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ECHO Research

  1. As I studied more about Moringa seed, I learned that its valuable edible oil and this led me to start researching ways of extracting the oil. There are commercial chemical extractions, but these are too costly for the tribal people we work with. There are also cold and warm commercial presses,...



  2. We at ECHO are sometimes asked what we recommend for a germination medium in situations where seeds or seedlings need to be started in pots or plastic sacks before going out to the field. This past summer, we conducted a trial at ECHO to make and evaluate potting mixes that could serve as...



  3. In finding a niche for winged bean, determine which part(s) and attributes of these plant parts will be of greatest benefit to farmers. Varieties differ in how much of a particular plant part they produce. Among seven varieties evaluated in a trial at ECHO, ‘Ribbon’ and ‘Bogor’ were the highest...



  4. 2011-12-01 Information from ECHO Network member Daryl Edwards from his work in Zimbabwe suggested that using quality compost containing 10% cow manure results in a maize harvest similar to that obtained with 100% cow manure. This could be significant to farmers who have small farm sizes and limited...

General Technical Documents







  1. Benefits 1. Efficient recycling of clean vegetable residues. 2. Feed and multiply earthworms to populate a garden area of up to 1000 sq. ft. (32’ X 32’). 3. Protect young worms from animal predators. 4. Worm numbers per bed increased 25 fold, over 6 months at ECHO in N. Fort Meyers, FL. 5....
  2. This document was provided by Lance Edwards as an outline of the process of building a 100 Fold Vegetable Garden using Foundation for Farming principles. He includes a description of wicking bed technology by Colin Austin The irrigator’s dilemma If the irrigator applies frequent but shallow...






52 more General Technical Documents

ECHO Asia Seed Fact Sheets




  1. General description and special characteristics – Yard long bean most likely originated in southern China. It is a legume closely related to the common cowpea, typically cultivated for its edible immature pods. The pods hang in pairs and can be between 30 and 90 cm in length, although generally...



  2. General description and special characteristics - Zinnia is an upright, bushy flower with a yellow and black inner flower and petals of varying color. Variety -Thung Khang Tong: a local Thai variety with a mix of purple and white flowers.



  3. General description and special characteristics – Marigolds are prolific bloomers with large yellow, orange, and gold double flowers on vigorous bushy plants. They grow to 0.9-1.2m (3-4 ft.) in height. Variety – Heirloom variety from United States, with a mix of yellow and orange flowers.



  4. General description and special characteristics – A semi-perennial shrubby plant that is sometimes grown as an annual. The cooked fruits provide a useful vegetable in the tropics. The size and shape of the fruit varies with the variety, including round, oval, and long. Color also varies between...



  5. General description and special characteristics – Foxtail millet is an annual grain with a deep, well-developed root system. A distinct benefit of foxtail millet is that it is one of the most water efficient, short-term, warm weather crops that can be used as a “catch” or “famine” crop, planted...
54 more ECHO Asia Seed Fact Sheets

Using ECHO Resources

  1. The security of the users and members of ECHOcommunity is of utmost importance to us. These resources outline the policies that govern our data collection, the legal terms by which you may use this website and affiliated services, and what privileges are afforded to members. Please read these...



  2. Available on iOS 10.0+and Android 5.0+ Search "echocommunity" in the App Store on your iPhone or in Google Play on your Android phone. Through ECHOcommunity Mobile you can discover ideas, research, and training on a wide variety of subject matter pertaining to agriculture and community...



Research - Posters




  1. The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of 4 rows of cowpea and 2 rows of maize, all planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1 The maize and cowpea are densely planted. The objective of this trial is to gain...



  2. Plants contain oxalates for a few reasons. The first is that plants do not have an excretory system like animals, so oxalates allow plants the ability to bind up excess calcium (Webb 1999).Plants high in oxalates can have negative effects on the ability of animals to absorb calcium after eating...



  3. After modifications to the ECHO Global Seed Bank storage unit, seed storage techniques already in use were assessed for effectiveness in achieving appropriate seed storing conditions within the renovated cooling and dehydrating system.Seed type influenced the effect of container on relative...



  4. Salt buildup typically occurs in dry areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Over time, as water evaporates, the minerals left behind begin to accumulate. Plants need a certain amount of soluble salts, but when the salt content of soil water is greater than that of the water inside plant...





  5. Some tropical crops contain cyanogenic glycosides, toxic substances that release hydrocyanic acid (HCN; also referred to as cyanide) when cells are crushed. Consuming these plants without cooking them can cause cyanide poisoning, with varying effects depending on cyanide levels and how long a...
19 more Research - Posters

Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) Publications

  1. A sack garden is a small vegetable mound made from a nylon or similar sack.





  2. Poster - How to make a Natural Pesticide. Some natural pesticide ingredients and the pests they repel. Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials





  3. Poster - Benefits of agroforestry systems. Increase the productivity of your farmland by introducting trees. Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials
  4. Swahili download only Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials
  5. Farmers consider crop-reduction organisms to be pests and diseases. Insects, birds or other animals are considered pests whenever they cause damage to crops or to stored harvests. Fungi, bacteria and viruses are identified as diseases, when they invade or alter vital plant growth activities or...
6 more Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) Publications

SAWBO Publications

  1. Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO) transforms expert knowledge into educational animations, which are then translated into multiple languages from around the world. We use a rigorous co-creation and review process to create highly accurate content.

ECHO Asia Note Articles






  1. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37. One of the great challenges of sustainable agriculture is the sourcing of adequate and affordable organic (carbon based) resources that can be used on-farm for the production of food and feed. Utilizing composts, manures, mulches, and other organic inputs...





  2. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. Saving your own seeds can be a cost-effective way to access crop seed for future planting and to help maintain the planet’s plant biodiversity. Whether you plant your own saved seeds, give them away to friends and neighbors, or distribute them through...





  3. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #25 Invasive alien species (often IAS in the literature) are those species introduced to an area outside their normal or native range, either purposefully or by accident, whose colonization causes significant harm. The species may become weeds, pests or...





  4. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #20 In nature, dozens of species of harmful fungi can quickly kill a plant, including Fusarium spp., the causal agents of Fusarium wilt, and Phakospora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust. Fungi are unable to produce nutrients on their own, so they...





  5. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #19 In a tropical setting, growing seedlings can be a difficult task. A major factor of concern for nursery production is water-logging (Zhu, 2007). During the rainy season, oversaturated soils can effectively suffocate root systems of a seedling by restricting...
87 more ECHO Asia Note Articles

ECHO East Africa News






  1. In this issue: 1. Nutrition in dryland areas symposium 2.Nanenane Agricultural show 3. Appropriate technology 4. ECHO EA seed bank updates 5..Parthenium 6. Upcoming events 7. News in brief





  2. In This Issue Seed Bank Update Students Visit ECHO EA Local CA Training Events Staff Transitions Resources for Organic Certif. The Debate over GMOs New Online Resources





  3. In this issue: Nanenane Agricultural show Appropriate technology ECHO EA seedbank updates Highlights Innovation News in brief ECHO RIC‟s Best Practices



  4. 2019-10-01 Introduction to Soil Structure and Health Acidic Soils of the Tropics Testing and Replenishing your Soils Soil Texturing Flowchart Project Highlights and Impact Stories Staff Spotlight





  5. 2019-04-20 In this Issue : 5th Symposium on Sustainable Agriculture and Appropriate Technologies Environmental Conservation Empowering Small-scale Farmers with Seeds History of Maresha Plow
10 more ECHO East Africa News

Haitian Network Documents






  1. A Creole document describing rabies. How animals get rabies, Signs of rabies, What should you do if you suspect an animal has rabies, How to know if an animal is rabid, What to do if you are bit by an animal.





  2. Creole Document - Appropriate Technology for Farmers





  3. A creole document describing the 3 forms of Chlamydia in goats and zoonotic potential





  4. Glossary of terms



  5. Vaccines for Common Diseases in Haiti by Species
20 more Haitian Network Documents

CAN Nutricion






  1. Organización: ODIM





  2. Organización: ODIM
  3. Organización: Hospitalito de Atitlán Spanish withQuiché





  4. Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social





  5. Organización: ODIM
3 more CAN Nutricion

ECHO East Africa Notes






  1. A Combination of Approaches to Conserve Soil and Water Tephrosia: A Multipurpose Tree for GM/CC, Soil Conservation and IPM



  2. 2014-01-01 Linking Small Scale Farmers to Markets through a Value Chain Approach and the Role of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) “Value chain” has recently emerged as a popular business and development concept. The growing integration of the global economy has provided the opportunity for...





  3. 2013-07-01 Conservation Agriculture in East Africa: An Update What’s happening on ECHOcommunity.org? Telfairia pedata: Oyster Nut, Kweme or Zanzibar Oil Vine

ECHO Technical Notes






  1. So you want to help people in the tropics. Beautiful! The tropics are waiting for you. No matter what your abilities, you can make life better for others in the tropics. Your concern for the physical and spiritual well-being of people can be translated into fruitful service. Your first asset is...





  2. 2020-06-29 Seed storage in the tropics has been a frequent topic of ECHO publications and trainings due to its importance to the smallholder farmer. Access to quality seeds is imperative for agronomic and horticultural crop production. While on-farm seed saving benefits the smallholder farmer, cooperative...





  3. 2019-07-23 I discovered 100-fold gardens while researching ways to irrigate plants directly in the root zone. I wanted to know how to practically and affordably control some of the variables that influence plant growth, such as water availability and soil fertility. I read about “wicking beds,” which are...





  4. 2019-03-21 This Technical Note provides an overview of parasitic plants of agricultural significance in Africa. Parasitic weeds cause drought stress and stunted crops. Affected plants include cereal grains (e.g., sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] and maize [Zea mays]) and grain legumes (e.g., cowpea [Vigna...





  5. 2019-01-07 Two broad categories of seeds exist, referred to as recalcitrant and orthodox. The former must be kept moist and planted soon after they are collected; large-seeded fruits such as mango and avocado are typical examples. The second type of seeds are discussed in this document. Orthodox seeds are...
90 more ECHO Technical Notes

Food Plant Solutions - Publications

  1. Imagine - You are an immigrant to a country which, in contrast to all that you are familiar with, is in a different climate, with different soils, and different plants which will flourish in these conditions. You are keen to be a good provider for your family and the idea of growing fresh fruit...
  2. Potentially important food plants of Rwanda Food plants for healthy diets in Rwanda Also available in:Kinyarwanda (rw) Potentially important leafy greens and vegetables in Rwanda Potentially Important Fruit, Nuts and Seeds of Rwanda Good gardening and growing root crops in Rwanda If you...
  3. Potentially Important Food Plants of the Western Pacific Potentially Important Fruits and Nuts of the Western Pacific Potentially Important Leafy Greens and Vegetables in the Western Pacific Also available in:Français (fr)Bislama (bi) Food plants for healthy diets in the Western Pacific Also...
  4. If you download a publication, please contact Food Plant Solutionsat –info@foodplantsolutions.org Feedback on any publication is invited and much appreciated –info@foodplantsolutions.org Return to the Publications List
  5. Growing the Major Food Plants of Papua New Guinea Food Plants of Papua New Guinea Diseases of Food Plants in Papua New Guinea Growing Food Plants - Southern Highlands Insect Pests of Food Plants Sago and Gardening FOI Katubu Food Composition of Plants in Papua New Guinea Suggestions on Food...
79 more Food Plant Solutions - Publications

Amaranth to Zai Holes

  1. After 15 years of EDN, I guess it is not too much to include a bit of levity. Economists, agronomists and planners of late Have discovered a new way to pontificate. Beyond mere jargon, like "Success Enhancement," "Integrated Development," and "Rural Advancement." Working in all their infinite...



  2. 1996-10-19 All of the plants mentioned in this chart can be used as feed for animals. However, cutting them for feed limits their effectiveness as green manures and cover crops. The distinction between green manures and cover crops is minimal, and often the two words are used interchangeably. The following...



  3. 1996-10-19



  4. 1996-10-19



  5. 1996-10-19 Appropriate technologies can reduce tiresome labor and increase the efficiency of the rural family in their work at home and in the fields. There are many simple machines, tools, utensils, pumps, and other items which can make significant improvements in people's lives, but not all are suitable...
40 more Amaranth to Zai Holes

ECHO Research - Guidance




  1. For many of us the idea of “research” is scary. We are not trained in it. We picture rigorous statistical analyses that we are unfamiliar with. We have seen glossy scientific journals with technical words that we do not understand. Besides, isn’t our goal to directly help smallholder farmers? Why...



  2. As you work in agricultural development, there may be times that you find yourself wondering about the answer to a specific question you have. For example, should plants be spaced 30 cm or 60 cm apart to achieve the highest yield? Which one of three tomato cultivars would grow best in a...



  3. 2000-10-20 Halfway through my doctoral studies in biochemistry I had an opportunity to travel to a developing country to visit some missionaries and the people they served. Thanks to that visit I began my “mid-life” crisis in my mid-twenties. My research at Indiana University was in what one would call “...

ECHO Development Notes (EDN)






  1. 2020-10-16 Farmer-Centered Climate Change Mitigation:Part 2 of 2 From ECHO's Seed Bank:A Seed Trial Report - How Seeds from ECHO Grew in a Dry-Season Garden in Uganda Echoes from our Network: Grafting Tamarillo and Other Solanaceous Crops for Nematode Resistance Books, Websites, and Other Resources:AT Fair...





  2. 2020-07-17 Farmer-Centered Climate Change Mitigation:Part 1 of 2 Are Crickets a Practical Source of Protein in Tropical Countries? From ECHO's Seed Bank: Cowpea Varieties for Warm Rainy Season ECHOes from our Network: Emergency Gardens in a Quarantine World Books, Websites, and Other Resources:New ECHO...



  3. 2020-06-29 This photo slideshow is a supplement toTechnical Note96: Earthbag Seed Banks.





  4. 2020-04-14 Responding in the Case of an Epidemic or Pandemic A Tip of the Hat to the Tippy Tap Promoting Biodiversity on Maize Smallholdings: Importance of Birds From ECHO's Seed Bank:Fast-Growing Plants for Household Food Supply Echoes from Our Network: 100-Fold Gardens in Honduras Books, Web Sites, and...



  5. 2020-03-03 This is just to see what the new template looks like on ECHO Community Low Oxygen Methods for InsectControl in Seeds ECHO International Agriculture Conference 2019:Topic Summaries Echoes from our Network:Roger Gietzen on the topic of syntropic farming Books, Web Sites and Other Resources: Vetiver...
155 more ECHO Development Notes (EDN)

ECHO Asia Notes




  1. 2020-08-31 Featured in this AN Mycorrhizal Fungi - Our Tiny Underground Allies Tomato Grafting in Southeast Asia: A Useful Technique for Rainy Season Production Recent Asia Note Links ECHO Upcoming Events Subscribe to ECHO Asia's YouTube Channel Ways to stay connected



  2. 2020-05-29 Featured in this AN Making On-Farm Pig Feed:Farm-Generated Formulas vs. Commercial Feeds Join the ECHOcommunity.org Conversation about this topic- CLICK HERE! ECHOs from the Network: Integrated Pest Management on the Island of Bali Coffee Drying "Bunk Beds for Vegetable Production"



  3. 2020-03-13 Featured in this AN A Snapshot of the ECHO Asia Small Farm Resource Center & Seed Bank Black Soldier Fly System of the FrangipaniLangkawi Organic Farm



  4. 2019-11-29 Featured in this AN State of Land in theMekong Region - Brief Highlighted Resources from the Asia Agriculture & Community Development Conference Research Update:Heavy Metal Uptake in Tire Garden Planters



  5. 2019-08-30 Featured in this AN Backyard Vermicomposting Systems: Examples from Myanmar New Book Spotlight: Animal Integration and Feeding Strategies for the Tropical Smallholder Farm
38 more ECHO Asia Notes

Other Farmer Training Guides




  1. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Appreciate the...



  2. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Understand the...



  3. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Intended Learning Outcomes – Participants will be able...



  4. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Appreciate the...



  5. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. This guidebook is designed to help facilitate a Lead...
6 more Other Farmer Training Guides

Conservation Agriculture Core Training Guides






  1. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox....





  2. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox....

SWISSAID Publications

  1. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only It is organic farming, agriculture associated with a better environment, natural resource management system (example: forests) which, through a mixture of trees in the fields or on agricultural land, expands the scope and increases productivity and thus increases the economy in...
  2. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only
  3. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only
  4. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Community seed banks are informal institutions, run and managed by farmers or local and village governments whose primary function is to store seeds for domestic use. These banks are located in many parts of the world and have existed for many years with the aim of preserving,...
  5. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Seeds are one of the main inputs for food production. Farmers around the world have been aware of this for centuries. Millions of families and agricultural communities have worked to select seeds and store them for use in the next agricultural season. This is what has allowed...
3 more SWISSAID Publications

CAN Culinaria






  1. 2019-11-20





  2. 2019-01-20 RECETARIO WUQU’ KAWOQ Versión 2018-2019 Elaborado por: Valeria Morales. Spanish Only.

ECHO West Africa Notes






  1. 2019-07-22 Le système de riziculture intensive (SRI) Qu'est-ce que le SRI ? Les étapes de mise en œuvre du SRI L'irrigation des plants Le sarclage et le sarclo-binage, quels sont les avantages ? Le rendement du SRI Etude comparée entre le SRI et la pratique traditionnelle de riziculture Intérêt du SRI...





  2. 2018-01-03 Techniques de production avicole traditionnelle epublication:Options de restauration des sols improductifsetOptions où l'eau est rare





  3. 2017-08-01 Foundations For Farming, an alternative for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa How to prepare compost in 3 weeks? The preparation of organic liquid fertilizer eBook Release:Fundamentals of Agricultural Development epublication

ECHO Latin America and Caribbean Notes (LACN)






  1. 2018-02-22 Green Leafy Vegetables and Powders for Improved Nutrition in Honduras Member Highlight: Elioena Arauz,Artists for Soup, Nicaragua Echoes from our Network: Deep Litter System ECHO Resource Highlight: Green Leafy Vegetables Technical Note Spotlight: "Linking Smallholder Farmers to Markets"





  2. 2017-12-04 ECHO in Latin America and the Caribbean Experimenting with Medicinal Plants in Matagalpa, Nicaragua Staff Highlight Tech Note Spotlight: "Introducing new seeds overseas" Tech Note Spotlight: "Introduction to Tropical Root Crops" Echoes from our Network Resources: Wuqu' Kawoq (The Maya Health...





  3. 2017-07-31 Las Cañadas Agro-ecological Chickens Module Introducing New Team Leader: Cecilia Gonzalez Tech Note Spotlight: "Cafeteria Feeding" of Chickens From ECHO's Seed Bank: Ethiopian Kale Member Highlight: Javier Ignacio Silva Rivera Our Vision:Honoring God by Empowering the Undernourished with...





  4. 2017-03-30 Making Silage in Vichada Tech Note Spotlight: Biosand Water Filter Echoes from our Network: Member Highlight Adria and Job From ECHO's Technical Respose Team: Appropriate forage crops for clay soils From ECHO's Seed Bank: Forage peanut

ECHO Research Notes




  1. 2017-12-19 This trial was conducted in 2004 to compare growth and yield parameters of five sweet corn (Zea mays) varieties (‘NE-EDR’, ‘ZC2451F’, ‘Golden Queen’, ‘Hawaiian Supersweet’, and ‘True Gold’) grown between rows of leguminous trees (mostly Leucaena leucocephala) trees in the Central Plateau of...



  2. 2017-12-19 In a tropical setting, growing seedlings can be difficult. A major factor of concern for nursery production is water logging (Zhu et al. 2007). During the rainy season, oversaturated soils can effectively suffocate root systems of a seedling by restricting flow of oxygen and other important...



  3. 2017-11-22 Tropical varieties of pumpkin, Cucurbita sp., vary widely in their production, fruit size and quality, and taste. This variety trial and analysis includes eleven varieties available at the ECHO farm in Florida in 2006. All varieties were evaluated for seed viability, total production, fruit size...



  4. 2017-10-04 A comparison trial of okra species and varieties was conducted at the ECHO farm in North Fort Myers (zone 9a/10b), Florida. Thirteen varieties ofAbelmoschus esculentumand two varieties ofAbelmoschus cailleiwere evaluated for pod production and taste. Plants were started from seed in trays, with...





  5. 2013-12-20 Soil quality, also known as soil health, is the capacity of the soil to function – how well it fills the roles we need it to, whether in a natural or managed ecosystem. A variety of measures are used to gauge soil health; although we can use these characteristics as indicators of soil quality,...
3 more ECHO Research Notes

ECHO Best Practice Notes






  1. 2017-05-26 By integrating legumes into cropping systems, small-scale farmers in low-resource settings can invest in the long-term health and resilience of their soils. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). With that in mind, this document presents insights on legume selection...





  2. 2016-09-28 Farmers in many parts of the world, because of human population growth, have little choice but to crop their land continuously, with scarce resources to replace nutrients withdrawn by each successive crop. Crop residues are often lost as a source of organic matter and mulch, usually through...





  3. 2016-03-22 Yearly production of grains, pulses, and vegetables depends on a reliable supply of quality seed. This is true for the farmer growing a crop to feed their family as well as for the agricultural worker evaluating and growing out seeds of a new crop species or variety that could improve lives. In...





  4. 2014-04-01 ECHO frequently receives questions from members of our network, asking how available land could be used to grow food and/or create income to augment an otherwise non-agricultural project. Broadly speaking, they are asking how to begin an institutional agriculture project—a coordinated agriculture...





  5. 2014-02-26 Pastoralism is a livelihood whereby people depend upon herding domesticated livestock. In East Africa, pastoralists depend primarily upon cattle, sheep, donkeys, goats and camels— listed in order of least resilience as one moves into drier and more arid lowland areas. Pastoralists play an...
2 more ECHO Best Practice Notes

Agricultural Risk Assessment and Management




  1. 2017-01-20 A Comprehensive Agricultural Risk Assessment Survey should include key informants like those listed below, to assess risk at both: the farmer/ARE level and the value-chain level. It will never be possible to include all the informants listed below, but the best risk assessment resulting in the...



  2. 2013-03-13 Within the internationally recognized field of agricultural risk assessment and management, riskscan be evaluated according to three basic criteria : 1. Impact: In other words, how severe will the risk event be if it actually happens? Some risks can destroy the whole year's farm income and even...



  3. 2013-01-20 Risk Management Planning assumes that assessment of risks has taken place, and that risks have been prioritized according to severity, likelihood, and manageability of the risks. The resulting risks can then be placed on the scoring grid below and actions identified to address the risks. Once...



  4. 2013-01-20 This information in this worksheet is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges, Managing Director/Consultant,African Agriculture Risk Management Services, Uganda. Steve spoke at the 2012 ECHO International Agriculture Conference



  5. 2013-01-20 This Risk Assessment Exercise is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges

ECHO Asia News




  1. 2016-11-20



  2. 2016-05-20



  3. 2015-09-20



  4. 2015-03-20



  5. 2014-11-20
5 more ECHO Asia News

ECHO Summaries






  1. 2015-08-05 Good intentions and viable solutions will have little impact unless we engage with farmers in ways that are meaningful to them. Farmers put a great deal of confidence in what they learn from fellow farmers’ experiences, and they are more likely to trust what they see over what they hear....



  2. 2015-08-05 The complexity of the global food system creates a diverse group of actors ranging from smallholders to large corporations involved in the agriculture sector. Each of the many actors in an agriculture value chain has different needs, objectives, strengths and weaknesses. With women accounting for...





  3. 2015-07-14 Workshops are an often-used and effective tool that extension workers can use to teach new skills to groups of farmers. This document, drawn from the USAID/MEAS Technical Note on Presenting Workshops to Adults, explains how a workshop setting differs from that of a classroom/teaching setting, and...



  4. 2015-07-13 Based on a MEAS paper entitled, The Current and Future Roles of Small Farm Resource Centers in Extension and Advisory Services: Synthesis Report from Seven Case Studies in Southeast Asia, this document highlights key take-a-ways of an assessment by ECHO of seven SFRCs in Southeast Asia. Through...



  5. 2015-06-03 Field-based teaching provides first-hand experience about the subject matter being discussed. An on-site encounter allows farmers to observe innovations in practice, discuss them, and ask questions. Farmers exposed to new ideas will be much more likely to understand and apply the information if...
7 more ECHO Summaries

Heifer International - Selected Publications




  1. 2015-01-20 Dairying as an enterprise has got a place alongside other viable tools of poverty alleviation, besides creating job opportunities to jobless families in Tanzania. Statistics from the ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development show that there are about 800,000 improved dairy cattle in...
  2. 2010-01-20 Swahili Only Ufugaji bora wa ng'ombe wa maziwa-2





  3. 2010-01-20 Pig farming in Tanzania has primarily been for a long time of backyard and informal sector producers. However in order to secure both food and nutritional security to rural Tanzania households, there is a need of embracing integrated approaches in livestock farming. Pig farming in Tanzania is...





  4. 2010-01-20 Swahili only Mwongozo wa ufugaji bora wa mbuzi wa maziwa
  5. 2008-07-20 Swahili Only Kitabu cha kuku wa asili
5 more Heifer International - Selected Publications

CAN Agricultura






  1. 2014-01-20 5ta Edición revisada y ampliada Chile Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura Spanish Only.

A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics




  1. 2005-01-20 We gardeners, farmers and food growers are always looking for new technology, but a large body of information is already available to us. When I scan resources from A to Z, I find many interesting titles that are widely published and now available from Amazon books, Acres USA, ATTRA and various...



  2. 2005-01-20 Proper crop rotation is Fundamental #1. It will beat the disease and pest cycle while promoting nutrient cycling. This is a forgotten age-old method to assure the health of future crops. It is of the utmost importance to minimize nutrient loss for long-range success. When the same plant is...



  3. 2005-01-20 When you live in the developing world, you start to see things differently. I started visiting this country on short-term visits with Christian groups in 1995. I surveyed the rural areas and worked with people who were trying to make a difference with the knowledge they had. It’s hard to ignore...



  4. 2005-01-20 Green fertilizer is Fundamental #5. It feeds the next crop efficiently. As you plow crop residue into the soil it will eventually become humus and fertilizer for following crops. It is a form of composting, in which materials do not need to be transported to a mixing/composting site. You could...



  5. 2005-01-20 Mulching is Fundamental #6. It will conserve topsoil and moisture, as well as provide fertilizer. When straw or crop residue covers the topsoil, it holds it in place while stopping raindrops from compacting soil. Areas with heavy rain require more plowing. It also slows down rain run off so that...
24 more A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics

USDA Agriculture Handbooks




  1. 2002-01-20 File: Download [PDF File] 38MB Author(s): Vozzo, J. A.,United States. Forest Service. Subject(s): Trees -- Tropics -- Seeds.,Trees -- North America -- Seeds.,Tropical plants -- Seeds -- Identification.,Tropical plants -- North America -- Seeds -- Identification. Format: 899 p. Coverage: tropics...



  2. 1987-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Campbell, Carl W.,Ruberte, Ruth M.,United States. Agricultural Research Service. Subject(s): Plants, Edible -- Tropics.,Tropical fruit. Format: 247 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural...



  3. 1978-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Degras, Lucien. Subject(s): Yams -- Tropics. Format: iii, 23 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: Science and Education Administration, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in cooperation with Agency for International Development Year:...



  4. 1978-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Degras, Lucien. Subject(s): Yams. Format: iv, 26 p. Language: English Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Year: 1978 Series: USDA agriculture handbooks Rights: This item is authored by federal employees as part of their official duties...



  5. 1977-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Sadik, Sidki. Subject(s): Yams -- Tropics. Format: iv, 36 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in cooperation with Agency for International Development Year: 1977...
4 more USDA Agriculture Handbooks

Books




  1. 2020-01-20 This handbook is a companion to Vernooy, R., Sthapit, B. and Bessette, G. (2020). Community seed banks: concept and practice. Facilitator handbook (updated version). Bioversity International, Rome, Italy (https://hdl.handle.net/10568/81286). The three booklets making up this handbook were written...



  2. 2020-01-20 Over three decades, a number of international and national organizations have provided technical and financial support to community seed banks around the world. Only a few of these organizations have developed and published a practical guide about how they have offered this support. This...



  3. 1993-01-01 Collection of articles on lessons learned while farming.
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  1. The core function of #day3seeds is Vegetable Seed development, focusing on open-pollinated vegetable species, specifically of varieties which will prove useful in developing nations where such efforts are currently lacking. The ‘people’ we strive to serve initially are in three regions: 1. East...






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Plant Information Sheets

  1. Acacia mangium can grow to be a tall tree up to 30 m. It is a fast-growing tree that can tolerate acidic and degraded soils. This tree grows best with moderate rainfall and full sunlight. It is one of the major leguminous species used in plantation forestry programs throughout Asia and the...
  2. Adzuki bean is a bushy or vining, nitrogen-fixing, annual plant that is moderately drought tolerant. This bean grows best in temperate climates or higher altitudes in the tropics. The young pods, fresh seeds and dry beans are used for human consumption.
  3. Khaya nyasica is a large evergreen or semi-deciduous forest tree up to 60 m in height. It has a rounded crown that provides dense shade. This tree is an important timber species and the wood is also used for furniture, firewood, tools, carving and for canoes.
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Videos

  1. Lightning Talk, ECHO International Agriculture Conference, November 19, 2020 George Bosworth, Chapin Living Waters
  2. Lightning Talk, ECHO International Agriculture Conference, November 19, 2020 Elliott Toevs and ECHO Staff
  3. Lightning Talk, ECHO International Agriculture Conference, November 19, 2020 Hawken Sawyer and Lyle Carlson
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