General Technical Documents




  1. Geoffrey Wheeler,Center for Vocational Building Technology Appropriate Construction Technologies for God's People, their Animals and Grain There are many appropriate building technologies available. How environmental friendly are they? Earthquake resistant? Typhoon resistant? How can we introduce...



  2. Benefits 1. Efficient recycling of clean vegetable residues. 2. Feed and multiply earthworms to populate a garden area of up to 1000 sq. ft. (32’ X 32’). 3. Protect young worms from animal predators. 4. Worm numbers per bed increased 25 fold, over 6 months at ECHO in N. Fort Meyers, FL. 5....



  3. The purpose of this resource is to suggest several key considerations for beginning a small garden project. This information is meant to be a guideline to better assist you in the organization and implementation of particular elements crucial to making a garden project successful. While each...



  4. This resource generously provided for publication by Global Service Corps. Over the last two years keyhole gardens have been promoted in different communities throughout different programmes in African countries. They are popular and productive across vastly different environments and cultures....



  5. By Abdoulaye Seck The Microgardening technology is mainly based on 1 or 0.5 m2 wood tables and therefore, can be installed everywhere. Land is an issue in peri-urban/urban and even in some rural areas. The technology can be installed everywhere in household compounds (even in terraces and...
28 more General Technical Documents

ECHO Asia Note Articles






  1. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #24 Tricho-compost is the material that results when spores of a beneficial fungus, Trichoderma sp. are used in the composting process. Trichoderma sp. are natural competitors against a wide range of harmful fungi; when it is added to compost, the latter can...





  2. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #28 Farm-generated fertility contributes to a more sustainable agricultural system. Crop residues and manures are part of the nutrient cycle for plant production and can lower input costs through the use of thermophilic composting, vermiculture, bokashi...





  3. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #26 Mr. Bunlom Taokaew is the son of rice farmers. He chose a career as a businessman after he finished school. Because he didn’t make enough of a living, he went into debt to the order of hundreds of thousands of baht. He borrowed money from his father, a...







  4. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    This article is from ECHO Asia Note #28 For both farmers and researchers in the tropics, seed saving can be very frustrating. In Mondulkiri province, farmers are rarely able to keep seed for more than the six months between harvest and the new planting season. Seeds stored longer than this tend...





  5. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #26 This series of articles on water management has been reprinted with permission from Thailand’s Natural Farming Magazine and serves as an introduction to small-scale water management. Many of the ideas offered in these articles are consistent with...
69 more ECHO Asia Note Articles

ECHO Research

  1. As I studied more about Moringa seed, I learned that its valuable edible oil and this led me to start researching ways of extracting the oil. There are commercial chemical extractions, but these are too costly for the tribal people we work with. There are also cold and warm commercial presses,...



  2. We at ECHO are sometimes asked what we recommend for a germination medium in situations where seeds or seedlings need to be started in pots or plastic sacks before going out to the field. This past summer, we conducted a trial at ECHO to make and evaluate potting mixes that could serve as...



  3. In finding a niche for winged bean, determine which part(s) and attributes of these plant parts will be of greatest benefit to farmers. Varieties differ in how much of a particular plant part they produce. Among seven varieties evaluated in a trial at ECHO, ‘Ribbon’ and ‘Bogor’ were the highest...



  4. 2011-12-01 Information from ECHO Network member Daryl Edwards from his work in Zimbabwe suggested that using quality compost containing 10% cow manure results in a maize harvest similar to that obtained with 100% cow manure. This could be significant to farmers who have small farm sizes and limited...

ECHO Research - Posters




  1. After modifications to the ECHO Global Seed Bank storage unit, seed storage techniques already in use were assessed for effectiveness in achieving appropriate seed storing conditions within the renovated cooling and dehydrating system.Seed type influenced the effect of container on relative...



  2. The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of a repeating sequence of 4 rows of cowpea alternated with 2 rows of maize. Maize and cowpea are planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1The objective of this trial...



  3. Salt buildup typically occurs in dry areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Over time, as water evaporates, the minerals left behind begin to accumulate. Plants need a certain amount of soluble salts, but when the salt content of soil water is greater than that of the water inside plant...



  4. The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of 4 rows of cowpea and 2 rows of maize, all planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1 The maize and cowpea are densely planted. The objective of this trial is to gain...



  5. Plants contain oxalates for a few reasons. The first is that plants do not have an excretory system like animals, so oxalates allow plants the ability to bind up excess calcium (Webb 1999).Plants high in oxalates can have negative effects on the ability of animals to absorb calcium after eating...
9 more ECHO Research - Posters

ECHO Research - Guidance




  1. As you work in agricultural development, there may be times that you find yourself wondering about the answer to a specific question you have. For example, should plants be spaced 30 cm or 60 cm apart to achieve the highest yield? Which one of three tomato cultivars would grow best in a...



  2. For many of us the idea of “research” is scary. We are not trained in it. We picture rigorous statistical analyses that we are unfamiliar with. We have seen glossy scientific journals with technical words that we do not understand. Besides, isn’t our goal to directly help smallholder farmers? Why...



  3. 2000-10-20 Halfway through my doctoral studies in biochemistry I had an opportunity to travel to a developing country to visit some missionaries and the people they served. Thanks to that visit I began my “mid-life” crisis in my mid-twenties. My research at Indiana University was in what one would call “...

ECHO East Africa News






  1. In This Issue Seed Bank Update Students Visit ECHO EA Local CA Training Events Staff Transitions Resources for Organic Certif. The Debate over GMOs New Online Resources





  2. In this issue: Nanenane Agricultural show Appropriate technology ECHO EA seedbank updates Highlights Innovation News in brief ECHO RIC‟s Best Practices





  3. In this issue: 1. Nutrition in dryland areas symposium 2.Nanenane Agricultural show 3. Appropriate technology 4. ECHO EA seed bank updates 5..Parthenium 6. Upcoming events 7. News in brief





  4. 2018-04-20 In this issue: 1. Pastoralist symposium 2. Appropriate technology 3. ECHO EA seed bank updates 4.Parthenium 5. Upcoming events 6. News in brief





  5. 2017-04-01 In This Issue: The 4th Bi-annual Symposium Appropriate Technology ECHO EA Seedbank Updates Highlights Innovation News in Brief ECHO RIC’s Best Practices
8 more ECHO East Africa News

ECHO Asia Notes








  1. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    Featured in this AN: Inexpensive Mass Propagation Techniques for Introducing Improved Potato Varieties in the Tropics Comparing Locally Available Waste By-Products as Feedstocks forGasifier Cook-Stoves Book Review:Sustainable Agro-Watershed Management ECHO Asia "Improving Lives" Agriculture &...



  2. 2018-10-31 Featured in this AN 1Soil Amendments for Healthier Soils 6 The Value of a Seed: Growing a Network of Community Level Seed Banks in Asia 9 Is it possible to never (or rarely) need to shop for meat again? Book Review : Secret Livestock of Survival 10 ECHO Asia Conference 2019- Save the Date...



  3. 2018-05-30 Featured in this AN: Livestock Integration on the Tropical Smallholder Farm Putting Biochar to use at the Edge: Quality, Soils, and Measurement Upcoming Events: Myanmar Seed Saving Workshop Forage Production Seminar Events from the Network: October 2018 Event-Supporting-Community-Based...



  4. 2017-12-12 Conference Proceedings The 6th Biennial ECHO Asia Agriculture and Community Development Conference Editors’ Note In an effort to expand the dissemination of technical materials and best practices presented during this year’s ECHO Asia Agriculture & Community Development Conference, the ECHO...



  5. 2017-12-11 Featured in the AN: An Innovative, Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly Method to Pasteurize Mushroom Media in the Tropics Using a Styrofoam Box Op-Ed: Forage Plants for Improved Human Development Upcoming events in 2018: Myanmar Seed Saving Workshop Asia Pacific Sustainable Agriculture &...
31 more ECHO Asia Notes

ECHO Development Notes (EDN)






  1. 2018-10-17 Shea Nut: The Butter Tree For How Long Should Chaya Leaves be Boiled? Green Leafy Vegetables: Leaf Powder for Improved Nutrition From ECHO's Seed Bank: Jewels of Opar, An edible ornamental SPRINGNutrition-Sensitive Agriculture Training Resource Package





  2. 2018-07-18 Farmer Field School Trials of 2:4:2 Maize/Legume Intercropping Laurel Wilt Disease: "Save the Guac!" Echoes from our Network: Metal silos for grain storage From ECHO's Seed Bank: Culantro Let’s Restore Our Land andFarming for Change curriculum





  3. 2018-04-27 Anthropology as a tool for facilitating agricultural development Invasion of the Fall Armyworm Echoes from our Network: Millepede Damage From ECHO's Seed Bank: Passionfruit Books, Web Sites and Other Resources: Permaculture for Refugees in Camps





  4. 2018-01-31 Yellow Shoot, Green Fruit: Citrus Greening Disease EIAC 2017 Topic Summaries Echoes from our Network: edible insect feedback From ECHO's Seed Bank: Tree Lucerne(Tagasaste),multipurpose forage crop for the highlands eBook Release: Agricultural Options for Small-Scale Farmers





  5. 2017-10-23 Insects for Food and Feed Resilient Bamboo Invitation to LEAD Asia Web-Based Talk Echoes from our Network: Living Fence Advice from Roy Danforth From ECHO's Seed Bank: Tamarind, a Tart Addition for the Home Garden eBook Releases: Options for Coping with Crop or Animal Pests, Seed Saving and...
145 more ECHO Development Notes (EDN)

ECHO Technical Notes






  1. 2018-05-17 Many plants deemed as invaluable for the smallholder farmer offer nutritious food for the family, fodder for animals, or timber for construction. Remarkably, bamboo offers all three of these assets from the same perennial plant! This Technical Note will focus on how to most effectively harvest,...





  2. 2018-02-09 Traditional diets included a wide variety of ingredients from myriad wild and domesticated plants. Regional cuisines were shaped by native species in their local environment and by gradually-adopted plants from distant places. The modern global food system and market pressures have reversed this...





  3. 2017-09-29 As an organization that equips people with informational resources to reduce hunger, ECHO values the role of science in validating agricultural practices. Over the years, we have received numerous inquiries from university faculty and students looking for ways to do research that benefits...





  4. 2017-06-06 A version of this material first appeared in EDN 134. Gender dynamics in relation to agriculture is a big topic, and one we had not previously written about in EDN. In recent years, widespread attention has been paid to the disparity that often exists between men and women when it comes to...





  5. 2016-08-17 Farmers and gardeners in semi-arid and arid regions of the world face two associated but separate problems, which limit the crops they can grow and the yield of these crops. The underlying problem is lack of rainfall needed for growing plants. The second is accumulation of salts in the root zone....
87 more ECHO Technical Notes

ECHO Latin America and Caribbean Notes (LACN)






  1. 2018-02-22 Green Leafy Vegetables and Powders for Improved Nutrition in Honduras Member Highlight: Elioena Arauz,Artists for Soup, Nicaragua Echoes from our Network: Deep Litter System ECHO Resource Highlight: Green Leafy Vegetables Technical Note Spotlight: "Linking Smallholder Farmers to Markets"





  2. 2017-12-04 ECHO in Latin America and the Caribbean Experimenting with Medicinal Plants in Matagalpa, Nicaragua Staff Highlight Tech Note Spotlight: "Introducing new seeds overseas" Tech Note Spotlight: "Introduction to Tropical Root Crops" Echoes from our Network Resources: Wuqu' Kawoq (The Maya Health...





  3. 2017-07-31 Las Cañadas Agro-ecological Chickens Module Introducing New Team Leader: Cecilia Gonzalez Tech Note Spotlight: "Cafeteria Feeding" of Chickens From ECHO's Seed Bank: Ethiopian Kale Member Highlight: Javier Ignacio Silva Rivera Our Vision:Honoring God by Empowering the Undernourished with...





  4. 2017-03-30 Making Silage in Vichada Tech Note Spotlight: Biosand Water Filter Echoes from our Network: Member Highlight Adria and Job From ECHO's Technical Respose Team: Appropriate forage crops for clay soils From ECHO's Seed Bank: Forage peanut

ECHO West Africa Notes






  1. 2018-01-03 Techniques de production avicole traditionnelle epublication:Options de restauration des sols improductifsetOptions où l'eau est rare





  2. 2017-08-01 Foundations For Farming, an alternative for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa How to prepare compost in 3 weeks? The preparation of organic liquid fertilizer eBook Release:Fundamentals of Agricultural Development epublication

ECHO Research Notes




  1. 2017-12-19 This trial was conducted in 2004 to compare growth and yield parameters of five sweet corn (Zea mays) varieties (‘NE-EDR’, ‘ZC2451F’, ‘Golden Queen’, ‘Hawaiian Supersweet’, and ‘True Gold’) grown between rows of leguminous trees (mostly Leucaena leucocephala) trees in the Central Plateau of...



  2. 2017-12-19 In a tropical setting, growing seedlings can be difficult. A major factor of concern for nursery production is water logging (Zhu et al. 2007). During the rainy season, oversaturated soils can effectively suffocate root systems of a seedling by restricting flow of oxygen and other important...



  3. 2017-11-22 Tropical varieties of pumpkin, Cucurbita sp., vary widely in their production, fruit size and quality, and taste. This variety trial and analysis includes eleven varieties available at the ECHO farm in Florida in 2006. All varieties were evaluated for seed viability, total production, fruit size...



  4. 2017-10-04 A comparison trial of okra species and varieties was conducted at the ECHO farm in North Fort Myers (zone 9a/10b), Florida. Thirteen varieties ofAbelmoschus esculentumand two varieties ofAbelmoschus cailleiwere evaluated for pod production and taste. Plants were started from seed in trays, with...



  5. 2013-12-20 Soil quality, also known as soil health, is the capacity of the soil to function – how well it fills the roles we need it to, whether in a natural or managed ecosystem. A variety of measures are used to gauge soil health; although we can use these characteristics as indicators of soil quality,...
3 more ECHO Research Notes

ECHO Best Practice Notes








  1. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    2017-05-26 By integrating legumes into cropping systems, small-scale farmers in low-resource settings can invest in the long-term health and resilience of their soils. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). With that in mind, this document presents insights on legume selection...





  2. 2016-09-28 Farmers in many parts of the world, because of human population growth, have little choice but to crop their land continuously, with scarce resources to replace nutrients withdrawn by each successive crop. Crop residues are often lost as a source of organic matter and mulch, usually through...





  3. 2016-03-22 Yearly production of grains, pulses, and vegetables depends on a reliable supply of quality seed. This is true for the farmer growing a crop to feed their family as well as for the agricultural worker evaluating and growing out seeds of a new crop species or variety that could improve lives. In...





  4. 2014-04-01 ECHO frequently receives questions from members of our network, asking how available land could be used to grow food and/or create income to augment an otherwise non-agricultural project. Broadly speaking, they are asking how to begin an institutional agriculture project—a coordinated agriculture...



  5. 2014-02-26 Pastoralism is a livelihood whereby people depend upon herding domesticated livestock. In East Africa, pastoralists depend primarily upon cattle, sheep, donkeys, goats and camels— listed in order of least resilience as one moves into drier and more arid lowland areas. Pastoralists play an...
2 more ECHO Best Practice Notes

Agricultural Risk Assessment and Management




  1. 2017-01-20 A Comprehensive Agricultural Risk Assessment Survey should include key informants like those listed below, to assess risk at both: the farmer/ARE level and the value-chain level. It will never be possible to include all the informants listed below, but the best risk assessment resulting in the...



  2. 2013-03-13 Within the internationally recognized field of agricultural risk assessment and management, riskscan be evaluated according to three basic criteria : 1. Impact: In other words, how severe will the risk event be if it actually happens? Some risks can destroy the whole year's farm income and even...



  3. 2013-01-20 This information in this worksheet is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges, Managing Director/Consultant,African Agriculture Risk Management Services, Uganda. Steve spoke at the 2012 ECHO International Agriculture Conference



  4. 2013-01-20 This Risk Assessment Exercise is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges



  5. 2013-01-20 Risk Management Planning assumes that assessment of risks has taken place, and that risks have been prioritized according to severity, likelihood, and manageability of the risks. The resulting risks can then be placed on the scoring grid below and actions identified to address the risks. Once...

ECHO Asia News




  1. 2016-11-20



  2. 2016-05-20



  3. 2015-09-20



  4. 2015-03-20



  5. 2014-11-20
5 more ECHO Asia News

ECHO Summaries






  1. 2015-08-05 Good intentions and viable solutions will have little impact unless we engage with farmers in ways that are meaningful to them. Farmers put a great deal of confidence in what they learn from fellow farmers’ experiences, and they are more likely to trust what they see over what they hear....



  2. 2015-08-05 The complexity of the global food system creates a diverse group of actors ranging from smallholders to large corporations involved in the agriculture sector. Each of the many actors in an agriculture value chain has different needs, objectives, strengths and weaknesses. With women accounting for...





  3. 2015-07-14 Workshops are an often-used and effective tool that extension workers can use to teach new skills to groups of farmers. This document, drawn from the USAID/MEAS Technical Note on Presenting Workshops to Adults, explains how a workshop setting differs from that of a classroom/teaching setting, and...



  4. 2015-07-13 Based on a MEAS paper entitled, The Current and Future Roles of Small Farm Resource Centers in Extension and Advisory Services: Synthesis Report from Seven Case Studies in Southeast Asia, this document highlights key take-a-ways of an assessment by ECHO of seven SFRCs in Southeast Asia. Through...



  5. 2015-06-03 Field-based teaching provides first-hand experience about the subject matter being discussed. An on-site encounter allows farmers to observe innovations in practice, discuss them, and ask questions. Farmers exposed to new ideas will be much more likely to understand and apply the information if...
7 more ECHO Summaries

ECHO East Africa Notes




  1. 2014-01-01 Linking Small Scale Farmers to Markets through a Value Chain Approach and the Role of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) “Value chain” has recently emerged as a popular business and development concept. The growing integration of the global economy has provided the opportunity for...



  2. 2013-12-01 A Combination of Approaches to Conserve Soil and Water Tephrosia: A Multipurpose Tree for GM/CC, Soil Conservation and IPM



  3. 2013-07-01 Conservation Agriculture in East Africa: An Update What’s happening on ECHOcommunity.org? Telfairia pedata: Oyster Nut, Kweme or Zanzibar Oil Vine

A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics




  1. 2005-01-20 The rice industry in the Philippines has gone through various challenges and will benefit from EM technologies. Growing, harvesting and processing rice creates high volumes of waste that can be captured and converted back into fertilizer for the next crop. It is important to understand the...



  2. 2005-01-20 Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) has made steep worthless lands usable. This is a practice valuable to the tribal community. They are learning to stabilize topsoil with the proper selection of species. They can maintain their ancestral lands without having to destroy them through...



  3. 2005-01-20 The real hands on school of success is to intern with a working farm. Then you can learn first hand from experience. You will appreciate the land, soil and even the process of efficient food production more.



  4. 2005-01-20 In our seminars we teach the fundamentals of Sustainable Agriculture. Some call it Organic Farming, some Nature Farming, others Natural Farming. There are subtleties that canmake them a little different, but the commitment is to safe, quality food production without chemical inputs. If we feed...



  5. 2005-01-20 Companion planting is Fundamental #3. It is also called inter cropping. These crops are used for insect control, to make wind blocks, and they promote soil conservation. When harvested, they are used for compost and feed for livestock. Companion plants also create a desirable mulch and green...
24 more A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics

Books

  1. 2010-03-15 The principle for permaculture is simple: provide back to the earth what we take from it to create a sustainable environment. The three principle aims are: Care for people; care for the earth; and redistribute everything surplus to one's needs. This completely revised and updated edition of...
  2. 2013-12-16 Edible Landscaping with a Permaculture Twist is a how-to manual for the budding gardener and experienced green thumb alike, full of creative and easy-to-follow designs that guide you to having your yard and eating it, too. With the help of more than 200 beautiful color photos and drawings,...
  3. 2015-12-09 Are you facing drought or water shortages? Gardening with Less Water offers simple, inexpensive, low-tech techniques for watering your garden much more efficiently — using up to 90 percent less water for the same results. With illustrated step-by-step instructions, David Bainbridge shows you how...
428 more books



  1. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related...



  2. Smallholder households, estimated at about 500 million globally in low- and middle-income countries, are the largest segment by livelihood of those living under $2 a day. Traditionally excluded from formal financial services, digital financial services represent an opportunity to deepen financial...



  3. AccessAgriculture Video Tomato leaf curl cannot be cured by any product. The disease is spread by whiteflies. The best way to control the disease is through prevention. A net house can protect your nursery. A border of cereals around your vegetable field helps keep whiteflies out. Farmers in...
1197 more links

Presentations




  1. 2010-12-20



  2. 2015-10-06



  3. 2016-03-01 Session: The session will describe misconceptions about pastoralists and their capacity to survive in harsh climates. Pastoralists need not be victims of development initiatives. Biographical data: Loupa Pius was born in a pastoralist s community and recalls times rehabilitating from previous...
712 more presentations

Plant Information Sheets

  1. Grown throughout Central and South America as a pioneer species for rebuilding degraded soils. Acacia angustissima grows as a thornless shrub or small tree to an average of 2-7 mtall with a single short trunk. It is a legume, capable of fixing nitrogen in nodules on its roots if the appropriate...
  2. Most Edible Acacia seed species are from northern semi-arid regions of Australia and range from medium-sized trees to large, multi-stemmed bushes. Several Edible Acacia species have been successfully introduced into African semi-arid regions like Niger and Senegal. A. colei has excelled in acacia...
  3. Acacia mangium is native to Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. It is a low-elevation tree species associated with rain forest margins and disturbed, well-drained acid soils. Acacia mangium is one of the major fast growing leguminous species used in plantation forestry programs throughout...
212 more plant information sheets

Videos




  1. 2015-01-05 In 2014 Rod Sebastian biked around the country of Burundi in Africa. As part of his gear he carried two "thumb drives" that he had received during training at ECHO. When Rod shared the ECHO resources on those drives with an agricultural development worker, it started a relationship that he...





  2. 2016-09-20 Puede descargar este vídeo a su ordenador haciendo clic en el enlace: Ver en Vimeo



  3. 2013-09-28 Teff is an important cereal crop in Ethiopia. Traditional planting approaches require high inputs and result in low yields, including postharvest loss due to the high levels of seeds used in planting. This video describes a row planting technique that reduces input costs and increases yield....
190 more videos