Rate This Resource


In simplest language, agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land. The crops can be grown together at the same time, can be grown in rotation, or can even be grown in separate plots when materials from one are used to benefit another. However, this simple definition fails to take into account the integrated concepts associated with agroforestry that make this system of land management possibly the most self-sustaining and ecologically sound of any agricultural system. Thus, a second definition of agroforestry would be the integration of trees, plants, and animals in conservative, long-term, productive systems.

Agroforestry can be considered more as an approach than as a single, finished technology. Although several finished systems have been devised and tested, such technology may require adjustment for particular situations. The flexibility of the agroforestry approach is one of its advantages.

Connect to the Agroforestry Interest Group here.

Please note that the links listed below may lead to additional resources which have not yet been added to this collection.


  1. 1992-01-20 In simplest language, agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land. The crops can be grown together at the same time, can be grown in rotation, or can even be grown in separate plots when materials from one are used to benefit another....
  2. This group page exists so that individuals involved in Agroforestry around the world can connect. We encourage you to share the challenges you face in your Agroforestry endeavors, discuss lessons and techniques learned through your experiences, and share your story!
  3. 2015-10-06
  4. 2004-07-01 Agroforestry: In its simplest definition (as quoted by ECHO's Technical Note "Agroforestry Principles"), "agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land." It should be viewed more as a creative process than as a set technique because it is...
  5. Rating: 4.0 - 1 Vote
    1994-10-19 Information about nematodes affecting agroforestry trees. Nematodes are tiny “wire worms” that abound in the soil. The root-knot nematode,Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most infamous, both for its devastating effect on crops and the ease with which its presence can be identified. The...
  6. 1994-04-19 See List. Research is currently in progress on another, novel, approach to control of subterranean termites [whichrely on fungi to make suitable food from decaying vegetation carried into the colony]. This approach is to apply fungicides to deprive them of their major food source by controlling...
  7. 1988-03-01
  8. 2014-11-18 Climate change will have its worst effects on the world’s poorest people. Perennial crops and agroforestry systems can help reduce the effects of climate change by sequestering carbon, while also helping to address social and environmental challenges through restoration of degraded land,...
  9. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    2016-11-15 Resilience refers to the capacity for ecological systems to persist and absorb changes. Climate-change resilience encompasses a dual function, to absorb shock as well as to self-renew to cope with new circumstances. Agroforestry offers both mitigation and adaptation strategies for enhancing...
  10. The research of the World Agroforestry Centre works towards more productive, diversified, integrated and intensified trees and agroforestry systems that provide livelihood and environmental benefits, including: Enriching the asset base of poor households through farm-grown trees. Maximizing the...
  11. This book serves as a companion to 100 Tropical Fruits, Nuts, and Spices for the Central African Home Garden. Drawing on over 30 years of experience in Central Africa, Roy Danforth and fellow authors have developed this manual to guide people in establishing a variety of multipurpose trees in the...
  12. 2001-10-01 This booklet assembles under one cover the 97 factsheets and highlights published by the Forest, Farm and Community Tree Network (FACT Net) and its predecessor the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association (NFTA) between 1985 and 1999. These 2 to 4 page bulletins are concise summaries of important...
  13. 1998-01-02 Amazon.com Description The purpose of this volume is to present a detailed and in-depth look at the concepts, principles and practices that underlie agroforestry application. The focus is on how the individual parts (the theories and concepts) form the whole (the process of designing or...
  14. 1988-03-01
  15. 1989-01-02 This book is a review of the potential of agroforestry for soil conservation, treated in its wider sense to include both control of erosion and maintenance of fertility. The objectives are: To summarize the present state of knowledge on agroforestry in soil conservation, including both known...
  16. 1998-12-28 A tool for developing and applying the science of agroforestry to problems of natural resources conservation and sustainable agricultural development, this book examines the environmental and social conditions that affect the roles and performance of trees in field- and forest-based agricultural...
  17. 1993-07-31 Amazon.com Description Agroforestry has come of age during the past fifteen years. During this period, activities and interest in agroforestry education and training have increased tremendously, as in other aspects of agroforestry development. Today, agroforestry is taught at the senior...
  18. Vi Agroforestry (Vi-skogen) is a Swedish development cooperation organisation, fighting poverty and improving the environment through tree planting. We do this together with small-holder farming families and farmers’ organisations in the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. The foundation of Vi...
  19. 2001-12-01 Amazon.com Description Cultivating connections with trees.
  20. 2007-05-25 Amazon.com Description This handbook of locally based agricultural practices brings together the best of science and farmer experimentation, vividly illustrating the enormous diversity of shifting cultivation systems as well as the power of human ingenuity. Environmentalists have tended to...
  21. 2011-01-01 Lack of food security is one of the biggest challenges that Central Africans face each day as they toil in their gardens, trying to produce enough food to simply feed their families and afford other expenses in life such as health care or schooling for their children. Main factors limiting...
  22. Part I deals with the relationship between trees and people, and the threat to trees posed by social, economic and political factors. Part II focuses on multistorey farming, an economically sound cropping method used in many tropical regions. The annexes provide useful tables on food and fodder...
  23. 1984-04-30
  24. 2005-10-20 Amazon.com Description Edible Forest Gardens is a groundbreaking two-volume work that spells out and explores the key concepts of forest ecology and applies them to the needs of natural gardeners in temperate climates. Volume I lays out the vision of the forest garden and explains the basic...
  25. 1989-01-01 Amazon.com Description The aim of this guide is to present results of scientific research on pruning in a way that can be understood easily by all people who care about trees. In this guide I discuss pruning for the desires of man, but also for the health of the trees and their associates. I have...
  26. 1992-01-20 In simplest language, agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land. The crops can be grown together at the same time, can be grown in rotation, or can even be grown in separate plots when materials from one are used to benefit another....
  27. Com 64 anos, o agricultor Paulo Roberto Santana carrega no rosto as marcas de uma prática agrícola precária. São manchas provocadas pelo câncer de pele que contraiu por causa do sol e dos venenos químicos aplicados durante 12 anos em lavouras de algodão, no interior de Minas Gerais. Hoje, curado...
  28. Abstract - International Journal of Botany, 2010 Vegetative propagation techniques are increasingly being applied to the domestication of tropical tree species as a means of producing planting stock and capturing genetic variation. However, the level of knowledge of cost-effective for vegetative...
  29. Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case...
  30. For probably as long as people have lived in Africa, they have eaten culturally and traditionally important indigenous fruits such as baobab, desert date, black plum, and tamarind. Farmers have been able to enjoy the fruit of these plentiful wild trees without developing any knowledge of how to...
  31. Abstract - Botanical Journal of Scotland Three apparently disparate topics are brought together to focus on ways in which science and even technology have often been insulated from pressing human needs. A notable example is the 20th Century's down-grading of the value of tropical trees in...
  32. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    1997-11-19 One of the immediate problems directly affecting agricultural output and quality of life in Niger is the severe deforestation which has occurred, particularly since the 1960’s. Simply planting more trees does not solve the problems. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration is a practice that protects...
  33. This directory is intended to: contribute to the informed use of tree germplasm, which is an essential component of sustainable forestry and agroforestry practices, and promote wider use of quality germplasm. Quality has both a genetic and a physiological component, and both are described in the...
  34. 2017-02-09 Resilience refers to the capacity for ecological systems to persist and absorb changes. Climate-change resilience encompasses a dual function, to absorb shock as well as to self-renew to cope with new circumstances. Agroforestry offers both mitigation and adaptation strategies for enhancing...
  35. 2010-01-01 For many years, conventional Western forestry methods have been applied, and exotic tree species promoted in Sahelian countries in order to combat desertification. Large and small projects were commissioned to curtail the assumed southward movement of the Sahara desert, but few made any lasting...
  36. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    2008-04-20 The technique described in this article is very practical and applicable in certain situations. For example, it is becoming very useful for us here in Gamboula, Central African Republic (CAR), to produce planting material to distribute to our agroforestry cooperatives. It would also be helpful as...
  37. 2010-01-01 Farming communities in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa are becoming particularly vulnerable and face enormous challenges for their survival. Climate change, diminishing and unreliable rainfall, traditional mono culture cropping farming practices, high population growth, frequent famines...
  38. Focali (Forest, Climate, and Livelihood research network) is a Swedish research network focusing on forest / bio-energy, climate change and poverty issues. Several Swedish universities and institutions are represented in the network. The purpose is to contribute to the provision of relevant...
  39. Works to improve the well-being of humanity through scientific research and postgraduate education applied to the development, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. CATIE, 7170, Turrialba, Costa Rica. What is CATIE The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center...
  40. Tropical forestry and agroforestry are both highly interdisciplinary, spanning both biological and social sciences. Understanding the impacts of varied uses on tropical forests is critical to the development of management plans and policies that can sustain both the systems and the people that...
  41. Who we Are ASB is the only global partnership devoted entirely to research on the tropical forest margins. ASB is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutes, universities, non-governmental organizations, community and farmers’ groups working to...
  42. A free email agroforestry journalforpractitioners, extension agents,researchers, professionals, students, and enthusiasts. One edition is sent each month focusing on a concept related to designing, developing, and learning more about trees and agroforestry systems. Focuses on trees and their...
  43. For those of you working to rebuild agriculture in hurricane-ravaged Caribbean and Central American communities, we’ve assembled somefree agroforestry training materialsthat will immensely benefit you: How to plant windbreaks to stop and slow heavy winds How to build contours to stop erosion How...
  44. Abstract Agroforestry Systems, 2017 The distribution and composition of the tree component inside cocoa agroforests plays an important role in the economic and ecological services offered by these plantations. The presence of these plant components appears to be influenced by several factors...
  45. ScienceDaily, 2018 Penn State An agricultural system that combines trees with crops and livestock on the same plot of land, agroforestry is especially popular in developing countries because it allows small shareholder farmers -- who have little land available to them -- to maximize their...
  46. TheAfrican Crop Science Journal,a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, information science,...
  47. AccessAgriculture Training Video In semi-arid West Africa, farmers and herders explain why and how trees and livestock play a crucial role in obtaining a productive soil and crop. In Niger and Ghana this is one of the strategies of integrated striga and soil fertility management that has a...
  48. Trees for Life Journal(ISSN: 1559-1891) is an open-access journal of traditional knowledge and scientific studies of beneficial trees and plants published online by Trees for Life, a nonprofit organization. Vision: People around the world sharing traditional knowledge and scientific studies of...