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Research posters are effective visual tools that help present information in concise and interpretive ways. Yearly at ECHO's International Agriculture Conference, posters that pertain to tropical agriculture and development are presented by ECHO staff and conference delagates. These include research summaries, crop evaluations, development project summaries and more. If you are interested in submitting a poster for this upcoming conference, please see the poster session and guidelines. Posters may be submitted for review at any time and will be displayed on ECHO Community if approved.

12 Issues in this Publication (Showing 1 - 10)

Poster - Seed Storage: Effectiveness of containers on temperature and relative humidity control

After modifications to the ECHO Global Seed Bank storage unit, seed storage techniques already in use were assessed for effectiveness in achieving appropriate seed storing conditions within the renovated cooling and dehydrating system. Seed type influenced the effect of container on relative humidity. In comparison to that with non-sealed containers, sealed containers reduced humidity when filled with bean but not maize seed. Humidity fluctuation was less with sealed than non-sealed containers. The same was true for bean seeds. Air temperature around the seeds was unaffected by seed type or container. Fluctuation of air temperature, however, was  significantly less in a bucket than in any of the other containers.

Poster - 2-4-2 Maize/Legume Intercropping Trial Update (2016)

The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of a repeating sequence of 4 rows of cowpea alternated with 2 rows of maize. Maize and cowpea are  planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1 The objective of this trial is to gain first-hand experience while evaluating the feasibility of implementing 2-4-2 with other legumes. Jack bean produced the most (4.3 t/ha) dry matter. Cowpea and velvet bean produced 1.8 and 2.8 t/ha dry matter, respectively. Soil fertility and subsequent maize growth were apparently influenced by the amount of leguminous mulch produced and left on the ground. Maize grew taller with jack bean than cowpea, likely an effect of higher biomass with jack bean. This intercropping pattern shows promise as a way for farmers to intercrop maize with aggressive legumes.

1H.A. Ajeigbe, B.B. Singh, A. Musa, J.O. Adeosun, R.S. Adamu, and D. Chikoye. 2010. Improved cowpea–cereal cropping systems: cereal–double cowpea system for the northern Guinea savanna zone. pp 17

Poster - Maize/Legume Intercrop Based on IITA 2-4-2 Design

The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of 4 rows of cowpea and 2 rows of maize, all planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1 The maize and cowpea are densely planted.

The objective of this trial is to gain first-hand experience while evaluating the feasibility of implementing 2-4-2 with other legumes. This poster describes design and provides priliminary data from the first year (2015).

1H.A. Ajeigbe, B.B. Singh, A. Musa, J.O. Adeosun, R.S. Adamu, and D. Chikoye. 2010. Improved cowpea–cereal cropping systems: cereal–double cowpea system for the northern Guinea savanna zone. pp 17

Poster - Oxalates present in monstera fruit and plant matter

Plants contain oxalates for a few reasons. The first is that plants do not have an excretory system like animals, so oxalates allow plants the ability to bind up excess calcium (Webb 1999).Plants high in oxalates can have negative effects on the ability of animals to absorb calcium after eating taro leaves as forage (Hang 2011). In humans, eating foods with a high amounts of oxalates can increase kidney stone formation (Juajun2012).The second reason oxalates are said to occur in plants is to prevent herbivory (Webb 1999). Oxalate crystal shapes (raphidesand styloids) are like small needles and can be found in plants such as Monsteradeliciosaand Colocasiaesculenta.Consumption of plants containing raphidesand styloids cause an unwanted reaction. The crystals within plant matter from monsteraare said to cause oral and skin irritation (Morton 1987). Plants containing high levels of oxalates are able to be consumed if processed correctly or harvested at the right time.

Poster - Soil Salinity Measurement Trial

Salt buildup typically occurs in dry areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Over time, as water evaporates, the minerals left behind begin to accumulate. Plants need a certain amount of soluble salts, but when the salt content of soil water is greater than that of the water inside plant cells, the plant roots cannot absorb the soil water.

The degree of salinity at which yields decline depends on the crop. Quinoa (Chenopodiumquinoa), for example, is quite tolerant of salinity, whereas many annual vegetable crops are much more sensitive. Farmers in salt-prone areas need to know the salinity of their soils.

Poster - Cyantesmo Paper for Detecting Cyanide

Some tropical crops contain cyanogenic glycosides, toxic substances that release hydrocyanic acid (HCN; also referred to as cyanide) when cells are crushed. Consuming these plants without cooking them can cause cyanide poisoning, with varying effects depending on cyanide levels and how long a person or animal has been eating that plant. Cassava roots and leaves contain cyanogenic glycosides, so people whose diets are heavily dependent on cassava are especially at risk. Traditional methods to process and detoxify cassava roots include fermentation, prolonged soaking and boiling. Chaya leaves also contain cyanogenic glycosides; it is best to cook chayaleaves before eating them, to boil off the HCN rather than ingesting it. To determine if a plant is safe to consume, either by humans or livestock, a simple cyanide screening test is very helpful. At the 2014 ECHO International Conference in Florida, Dr. Ray Smith provided ECHO with sample strips of Cyantesmopaper for screening plant material for HCN.

Poster - CO2 and Biogas Applications for Controlling Pests in Seeds - 2017-11-01

Insect pests can result in substantial losses of stored seed. In West Africa, cowpea bruchids (Callasobruchus maculatus) caused up to 100 percent damage of cowpea seeds stored for a few months (Sallam 1999). Primary pests are those that, in larval stage, feed within intact kernels. Others, such as the saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephillus sp.), are secondary pests that attack damaged seeds. Elevated carbon dioxide CO2 levels have been shown to kill insect pests in sealed containers (Navarro 2006). Most insects in stored seeds are killed when the atmosphere in the room or container is comprised of 60% or more CO2. Elevated CO2 levels have little or no adverse effect on the germination of stored seeds (Gupta et al. 2014; Navarro et al. 2012).

Questions we wanted answers to are...

  • Can household biogas systems be used to safely kill insects in stored seeds?
  • Can a CO2 generator be made from simple materials be used to kill seed pests in storage containers?

Poster - 2-4-2 Update: Protocol for Farmer Field School Trialing - 2017-11-01

Green manures / covercrops (GMCCs) are widely recognized as having potential to help farmers improve crop yields and maintain high soil quality. Developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 2-4-2 is an intercropping strategy in which two rows of maize are alternated with four rows of cowpea.

Building on findings of ECHO 2-4-2 field trials in southwest Florida, a protocol was developed for trialing 2-4-2 using the Farmer Field School (FFS) model. In a FFS, farmers are both learners and experts. Their participation in the research process is key to adoption of GMCC systems.

Legume Selection - 2017-11-01

By integrating legumes intoc ropping systems, small-scale farmers in low-resource settings can invest in the long-term health and resilience of their soils. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). Selection or screening trials are use ful experiments that direct appropriate legume selection in context of local conditions. ECHO utilized GMCC screening trial to improve our understanding of how climate influences legume growth, in turn, enhancing our ability to respond to legume selection inquiries. Work was done in partnership with individuals/organizations serving small-scale farmers.Improve our understanding of how climate influences legume growth, in turn, enhancing our ability to respond to legume selection inquiries. Work was done in partnership with individuals/organizations serving small-scale farmers.

The data from these studies is also available as an interactive online tool

Poster - Domestic Techniques to Maximize Plant-based Nutrition - FARM STEW - 2017-11-01

A large percentage of the world's hungry people are primarily vegetarians, and even vegans, either due to religion or poverty. Although some might find that a sad fact, the reality is that a whole foods, plant-based diet can produce the world's healthiest people, as a National Geographic reporter Dan Buettner found in researching the "Blue Zones." These are the 5 places in the world "that had not only high concentrations of 100-year­olds but also clusters of people who had grown old without diseases like heart problems, obesity, cancer, or diabetes." Each location had a primarily plant-based diet and other factors.