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ECHO Asia Note Articles






  1. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 33. I read David Price’s concerns about promoting invasive forage plants in Asia Note #25 [Eds’ Note: AN #25 was written in response to AN #23] and would like to respond based on my own experience and observations. My reply will be based on the following...





  2. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #17 Around the world, many agriculturists and gardeners are adopting soil amendments and fertilizers that are called bokashi. Bokashi is a Japanese word that has no good translation into English, according to Yukiko Oyanagi, a staffer with the Asian Rural...





  3. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. Saving your own seeds can be a cost-effective way to access crop seed for future planting and to help maintain the planet’s plant biodiversity. Whether you plant your own saved seeds, give them away to friends and neighbors, or distribute them through...





  4. Introduction to Vermiculture There are over 6,000 species of worms in the world, many of them not even named or studied. However, the farmer is interested in two main categories of earthworms, namely “deep burrowers” and “surface dwellers”. Deep burrowers include the common garden worm or...





  5. Introduction Given the proper facilities necessary to store seeds long-term, whereby low temperature and low humidity are kept stable over time, it is very possible to store most orthodox seeds for several years at a time in the tropics (Harrington, 1972). Unfortunately, implementation and...
95 more ECHO Asia Note Articles

Food Plants International - Plant Fact Sheets




  1. Vegetable Edible parts -Seeds, Sprouts, Leaves, Vegetable A herb. It is an erect or spreading legume. It grows to 80 cm high and spreads to 30-80 cm wide. It forms deep roots. It keepsgrowing from year to year. The stems are slender and hairy. The leaves are bluish green. The leaves have 3...



  2. Fruit, vegetable Edible parts - Fruit, seeds, flowers, vegetable, stems A cactus which climbs. It has triangular stalks. Stalks can be 7 m long. It grows in soil and on rotting plant material. It has aerialroots enabling it to climb. The stems have joints and branched. The spine spots are spaced...



  3. Fruit, vegetable Edible parts - seeds, pods, fruit, vegetable A deciduous tree. It grows up to 30 m high. It has a large stocky trunk. It has small buttresses. The branches are heavy. Theleaves are twice divided and feather like. They are deep green and there are 24 pairs of small leaflets and 50...



  4. Fruit Edible parts -Fruit, Flowers, Vegetable, Stalk, Corm, Root, Bud These are the main group of cultivated bananas. They can be classed into diploid, triploid and tetraploid kinds with variousamounts of the A or B parents. They grow 2-9 m high. They are large non woody herbs with broad long...



  5. Fruit Edible parts -Fruit, Herb, Spice, Flowers A small evergreen tree with short spines. It grows to 7 m high and spreads to 3 m across. It branches freely. Young branchesare often reddish. Leaves are about 5-12 cm long. They are green and drawn out to a point, with notched edges. The leaf stalk...
306 more Food Plants International - Plant Fact Sheets

ECHO Asia Seed Fact Sheets




  1. General description and special characteristics – Leucaena is a multi-purpose tree species originally found in Central America and naturalized in Southeast Asia. It is a leguminous tree or shrub known for its use in fodder and agroforestry applications. Leaves have small pinnate leaflets, 2-4.5...



  2. General description and special characteristics – A slender annual climbing to 3.0 -3.7 m (10-12 ft) tall with edible fruits and young vines that may be prepared in a variety of ways. The fruits are pear-shaped or oblong, growing to 10-15cm (4-6 in) long.



  3. General description and special characteristics – Gac is a large, climbing, perennial vine that can grow up to 20 feet, with 3-5 lobed dark green leaves. The fruit is ovate, 4-5 inches long, with small spines. The fruit is green until ripe, when it turns bright orange or red. When the fruit is...



  4. General description and special characteristics – The moringa tree is a drought resistant, fast growing, deciduous tree or shrub with an average height of 12 meters (39.4 ft) at maturity. It is also known as the horseradish tree and is native to northwestern India. Moringa is widely grown,...



  5. General description and special characteristics – A leguminous, tuber-producing, annual vine. Tubers are eaten raw and remain crunchy when cooked. Yam bean can be used as a cover crop or trellised. The tuber is high in carbohydrates but is otherwise low in nutritional value. Leaves and seeds...
55 more ECHO Asia Seed Fact Sheets

Research - Posters




  1. The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of 4 rows of cowpea and 2 rows of maize, all planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1 The maize and cowpea are densely planted. The objective of this trial is to gain...



  2. Plants contain oxalates for a few reasons. The first is that plants do not have an excretory system like animals, so oxalates allow plants the ability to bind up excess calcium (Webb 1999).Plants high in oxalates can have negative effects on the ability of animals to absorb calcium after eating...





  3. Some tropical crops contain cyanogenic glycosides, toxic substances that release hydrocyanic acid (HCN; also referred to as cyanide) when cells are crushed. Consuming these plants without cooking them can cause cyanide poisoning, with varying effects depending on cyanide levels and how long a...



  4. After modifications to the ECHO Global Seed Bank storage unit, seed storage techniques already in use were assessed for effectiveness in achieving appropriate seed storing conditions within the renovated cooling and dehydrating system.Seed type influenced the effect of container on relative...



  5. Salt buildup typically occurs in dry areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Over time, as water evaporates, the minerals left behind begin to accumulate. Plants need a certain amount of soluble salts, but when the salt content of soil water is greater than that of the water inside plant...
19 more Research - Posters

CAN Nutricion






  1. Organización: ODIM





  2. Organización: ODIM
  3. Organización: Hospitalito de Atitlán Spanish withQuiché





  4. Spanish with Kaqchiquel Organización: Hospitalito de Atitlán





  5. Organización: Hospitalito de Atitlán Spanish withTzutujil
3 more CAN Nutricion

Haitian Network Documents






  1. A Creole document describing rabies. How animals get rabies, Signs of rabies, What should you do if you suspect an animal has rabies, How to know if an animal is rabid, What to do if you are bit by an animal.





  2. Creole Document - Appropriate Technology for Farmers





  3. A creole document describing the 3 forms of Chlamydia in goats and zoonotic potential





  4. Glossary of terms





  5. A “how to” guide to successfully install a natural, sustainable latrine using vetiver grass The use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) replaces the need for a concrete block lined pit, creates privacy and actively helps decompose the waste. Jiji grass (Achnatherum splendens) can be used...
21 more Haitian Network Documents

Using ECHO Resources

  1. The security of the users and members of ECHOcommunity is of utmost importance to us. These resources outline the policies that govern our data collection, the legal terms by which you may use this website and affiliated services, and what privileges are afforded to members. Please read these...








  2. 2021-01-20 Available on iOS 10.0+and Android 5.0+ Search "echocommunity" in the App Store on your iPhone or in Google Play on your Android phone. ECHO is excited to introduce our new mobile app! We represent a network of nearly 20,000 members and we have provided resources to farmers and development workers...

Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) Publications






  1. A sack garden is a small vegetable mound made from a nylon or similar sack. Please check the Kilimohai website for the latest additions to resources.





  2. Poster - How to make a Natural Pesticide. Some natural pesticide ingredients and the pests they repel. Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials





  3. Poster - Benefits of agroforestry systems. Increase the productivity of your farmland by introducting trees. Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials
  4. Swahili download only Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials
  5. Farmers consider crop-reduction organisms to be pests and diseases. Insects, birds or other animals are considered pests whenever they cause damage to crops or to stored harvests. Fungi, bacteria and viruses are identified as diseases, when they invade or alter vital plant growth activities or...
8 more Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) Publications

SAWBO Publications




  1. Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO) transforms expert knowledge into educational animations, which are then translated into multiple languages from around the world. We use a rigorous co-creation and review process to create highly accurate content.



  2. Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO) is a Michigan State University based program. SAWBO transforms extension information on relevant topics such as agriculture, health and women’s empowerment, into 2D, 2.5D and 3D animations, which are then voice overlaid into a diversity of global...



  3. 2021-03-23 Despite considerable research on YouTube as a digital media platform, little research to date has quantified the device-type used to access that online media. Analyzing access-device data for videos on one YouTube video channel—Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO), which produces...

General Technical Documents

  1. This document was provided by Lance Edwards as an outline of the process of building a 100 Fold Vegetable Garden using Foundation for Farming principles. He includes a description of wicking bed technology by Colin Austin The irrigator’s dilemma If the irrigator applies frequent but shallow...



  2. The purpose of this document is not necessarily to answer each question with a yes or no, but rather as a bullet point list to help think through strengths and weaknesses of starting a new project or revisiting an existing project. Not all the questions apply in every situation. It is another...



  3. Benefits 1. Efficient recycling of clean vegetable residues. 2. Feed and multiply earthworms to populate a garden area of up to 1000 sq. ft. (32’ X 32’). 3. Protect young worms from animal predators. 4. Worm numbers per bed increased 25 fold, over 6 months at ECHO in N. Fort Meyers, FL. 5....



  4. Compiled by Gabe LePage, ECHO Florida Intern, 2018 Causes: Soil Borne Pathogens Seed Borne Pathogens Factors: Excessive Soil Moisture Excessive Overhead Misting Lower soil temperatures before emergence Higher soil temperatures after emergence



  5. A community seed bank can compare favourably with its High-Tech cousin.
60 more General Technical Documents

ECHO East Africa News






  1. In this issue: Nanenane Agricultural show Appropriate technology ECHO EA seedbank updates Highlights Innovation News in brief ECHO RIC‟s Best Practices





  2. In this issue: 1. Nutrition in dryland areas symposium 2.Nanenane Agricultural show 3. Appropriate technology 4. ECHO EA seed bank updates 5..Parthenium 6. Upcoming events 7. News in brief





  3. In This Issue Seed Bank Update Students Visit ECHO EA Local CA Training Events Staff Transitions Resources for Organic Certif. The Debate over GMOs New Online Resources
  4. 2021-03-17





  5. 2019-04-20 In this Issue : 5th Symposium on Sustainable Agriculture and Appropriate Technologies Environmental Conservation Empowering Small-scale Farmers with Seeds History of Maresha Plow
10 more ECHO East Africa News

ECHO East Africa Notes






  1. A Combination of Approaches to Conserve Soil and Water Tephrosia: A Multipurpose Tree for GM/CC, Soil Conservation and IPM



  2. New seed to try: Banana Passionfruit Sweet Potato Varieties in East Africa Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in East Africa A Focus on Perennial Vegetables



  3. Moving towards energy self-sufficiency: addressing challenges to biogas technology uptake for improving rural livelihoods Improving soil nutrients by planting Jack Bean Parthenium hysterophorus



  4. Families Benefited with Dairy Goats Project A Research Project:Packed Biogas in Bags Green Manure/ Cover Crops: jack bean



  5. 2019-10-01 Introduction to Soil Structure and Health Acidic Soils of the Tropics Testing and Replenishing your Soils Soil Texturing Flowchart
2 more ECHO East Africa Notes

CTA Publications




  1. This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, helps pastoralists understand markets for animals and milk. It gives background information on types of products, market chains, adding value and different types of markets. Marketing processes are clearly outlined, along with...





  2. This 8-page fold-out leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, covers the subject of bee-keeping and honey processing. It gives some background to the subject, outlines processes and provides tips, tables and explanatory line drawings.



  3. 2014-01-01 This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, describes the services that pastoralists need to market their animals, milk and hides effectively. It gives information on markets, financial services, transport, market facilities and processing plants. Tips, including on...



  4. 2014-01-01 This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, describes 11 ways that pastoralists can improve the marketing of their livestock. Ideas are given on keeping animals healthy, organising marketing groups and transporting livestock. Illustrated with line drawings throughout,...



  5. 2014-01-01 This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, describes how pastoralists can produce strong, healthy animals and high-quality milk that will fetch a good price. It gives background information on markets for animals and milk, choosing the right animal breeds, and animal...
16 more CTA Publications

Food Plant Solutions - Publications

  1. Practical ways of growing local food plants and doing it well.
  2. Growing the Major Food Plants of Papua New Guinea Food Plants of Papua New Guinea Diseases of Food Plants in Papua New Guinea Growing Food Plants - Southern Highlands Insect Pests of Food Plants Sago and Gardening FOI Katubu Food Composition of Plants in Papua New Guinea Suggestions on Food...
  3. If you download a publication, please contact Food Plant Solutionsat –info@foodplantsolutions.org Feedback on any publication is invited and much appreciated –info@foodplantsolutions.org Return to the Publications List
  4. Potentially Important Food Plants of the Western Pacific Potentially Important Fruits and Nuts of the Western Pacific Potentially Important Leafy Greens and Vegetables in the Western Pacific Also available in:Français (fr)Bislama (bi) Food plants for healthy diets in the Western Pacific Also...
  5. Potentially important food plants of Rwanda Food plants for healthy diets in Rwanda Also available in:Kinyarwanda (rw) Potentially important leafy greens and vegetables in Rwanda Potentially Important Fruit, Nuts and Seeds of Rwanda Good gardening and growing root crops in Rwanda If you...
113 more Food Plant Solutions - Publications

ECHO Research - Guidance




  1. For many of us the idea of “research” is scary. We are not trained in it. We picture rigorous statistical analyses that we are unfamiliar with. We have seen glossy scientific journals with technical words that we do not understand. Besides, isn’t our goal to directly help smallholder farmers? Why...



  2. As you work in agricultural development, there may be times that you find yourself wondering about the answer to a specific question you have. For example, should plants be spaced 30 cm or 60 cm apart to achieve the highest yield? Which one of three tomato cultivars would grow best in a...



  3. 2000-10-20 Halfway through my doctoral studies in biochemistry I had an opportunity to travel to a developing country to visit some missionaries and the people they served. Thanks to that visit I began my “mid-life” crisis in my mid-twenties. My research at Indiana University was in what one would call “...

Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM)

  1. Swahili Only December, 2020, Issue 99 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  2. Swahili Only August, 2020, Issue 95 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  3. Swahili Only October, 2020, Issue 97 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  4. 2021-08-20 Swahili Only August, 2021, Issue 107 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  5. 2021-03-20 Swahili Only March, 2021, Issue 102 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
5 more Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM)

Resources for Schools and Teachers




  1. Download Video links from the “Science Show” For more activities and information on Florida's Ag in the Classroom program : FAITC FAITC Teaching Resources



  2. Recent video tours of the Global Farm



  3. After seeing several examples of Appropriate Technology as they toured the Global Farm, students will play a card game to review the technologies, plot the location of each one on a farm map, and then design their own invention to assist small-scale framers.



  4. This resource includes: how to get started, how to stretch a limited or non-existent budget, what inspired adult gardeners when they were children, and types of gardens from simple to complex. Additional resource links include: videos, articles, and books.



  5. Students will demonstrate their understanding of ways to improve and conserve soil as they email an ECHO intern in Africa, respond to a quote from the 19th century warning of civilizations’ impact on soil, and investigate the “Dust Bowl” soil disaster in U.S. history.
6 more Resources for Schools and Teachers

Amaranth to Zai Holes

  1. After 15 years of EDN, I guess it is not too much to include a bit of levity. Economists, agronomists and planners of late Have discovered a new way to pontificate. Beyond mere jargon, like "Success Enhancement," "Integrated Development," and "Rural Advancement." Working in all their infinite...
  2. 1996-10-19 This book is arranged according to topic. For general reading in a subject area, refer to the table of contents of each chapter. An * indicates that the entry is a book, newsletter, or journal. NOTE:If a line item in the index has two or more references, each reference is indicated by the title...



  3. 1996-10-19 Vegetables and small fruits supply essential vitamins and minerals while adding variety and interest to the diet. Produce can also bring a high price in the market and provide additional household income. Vegetable use varies by region, culture, and social group. One of the first changes people...



  4. 1996-10-19



  5. 1996-10-19
40 more Amaranth to Zai Holes

Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) Publications




  1. This handbook will help the sheep producer select production goals, select the type of sheep most suitable for a particular area, and will serve as a guide for the production of healthy sheep.Sheep are one of the most common livestock and among the first to be domesticated. They are very...





  2. 2006-01-20 The author's sincere desire in preparing this booklet is that it will serve to be readily used as a reference and aid in the raising of goats. Veterinary information and assistance are in short supply or nonexistent in many areas of the world. The author has endeavored to write this booklet in a...



  3. 2006-01-20 Why do our farm animals get sick and how can we keep them healthy?" This is a question veterinarians and other specialists who work with small farmers hear frequently. Most of these farmers work very hard, giving time, effort, and loving care to their animals in the hope that their farm will be...



  4. 2005-01-20 All countries have animals that are raised as a source of nutrition. It may be an individually raised animal, or a small herd, that meets the need of meat protein for the people. With this comes a means of slaughter. The proper methods for preparation of meat for human consumption are important...



  5. 2004-01-20 Cattle play important role in animal protein production for two reasons; first, the unique ruminant digestive system utilizes forage for food and secondary, much of the world offers marginal grazing systems on land not suitable for crop production. These feedstuffs would not be utilized were it...
8 more Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) Publications

ECHO Technical Notes






  1. So you want to help people in the tropics. Beautiful! The tropics are waiting for you. No matter what your abilities, you can make life better for others in the tropics. Your concern for the physical and spiritual well-being of people can be translated into fruitful service. Your first asset is...





  2. 2021-03-29 Cultivating plants, sharing seeds and cuttings with neighbors, and seeking better crop varieties are as old as agriculture. We use the word “nursery” for places where we care for and nurture things that are precious and vulnerable, like children and plants. Creating habitats to grow healthy...





  3. 2020-06-29 Seed storage in the tropics has been a frequent topic of ECHO publications and trainings due to its importance to the smallholder farmer. Access to quality seeds is imperative for agronomic and horticultural crop production. While on-farm seed saving benefits the smallholder farmer, cooperative...





  4. 2019-07-23 I discovered 100-fold gardens while researching ways to irrigate plants directly in the root zone. I wanted to know how to practically and affordably control some of the variables that influence plant growth, such as water availability and soil fertility. I read about “wicking beds,” which are...





  5. 2019-03-21 This Technical Note provides an overview of parasitic plants of agricultural significance in Africa. Parasitic weeds cause drought stress and stunted crops. Affected plants include cereal grains (e.g., sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] and maize [Zea mays]) and grain legumes (e.g., cowpea [Vigna...
92 more ECHO Technical Notes
  1. Throughout history human, energy has generally been applied through the use of the arms, hands, and back. With minor exceptions, it was only with the invention of the sliding-seat rowing shell, and particularly of the bicycle, that legs also began to be considered as a "normal" means of...
  2. 1984-01-19 Root crops is a general term commonly used for a wide variety of food plants that have an underground storage organ known as a root, tuber (rhizome), corm, or bulb. Root crops are rich in starch, and low in protein and oil. They are excellent sources of calories. Some are consumed as major...

ECHO Development Notes (EDN)




  1. 2022-01-12 Extending Postharvest Life of Fresh Fruit: Harvest at the Right Time Echoes from our Network: Homegarden Agroforestry From ECHO's Seed Bank:Chipilín Books, Websites, and Other Resources:CTA publications,CVM publications, and App Translation





  2. 2021-10-04 Moringa Productivity with Legume Intercropping Insect Pest Management:Evaluation and Assessment Echoes from our Network: Gliricidia-Annual Intercropping System From ECHO's Seed Bank:‘Lacinato’ Kale for Home Gardens Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Food Plant Solutions andDownloadable Books





  3. 2021-07-06 Insect Pest Management: Options for Controlling Pest Populations From ECHO's Seed Bank:Everglades (Wild) Tomato Echoes from our Network: Acacia angustissima Farming Improvement Experience Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Soy Kit as an Appropriate Technology for Women Entrepreneurs - A Review...





  4. 2021-04-06 Insect Pest Management: Options for Monitoring Pest Populations From ECHO's Seed Bank:Apios americana Echoes from our Network: Subscribe to ECHO Asia Notes! Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Review of Agroforestry Design ToolTM





  5. 2021-01-20 Perennial Vegetables and Nutrition From ECHO's Seed Bank:Factors to Consider when Selecting a Pigeon Pea Variety Echoes from our Network: 2020 ECHO International Agriculture Conference Books, Websites, and Other Resources:ECHOcommunity Mobile App Announcement
160 more ECHO Development Notes (EDN)

ECHO Best Practice Notes




  1. 2021-12-16 It is estimated that drylands occupy 40% of the earth’s surface.Drylands are regions where the average annual precipitation is less than 65% of the average annual potential evapotranspiration (an Aridity Index of < 0.65). The FAO Aridity Index is defined as a 30 year average of annual...





  2. 2020-12-14 ECHO recognizes climate change as a profound reality faced by small-scale farmers. Many of our publications have focused on helping farmers cope with related challenges such as heat and drought.Increasing farmer resilience and minimizing risk have been key elements of the practices we have...





  3. 2017-05-26 By integrating legumes into cropping systems, small-scale farmers in low-resource settings can invest in the long-term health and resilience of their soils. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). With that in mind, this document presents insights on legume selection...





  4. 2016-09-28 Farmers in many parts of the world, because of human population growth, have little choice but to crop their land continuously, with scarce resources to replace nutrients withdrawn by each successive crop. Crop residues are often lost as a source of organic matter and mulch, usually through...





  5. 2016-03-22 Yearly production of grains, pulses, and vegetables depends on a reliable supply of quality seed. This is true for the farmer growing a crop to feed their family as well as for the agricultural worker evaluating and growing out seeds of a new crop species or variety that could improve lives. In...
3 more ECHO Best Practice Notes

ECHO Asia Notes




  1. 2021-09-15 Featured in this AN Establishing a Scaled-Up Black Soldier Fly System An Innovative 'Do-All' Biochar Burner Design ECHOcommunity Conversations Upcoming Events In Case You Missed Past Asia Notes Call for Articles & Insights



  2. 2021-06-14 African Swine Fever Virus: Overview and Prevention on the Small Farm [Editor’s Note: For questions, comments, or personal experience on this topic visit ECHOcommunity Conversations: African Swine Fever Virus] [Example] Small FarmBiosecurity Plan for the Prevention of African Swine Fever I Suspect...



  3. 2021-03-01 Featured in this AN Stingless Beekeeping (Meliponiculture) on Java [Editor’s Note: For questions, comments, or personal experience on this topic visit the echocommunity ‘conversations’ forum Meliponiculture: Stingless Beekeeping.] Production of Vegetable Fern (Diplazium esculentum Reytz.) Under...



  4. 2020-12-14 Featured in this AN The Martinez Airlift Water Pump Do All Parts of the Chaya Plant Contain Cyanide? Cyantesmo Paper for Detecting Cyanide Job Opportunity at ECHO Asia



  5. 2020-08-31 Featured in this AN Mycorrhizal Fungi - Our Tiny Underground Allies Tomato Grafting in Southeast Asia: A Useful Technique for Rainy Season Production
42 more ECHO Asia Notes

Grower Talks




  1. 2021-01-01 GrowerTalks magazinemay be the best-known greenhouse trade publication in the world. While it’s published in America’s Midwest, just outside of Chicago, its reach and influence is global, with its editors historically on the road and in the air to find the stories, trends and news. ARTICLES FROM...

Greenhouse Management




  1. 2021-01-01 Greenhouse Managementmagazine is the leading trade publication serving greenhouse growers. Growers depend on us because of the in-depth educational content we provide month after month. Our team provides the most up-to-date independent research, trends reports and relevant business information...

ECHO Research Notes






  1. 2021-01-01 ECHO ResearchNotes are topic-specificpublications about crops and agricultural practicesimportant to those working in the tropics and subtropics. Our material is authored by ECHO staff (past and present) as well as outside writers, all with experience and knowledge of their subject. These...





  2. 2020-01-01 ECHO ResearchNotes are topic-specificpublications about crops and agricultural practicesimportant to those working in the tropics and subtropics. Our material is authored by ECHO staff (past and present) as well as outside writers, all with experience and knowledge of their subject. These...

Other Farmer Training Guides




  1. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Understand the...



  2. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Identify...



  3. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Understand the...



  4. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Appreciate the...



  5. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. This guidebook is designed to help facilitate a Lead...
6 more Other Farmer Training Guides

Conservation Agriculture Core Training Guides






  1. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox....





  2. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox....

SWISSAID Publications

  1. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Community seed banks are informal institutions, run and managed by farmers or local and village governments whose primary function is to store seeds for domestic use. These banks are located in many parts of the world and have existed for many years with the aim of preserving,...





  2. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Guidelines for Vegetable Production Training
  3. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only
  4. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Seeds are one of the main inputs for food production. Farmers around the world have been aware of this for centuries. Millions of families and agricultural communities have worked to select seeds and store them for use in the next agricultural season. This is what has allowed...
  5. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only
3 more SWISSAID Publications

CAN Culinaria






  1. 2019-11-20





  2. 2019-01-20 RECETARIO WUQU’ KAWOQ Versión 2018-2019 Elaborado por: Valeria Morales. Spanish Only.

ECHO West Africa Notes






  1. 2019-07-22 Le système de riziculture intensive (SRI) Qu'est-ce que le SRI ? Les étapes de mise en œuvre du SRI L'irrigation des plants Le sarclage et le sarclo-binage, quels sont les avantages ? Le rendement du SRI Etude comparée entre le SRI et la pratique traditionnelle de riziculture Intérêt du SRI...





  2. 2018-01-03 Techniques de production avicole traditionnelle epublication:Options de restauration des sols improductifsetOptions où l'eau est rare





  3. 2017-08-01 Foundations For Farming, an alternative for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa How to prepare compost in 3 weeks? The preparation of organic liquid fertilizer eBook Release:Fundamentals of Agricultural Development epublication

ECHO Latin America and Caribbean Notes (LACN)






  1. 2018-02-22 Green Leafy Vegetables and Powders for Improved Nutrition in Honduras Member Highlight: Elioena Arauz,Artists for Soup, Nicaragua Echoes from our Network: Deep Litter System ECHO Resource Highlight: Green Leafy Vegetables Technical Note Spotlight: "Linking Smallholder Farmers to Markets"





  2. 2017-12-04 ECHO in Latin America and the Caribbean Experimenting with Medicinal Plants in Matagalpa, Nicaragua Staff Highlight Tech Note Spotlight: "Introducing new seeds overseas" Tech Note Spotlight: "Introduction to Tropical Root Crops" Echoes from our Network Resources: Wuqu' Kawoq (The Maya Health...





  3. 2017-07-31 Las Cañadas Agro-ecological Chickens Module Introducing New Team Leader: Cecilia Gonzalez Tech Note Spotlight: "Cafeteria Feeding" of Chickens From ECHO's Seed Bank: Ethiopian Kale Member Highlight: Javier Ignacio Silva Rivera Our Vision:Honoring God by Empowering the Undernourished with...





  4. 2017-03-30 Making Silage in Vichada Tech Note Spotlight: Biosand Water Filter Echoes from our Network: Member Highlight Adria and Job From ECHO's Technical Respose Team: Appropriate forage crops for clay soils From ECHO's Seed Bank: Forage peanut

Agricultural Risk Assessment and Management




  1. 2017-01-20 A Comprehensive Agricultural Risk Assessment Survey should include key informants like those listed below, to assess risk at both: the farmer/ARE level and the value-chain level. It will never be possible to include all the informants listed below, but the best risk assessment resulting in the...



  2. 2013-03-13 Within the internationally recognized field of agricultural risk assessment and management, riskscan be evaluated according to three basic criteria : 1. Impact: In other words, how severe will the risk event be if it actually happens? Some risks can destroy the whole year's farm income and even...



  3. 2013-01-20 This information in this worksheet is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges, Managing Director/Consultant,African Agriculture Risk Management Services, Uganda. Steve spoke at the 2012 ECHO International Agriculture Conference



  4. 2013-01-20 This Risk Assessment Exercise is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges



  5. 2013-01-20 Risk Management Planning assumes that assessment of risks has taken place, and that risks have been prioritized according to severity, likelihood, and manageability of the risks. The resulting risks can then be placed on the scoring grid below and actions identified to address the risks. Once...

ECHO Asia News




  1. 2016-11-20



  2. 2016-05-20



  3. 2015-09-20



  4. 2015-03-20



  5. 2014-11-20
5 more ECHO Asia News

FAO Publications




  1. 2016-01-20 Pulses have been an essential part of the human diet for centuries. Yet their nutritional value is not generally recognized and their consumption is frequently under-appreciated. Undeservedly so, as pulses play a crucial role in healthy diets, sustainable food production and, above all, in food...



  2. 2016-01-20 Desert Locust plagues can be an important contributing factor to famines and a threat to food security in many regions of the world. The Desert Locust plague of 1986–1989 and subsequent upsurges during the past two decades demonstrate the continuing capacity of this historic pest to threaten...



  3. 2013-01-20 Cassava is a tropical root crop, originally from Amazonia, that provides the staple food of an estimated 800 million people worldwide. Grown almost exclusively by low-income, smallholder farmers, it is one of the few staple crops that can be produced efficiently on a small scale, without the need...



  4. 2011-01-20 A guide to preparing for animal health emergencies Nick Honhold, Ian Douglas, William Geering, Arnon Shimshoni, Juan Lubroth An animal disease emergency, such as an outbreak of a transboundary animal disease (TAD), can have serious socio-economic consequences which, at their extreme, may affect...

Sustainable Nutrition Manual, 2nd Edition (2016)




  1. 2016-01-20 HealthyDesigns is about designing for sustainable living. This book brings parts 1 and2together and guides you to make a personalised plan for SustainableNutrition. This book ispractical to design everything on your land. There islots of information in the appendicesabout foods of Malawi and...





  2. 2016-01-20 HealthyEnvironments is about natural systems and sustainability. You will learn abouttheNature Cycle and the Water Cycle and natural sustainable systems. You willbe introduced toPermaculture ideas and gain an understanding of the benefitsof diversity in Nature. *Sustainable Nutrition Manual...



  3. 2016-01-20 HealthHumans isaboutthe human body and nutrition. You will also learn about foodchoicesand the benefits of diversity in diet. It has lots of useful ideas toimprove life and manydelicious recipes and suggestions for tasty, healthymeals. *Sustainable Nutrition Manual (SNM): Food, Water, Agriculture...

ECHO Summaries




  1. 2015-08-05 The complexity of the global food system creates a diverse group of actors ranging from smallholders to large corporations involved in the agriculture sector. Each of the many actors in an agriculture value chain has different needs, objectives, strengths and weaknesses. With women accounting for...





  2. 2015-08-05 Good intentions and viable solutions will have little impact unless we engage with farmers in ways that are meaningful to them. Farmers put a great deal of confidence in what they learn from fellow farmers’ experiences, and they are more likely to trust what they see over what they hear....





  3. 2015-07-14 Workshops are an often-used and effective tool that extension workers can use to teach new skills to groups of farmers. This document, drawn from the USAID/MEAS Technical Note on Presenting Workshops to Adults, explains how a workshop setting differs from that of a classroom/teaching setting, and...



  4. 2015-07-13 Based on a MEAS paper entitled, The Current and Future Roles of Small Farm Resource Centers in Extension and Advisory Services: Synthesis Report from Seven Case Studies in Southeast Asia, this document highlights key take-a-ways of an assessment by ECHO of seven SFRCs in Southeast Asia. Through...



  5. 2015-06-03 Field-based teaching provides first-hand experience about the subject matter being discussed. An on-site encounter allows farmers to observe innovations in practice, discuss them, and ask questions. Farmers exposed to new ideas will be much more likely to understand and apply the information if...
7 more ECHO Summaries

Heifer International - Selected Publications




  1. 2015-01-20 Dairying as an enterprise has got a place alongside other viable tools of poverty alleviation, besides creating job opportunities to jobless families in Tanzania. Statistics from the ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development show that there are about 800,000 improved dairy cattle in...





  2. 2010-01-20 Pig farming in Tanzania has primarily been for a long time of backyard and informal sector producers. However in order to secure both food and nutritional security to rural Tanzania households, there is a need of embracing integrated approaches in livestock farming. Pig farming in Tanzania is...
  3. 2010-01-20 Swahili Only Ufugaji bora wa ng'ombe wa maziwa-2





  4. 2010-01-20 Swahili only Mwongozo wa ufugaji bora wa mbuzi wa maziwa
  5. 2008-07-20 Swahili Only Kitabu cha kuku wa asili
5 more Heifer International - Selected Publications

CAN Agricultura






  1. 2014-01-20 5ta Edición revisada y ampliada Chile Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura Spanish Only.

USDA Agriculture Handbooks




  1. 2014-01-20 A Guide to Starting and Operating a Nursery for Native and Traditional Plants This handbook was written for anyone endeavoring to start and operate a nursery for native and traditional plants in the tropics. Because the tropics cover a vast area of the world, however, the scope of the handbook is...



  2. 2002-01-20 File: Download [PDF File] 38MB Author(s): Vozzo, J. A.,United States. Forest Service. Subject(s): Trees -- Tropics -- Seeds.,Trees -- North America -- Seeds.,Tropical plants -- Seeds -- Identification.,Tropical plants -- North America -- Seeds -- Identification. Format: 899 p. Coverage: tropics...



  3. 1987-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Campbell, Carl W.,Ruberte, Ruth M.,United States. Agricultural Research Service. Subject(s): Plants, Edible -- Tropics.,Tropical fruit. Format: 247 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural...



  4. 1978-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Degras, Lucien. Subject(s): Yams -- Tropics. Format: iii, 23 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: Science and Education Administration, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in cooperation with Agency for International Development Year:...



  5. 1978-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Degras, Lucien. Subject(s): Yams. Format: iv, 26 p. Language: English Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Year: 1978 Series: USDA agriculture handbooks Rights: This item is authored by federal employees as part of their official duties...
5 more USDA Agriculture Handbooks

A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics




  1. 2005-01-20 This helpful book has been provided free of charge by the Aloha House to the wider network. ECHO Asia believes that these resources are well researched and useful to the majority of ECHO Asia network members. For more information, please contact Keith Mikkelson, the author....



  2. 2005-01-20 Cover cropping is Fundamental #7. It is the technique of growing plants that protect the soil to conserve topsoil and moisture. It can be considered a living mulch. Under sowing legumes below existing crops and other companion plants will work well. You get all the advantages of mulching; soil...



  3. 2005-01-20 Plans should be drawn up before any effort is wasted. Think through your traffic routes and flow of materials. Integrate your resource recovery plan in this process. Set your goals and lay down the steps that you think are needed as you see it now. Write it down; it will be a flexible starting...



  4. 2005-01-20 It’s time for some hands on farming. This step makes inoculation affordable to the masses. We will grow some microbes. We call this EM Extended. We will make a concoction that used to take me 27 man-hours to make and weeks to watch and monitor while propagating. I had to grow each organism...



  5. 2005-01-20 Legume usage is Fundamental #2. It helps nitrogen fixation. Rotate a legume through every year to add free nitrogen to your system. This is one of the biggest expenses in chemical based agriculture and can be minimized and even replaced by biological practices. Bacteria help the farmer by adding...
24 more A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics

Books




  1. 1998-01-01 Worms are the latest (as well as, of course, perhaps the oldest!) trend in earth-friendly gardening, and in this handy guide, the authors of DEAD SNAILS LEAVE NO TRAILS demystify the world of worm wrangling, with everything you need to know to build your own worm bin, make your garden...



  2. 1999-01-01 Bring life to your garden and experience the magic of metamorphosis! This book tells you how. It describes 23 species of butterflies and shows them in color photos - adults, caterpillars and pupae, as well as dozens and dozens of larval and nectar food plants. Complete growing information is...



  3. 2020-01-01 This handbook is part of an interdisciplinary, interinstitutional and comprehensive effort to develop a practical guide to assist underserved and limited resource small farmers and woodland owners to adopt best management technologies in agroforestry.
7064 more books



  1. As the humanitarian ministry of Cru, Unto has leveragedstrategic global partnershipsto relieve suffering through humanitarian aid: For nearly 30 years In more than 75 countries With access to Cru’s 190-country network Partnerships with people likeyou make it possiblefor Unto to provide...



  2. Most of the information available on Syntropic Agroforestry is in Portuguese. In late-2018 English language content slowly became more widely available. I’m attempting to collect all of the English language resources in one easy to access location. Multi-strata agroforestry, agrofloresta and...
  3. The Agroforestry Project is created, coordinated and advised by the Association of Agroforestry Farmers of Barra do Turvo and Adrianópolis - Cooperafloresta, which brings together around 100 families of Agroforestry Systems (SAFs). For 20 years they have been developing, practicing and...
2959 more links

Presentations






  1. This presentation was given at the ECHO Asia Small Farm Resource Center on 26 November 2021.










  2. This presentation was given during the Seed Saving Fundamentals workshop at the ECHO Asia Small Farm Resource Center. This presentation discusses the current state of seed saving, how to classify seeds, seed types, and seed production.
999 more presentations

Plant Information Sheets

  1. Acacia mangium can grow to be a tall tree up to 30 m. It is a fast-growing tree that can tolerate acidic and degraded soils. This tree grows best with moderate rainfall and full sunlight. It is one of the major leguminous species used in plantation forestry programs throughout Asia and the...
  2. Adzuki bean is a bushingor vining, nitrogen-fixingannual plant that is moderately drought tolerant. This bean grows best in temperate climates or higher altitudes in the tropics. The young pods, fresh seeds, and dry beans are used for human consumption.
548 more plant information sheets

Videos




  1. Lightning Talk, ECHO International Agriculture Conference, November 16, 2021 Presenter: Elliot Powell



  2. Lightning Talk, ECHO International Agriculture Conference, November 16, 2021 Presenter: Adam Abramson



  3. Session:Stephan will present the importance of community involvement and participation for better and faster conservation agriculture adoption and learning. Gathering his experiences, even during the Covid pandemic, he will update the challenges and opportunities of a CA network. Stephan has had...
527 more videos