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From FAO Field Manual :

There are several ways of vegetative propagation. The three main types in forest tree propagation are grafting, air-layering and the use of cuttings. The three types are referred to as macropropagation, as alternative to micropropagation or tissue culture. Propagation by cuttings is the most convenient and cheapest method and usually preferred when possible. Air-layering is a variation of propagation by stem cuttings in which root formation is initiated before the plant part is separated from the mother tree. In grafting, the shoot (scion) of the desired tree is joined with a root (stock or root stock) of different genetic origin.

Which methods of propagation to be used in a particular situation is a matter of experience with the individual tree species plus the purpose and conditions of the propagation. The methodologies of vegetative propagation should be adapted to the individual plant species. The same method may work differently at a different time of the year, etc. 


  1. 1983-01-01 What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing citrus from seed when that is possible? One obvious advantage is that it is much less labor intensive to simply sow citrus seeds and eliminate the grafting step. Another advantage is that the seedling will most likely be free from viruses that...
  2. 1994-07-19 Go Easy With Fertilizer After Transplanting Trees and Shrubs. Removing Salts From Container Grown Plants Moringa and Carotene What About Rhizobia Inoculants? Tomatoes Resist Flooding if Grafted To Eggplant. A Method For Keeping Rats Away From Oil Palms
  3. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    1994-07-19 Tomato plants grafted onto eggplant roots can tolerate flooding.
  4. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    2007-10-20 A pot irrigation system was used to water newly planted mango grafts. Instead of direct watering, water was poured into four cylindrical clay pots installed around the plant.
  5. Abstract HortScience 2007 Grafting of vegetable seedlings is a unique horticultural technology practiced for many years in East Asia to overcome issues associated with intensive cultivation using limited arable land. This technology was introduced to Europe and other countries in the late 20th...
  6. Florida State Hort Society, 2006 The wedge grafting technique is described in detail for students, nursery growers and technologists.
  7. Abstract -Scientia Horticulturae 2017 Salinity and water shortages are two of the biggest environmental constraints that crops have to face in the climate change scenario. A fast and efficient way to overcome these stresses under the prism of a sustainablecrop managementis the use ofgrafting,...
  8. In many tropical countries, tomato production can be dramatically impacted by soilborne pathogens, impacting the livelihoods of rural families. The most limiting soilborne pathogen in the tropics isRalstonia solanacearum,bacterial wilt. Tomato grafting technology is a proven technology...
  9. Cornell Horticulture Grafting Course
  10. Abstract. HORTSCIENCE 2001 In order to avoid nematode damage to roots of Coffea arabica L. in Latin America, a common practice is interspecific grafting on C. canephora var. Robusta (Pierre) rootstocks. The performance of two C. arabica cultivars, ‘Caturra’ and ‘Catimor T5175’, was evaluated on...
  11. Abstract -Journal of Nematology, 2000 Root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp., are among the pests with the greatest negative impact on the economy of coffee production in Guatemala. A field experiment was undertaken in southwest Guatemala to assess damage due to a root-lesion nematode and to...
  12. Uploaded on Sep 15, 2010 Katie From DaleysFruit.com.au demonstrates grafting citrus and discusses some of the benefits of buying a Grafted Fruit Tree
  13. Perennial plants can be propagated in vegetative or generative ways. Fruit and nut trees are usually propagated by vegetative means using grafting methods. For this, there are two types of grafting methods: budding and grafting. Both of them are used for the same purpose - to create a new plant...
  14. Abstract -Journal of Experimental Botany While much recent science has focused on understanding and exploiting root traits as new opportunities for crop improvement, the use of rootstocks has enhanced productivity of woody perennial crops for centuries. Grafting of vegetable crops has developed...
  15. Learn vegetable production techniques such as grafting from the World Vegetable Center YouTube channel! Tune in for videos about the Center's work around the world to promote vegetable production and consumption for health and income. http://avrdc.org
  16. Uploaded on Oct 12, 2010 Demonstration of terminal grafting method used to grow mango and other trees in one of Tree Aid's community tree nurseries in Burkina Faso, W. Africa. July 2008. In French with English subtitles. www.treeaid.org.uk
  17. Plants have two ways of reproduction, sexual by means of seeds, and asexually or vegetatively by means of vegetative tissue. Both ways occur in living plants in nature. In nature, some plants reproduce mainly vegetatively while others rely almost totally on sexual reproduction. For the plant...
  18. Uploaded on Feb 14, 2011 Dr. Richard J. Campbell of Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden talks about the concepts behind grafting.
  19. AccessAgriculture Training Video With grafting, a young shoot from a preferred mango variety is attached to a seedling. The seedling will develop the root and base of the tree. This is called the rootstock. The young shoot that is grafted onto the rootstock is called the scion. This will develop...
  20. Uploaded on May 23, 2007 Kath and Katie from Daleys Fruit Tree Nursery demonstrate the how and why of grafting fruit trees. Produced by Tacit Productions (contact Lachlan Forsyth)
  21. 2016-02-02 An explanation of what vegetable grafting is, considerations that should be made, and step-by-step methods graft vegetables
  22. 2016-02-02 An introduction to fruit tree propagation and overview of various techniques such as air layering, budding, grafting, and topping.
  23. This workshop will explore the methods and benefits of vegetable grafting, specifically for tomato, pepper, and eggplants. Plant propagation is the ability to multiply plant numbers while preserving plant characteristics or develop better characteristics. Vegetable grafting is a mechanism by...
  24. 2007-05-24 Uploaded on May 24, 2007 Kath explains what needs to be considered when planting a grafted fruit tree
  25. 2016-05-12 This 5-minute lightning talk is about a research project focused on grafting tomato seedlings in Honduras and Guatemala, called "Plántulas de Esperanza" or Seedlings of Hope. Speaking is James Nienhuis of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, during his presentation at the 2016 Horticulture...
  26. 1983-06-19 Jerry Larson with Double Harvest in Haiti asked us what varieties of citrus might come true from seed. I checked with Dr. Carl Campbell at the University of Florida Extension research center. Carl has given me many in-depth, insightful answers to tropical fruit questions sent by several of our...
  27. 2015-11-22 Silent video of the process of doing a bud graft.
  28. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    2017-11-08 At ECHO FL we graft avocados using a micro-cleft grafting technique. This video shows the whole progression of the avocado grafting process: from planting the rootstock seeds, through grafting, healing of the graft union, shaping the young tree, and potting the grafted tree into a bigger pot size...
  29. Learn vegetable production techniques such as grafting from the World Vegetable Center YouTube channel! Tune in for videos about the Center's work around the world to promote vegetable production and consumption for health and income. http://avrdc.org. This link brings up the playlist collection...
  30. Abstract, FFTC Flooding and soil-borne diseases cause severe yield losses in tomato during the hot and wet summer months in the lowland tropics. The high market price during the summer period motivates farmers to adopt additional cultural practices to overcome production constraints, such as...