community_

20 is a - is no/ water system which serves

20.1 all or almost all - most - some - a few/ homes and which is operated by the

20.2 /community - municipality - National Water Service - __________________________________/. During the past year

21 It was not necessary to ration the system due to lack

of water

21.1 it was necessary to ration the amount of water used

for a total of

21.1


22 /but - and also/ it was

22 /not/ necessary to suspend the service for maintenance or repair during a total of 22.1 ______________________________________________________.

Question The Water System (continued .... )

22.2 it was not necessary to ration, reduce or suspend the water supply due to water shortage or maintenance problems.

19 The source /s/ of water used /is - are/ /wells - a river or creek - ditches - springs - water brought in from other communities in tanks - rain - and

19 /there is/ /not/ a sufficient amount of water all year round.

19 only the /wells - river or creek - ditches - springs - water

brought in from other communities - rain - ________________________________________/ /is an - are/ adequate

sources /s/.

All year round.

23 This community currently has no plan to /improve its

construct a/ water system.

23 In _________________________ there is a plan to (community)

/improve its - construct a /water system which will

serve /all or almost all - most - some - few - very few/ houses.

23.1a sponsored by the /community - municipality - National

Water Service - ____________________________________/,

Question Water System (continued...)

23.1c and work is scheduled to be completed on _______.

52 The _________________ /lack of a/ water system was

/not/ mentioned as a problem in the community.

/The enlargement of the - The improvement of the - The

53 construction of - The repair of the / water system

was mentioned as one of the two most needed projects

in the community, and for which they offered to give

53.1 aid in the form of

/labor - financing - materials - equipment - land - ____________________________________________/.

The Electric System:

24 __________________________/ - does not have / electric (community)

service

25 which serves /all or almost all - most - some - few

of the houses, and which is operated by the

24.1 /community - municipality - National Electric Service _______________________________/.

31 It /has - does not have / public street lights, /but

 

31.1 only in the center of town - throughout the community/.

26 The interviewees believe that there is /not/ enough

electric current available when the system is working

28 well. During the past year it was not necessary to shut

down the electric system or reduce its capacity due to

lack of water,

it was necessary to shut down the electric system due

28.1 to a lack of water or fuel for a total of ___________

Question Electric System: (continued ...)

/but - and also

29 /it was - it was not / necessary to do so for maintenance

during a total of _____________________________________.

29.2 because ___________________________________________.

It was not necessary to shut down the electric system or

reduce its capacity due to a lack of water or fuel or for

maintenance problems.

30 This community currently has no plan to

/improve its - construct an/ electric system.

30.1 In ______________________ there is a plan to /improve (community)

the - construct an/ electric system which will serve

30.1b /all or almost all - most - some - few - very few/

houses sponsored by the

30.1a /community - municipality - National Electric Service -

_______________________________/.

30.1 and work is scheduled to be completed on ____________.

The

52 /lack of an / electric system was

/not/ mentioned as a problem in the community.

53 /The enlargement of the - The improvement of the

The construction of an - The repair of the / electric

system was mentioned as one of the two most needed

53.1 projects in the community, and for which they offered to

give aid in the form of

/labor - financing - materials - equipment - __________/.

Question Public Streets:

34 The public streets in the center as well as outside the

center of _______________________ are principally

paved - gravel - dirt/ and are considered to be

/well - regularly - poorly/ maintained.

34.1 The public streets in the center of _______________ (community) are principally

paved - gravel - dirt / and are

considered to be

/well - regularly - poorly/ maintained, while the streets

34.2 outside of the center are

paved - gravel - dirt / and are

/well - regularly - poorly/ maintained.

The

52 /lack of - condition of the / public streets was

/not/ mentioned as a problem in the community.

The

53 /construction of - repair of - improvement of/

the public streets was mentioned as one of the two most

needed projects in the community, and for which they

53.1 offered to give aid in the form of

/labor - financing - materials - equipment - land _________________________________________________/. Question Sanitary Service and Garbage Collection:

32 /all or almost all - most - some - few - very few

or none / of the houses have latrines or toilets.

The

52 lack of / sanitary service was

/not/ mentioned as a problem in the community.

53 The expansion of sanitary services was mentioned as one of the two most needed projects in the community,

53.1 and for which they offered to provide aid in the form of

/labor - financing - materials - equipment - __________ _______________________/.

33 There /is - is not / garbage collection service.

33.1 Garbage is collected /only in the center - throughout the community /.

The

52 /lack of a / garbage collection service was

/not/ mentioned as a problem in the community.

The

53 /establishment of a - expansion of the - improvement

of the/ garbage collection service was mentioned as one

of the two most needed projects in the community and for

which they offered to provide aid in the form of

53.1 / financing - equipment - ____________________/.

Question Community Problems and Organizations

53 In response to the question, "Which are the two most

urgent problem to solve in your community?", the

interviewees mentioned the following: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

53.1 For the first project they said that the community would

help in the form of:

and for the second in the form of:

53.1 For both projects they said that the community would offer

help in the form of: _____________________________________

52 They further mentioned that

/other - another / important problem

/s/ in the community

/are - is / __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

43 Of the following community organizations: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

43.1 The ___________________________________________ was considered

most likely to sponsor a project for community betterment.

Question Community Problems and Organizations: (continued ... )

43 According to the interviewees there are no community

organizations that meet regularly.

52 In addition to the problems already listed, the interviewees

also mentioned the need for the following in their