English (en) | Change Language

General Technical Documents






  1. In every region of the world it is necessary to find or develop appropriate techniques for agriculture. A large part of the surface of the world is arid, characterized as too dry for conventional rain fed agriculture. Yet, millions of people live in such regions, and if current trends in...





  2. 2021-04-07 Insect feeding damageor other insect activity can look similar to many bacterial, fungal, or viral diseases or to plant nutrient deficiency symptoms. Before taking action against an assumed insect pest, verify that the symptoms you observe are not caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal...





  3. 2020-10-20 French only
  4. 2018-02-20 PermacultureForRefugees (P4R) has released their first booklet in a series to bring permaculture solutions to refugee situations. Permaculture for Refugees in Camps is a 20 page how-to guide outlining a positive approaches to transforming refugee camps. It is the culmination of ideas, experience...





  5. 2017-04-20 Conservation Agriculture (CA)—characterized by the three linked principles of minimizing soil disturbance, permanently covering the soil, and including crop rotations and associations – has proven effective at restoring soil health and fertility, improving the capture and use of rainfall, and...
2 more General Technical Documents

Feed the Future Publications






  1. In the Push-Pull system, crops that repel pests and/or attract pests’ predators are intercropped with maize, to ‘push’ pests away from the main crop. Plants that attract pests are planted around the field, to ‘pull’ pests away from the maize. Incorporating legumes in this system means that soil...





  2. Four nutrient deficiencies--phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, and magnesium--can be diagnosed by observing maize leaves. This document includes photos of a healthy maize leaf and of maize leaves demonstrating each of these nutrient deficiencies. It also contains suggestions for how to address each...





  3. Jack bean is an excellent plant for enriching soil, because it grows under very difficult conditions. However, the beans contain toxins that normally make them unsuitable for human consumption. This document describes how to germinate jack bean to remove the toxins and increase the beans’...





  4. This short document contains graphs that show how zero tillage leads to increased water infiltration and increased water retention in soil.





  5. This document distinguishes between ‘anchor’ cover crops (that are intercropped with a main crop such as maize) and ‘secondary’ cover crops (that don’t compete with the main crop because they have a short life cycle, and that can help cover the soil at the start of the growing season). The...

VITA - Volunteers in Technical Assistance

  1. The brooder is heated by a regular electric light bulb, placed under the brooder floor. Depending on the temperature rise required, the wattage of the light bulb will have to be chosen by experimentation. The metal floor and roof prevent predators such as rats from entering the brooder. If...
  2. This seed cleaner was developed in Afghanistan to remove round seeds of weeds from wheat grains. The round seeds could not be separated by a sieve because they were the same size as the wheat grains. The cleaner described here takes advantage of the round shape of the weed seeds to separate them...
  3. 1995-01-01 Soon after beginning a major program in renewable energy in 1979, VITA (Volunters in Technical Assistance) found that many of the technical terms commonly used in renewable energy literature were not understood by many of the laypeople for whom the information was meant. VITA also realized that...
  4. 1995-01-01
  5. 1992-01-01 The intent is to offer suggestions to drivers or mechanics who operate in an area where service facilities and technical assistance are not readily available and they must be their own advisers on every problem that may arise. In the event that readers happen to have some service facilities at...
131 more VITA - Volunteers in Technical Assistance

Haitian Network Documents

  1. A “how to” guide to successfully install a natural, sustainable latrine using vetiver grass The use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) replaces the need for a concrete block lined pit, creates privacy and actively helps decompose the waste. Jiji grass (Achnatherum splendens) can be used...





  2. 2019-01-20 Reviewed by Dawn Berkelaar ECHO has an extensive network of agricultural experts working in diverse areas of production and development. Many members contribute to our various publications and resources, often writing or contributing to our existing documents. Some provide self-developed...

ECHO Technical Notes






  1. So you want to help people in the tropics. Beautiful! The tropics are waiting for you. No matter what your abilities, you can make life better for others in the tropics. Your concern for the physical and spiritual well-being of people can be translated into fruitful service. Your first asset is...





  2. 2021-03-29 Cultivating plants, sharing seeds and cuttings with neighbors, and seeking better crop varieties are as old as agriculture. We use the word “nursery” for places where we care for and nurture things that are precious and vulnerable, like children and plants. Creating habitats to grow healthy...





  3. 2020-06-29 Seed storage in the tropics has been a frequent topic of ECHO publications and trainings due to its importance to the smallholder farmer. Access to quality seeds is imperative for agronomic and horticultural crop production. While on-farm seed saving benefits the smallholder farmer, cooperative...





  4. 2019-07-23 I discovered 100-fold gardens while researching ways to irrigate plants directly in the root zone. I wanted to know how to practically and affordably control some of the variables that influence plant growth, such as water availability and soil fertility. I read about “wicking beds,” which are...





  5. 2019-03-21 This Technical Note provides an overview of parasitic plants of agricultural significance in Africa. Parasitic weeds cause drought stress and stunted crops. Affected plants include cereal grains (e.g., sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] and maize [Zea mays]) and grain legumes (e.g., cowpea [Vigna...
39 more ECHO Technical Notes

CTA Publications






  1. This 8-page fold-out leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, covers the subject of bee-keeping and honey processing. It gives some background to the subject, outlines processes and provides tips, tables and explanatory line drawings.





  2. 2013-01-20 Making a trench bed What do you need to start a garden? Lots of enthusiasm and, in the beginning, some hard work. A piece of ground as little as twenty square metres will ensure that your family always has something fresh to eat; a larger area makes it possible to grow enough vegetables to sell....





  3. 2013-01-01 This 8-page fold-out leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, covers the subject of controlling the mango fruit fly. It gives some background to the subject, outlines processes and provides tips, tables and explanatory line drawings.





  4. 2009-01-01 This 12-page fold-out leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, covers the subject of linking smallholder farmers to markets. It gives some background to the subject, outlines processes and provides tips, tables and explanatory line drawings.





  5. 2007-01-20 This 8-page fold-out leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, covers the subject of rearing dairy goats. It gives some background to the subject, outlines processes and provides tips, tables and explanatory line drawings.
11 more CTA Publications

ECHO Development Notes (EDN)






  1. 2022-07-01 Extending Postharvest Life of Fresh Fruit: Harvest for Quality Chicken Compost System Echoes from our Network:Microcontroller use From ECHO's Seed Bank:Allium cepa ‘Awahia’A Short-Day Onion Option Books, Websites, and Other Resources: Discount on Roland Bunch's Second Edition of "Restoring the...





  2. 2022-04-12 Low-Cost Microcontrollers: Applications for Small-Scale Agriculture Echoes from our Network: A Deep Litter System for Natural Chicken Production From ECHO's Seed Bank: 'KDV-1' Maize Books, Websites, and Other Resources:WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal PlantsandCanadian Foodgrains Bank Video...





  3. 2022-01-12 Extending Postharvest Life of Fresh Fruit: Harvest at the Right Time Echoes from our Network: Homegarden Agroforestry From ECHO's Seed Bank:Chipilín Books, Websites, and Other Resources:CTA publications,CVM publications, and App Translation





  4. 2021-10-04 Moringa Productivity with Legume Intercropping Insect Pest Management:Evaluation and Assessment Echoes from our Network: Gliricidia-Annual Intercropping System From ECHO's Seed Bank:‘Lacinato’ Kale for Home Gardens Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Food Plant Solutions andDownloadable Books





  5. 2021-07-06 Insect Pest Management: Options for Controlling Pest Populations From ECHO's Seed Bank:Everglades (Wild) Tomato Echoes from our Network: Acacia angustissima Farming Improvement Experience Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Soy Kit as an Appropriate Technology for Women Entrepreneurs - A Review...
61 more ECHO Development Notes (EDN)

Food Plant Solutions - Publications






  1. 2022-01-01 This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common food plants for healthy diets in Togo. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every...





  2. 2022-01-01 This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common leafy greens and vegetables of Uganda. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every...





  3. 2022-01-01 This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common fruits, nuts, and seeds in Cameroon. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every...





  4. 2021-02-01 This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common food plants for healthy diets in Cameroon. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every...





  5. 2021-01-01 This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common food plants of Cameroon. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every country are very...
3 more Food Plant Solutions - Publications

Using ECHO Resources

  1. 2021-01-20 Available on iOS 10.0+and Android 5.0+ Android version updated 8/2022 for Android 11, 12, 12.1 (available soon) Search "echocommunity" in the App Store on your iPhone or in Google Play on your Android phone. ECHO has provided resources to farmers and development workers for 40 years....

ECHO Best Practice Notes






  1. 2020-12-14 ECHO recognizes climate change as a profound reality faced by small-scale farmers. Many of our publications have focused on helping farmers cope with related challenges such as heat and drought.Increasing farmer resilience and minimizing risk have been key elements of the practices we have...





  2. 2017-05-26 By integrating legumes into cropping systems, small-scale farmers in low-resource settings can invest in the long-term health and resilience of their soils. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). With that in mind, this document presents insights on legume selection...





  3. 2016-09-28 Farmers in many parts of the world, because of human population growth, have little choice but to crop their land continuously, with scarce resources to replace nutrients withdrawn by each successive crop. Crop residues are often lost as a source of organic matter and mulch, usually through...





  4. 2016-03-22 Yearly production of grains, pulses, and vegetables depends on a reliable supply of quality seed. This is true for the farmer growing a crop to feed their family as well as for the agricultural worker evaluating and growing out seeds of a new crop species or variety that could improve lives. In...





  5. 2014-04-01 ECHO frequently receives questions from members of our network, asking how available land could be used to grow food and/or create income to augment an otherwise non-agricultural project. Broadly speaking, they are asking how to begin an institutional agriculture project—a coordinated agriculture...
1 more ECHO Best Practice Notes

LEGS Publications and Resources






  1. 2020-10-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Karin de Jonge and Lucy Maarse The aim of this Discussion Paper is to outline the major issues at the crossroads of gender and livestock in the context of humanitarian response, for the Advisory Committee of LEGS...





  2. 2020-10-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Holly Hufnagel The objective of this discussion paper is to inform the LEGS Technical Advisory Committee on issues relating to the quality of veterinary pharmaceuticals for livestock responses in emergency situations....





  3. 2020-09-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Yacob Aklilu This paper was commissioned to assess livestock insurance schemes and explore what evidence exists regarding the effective implementation of livestock insurance schemes to support the livelihoods of...





  4. 2020-09-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Kate Sadler This discussion paper was commissioned by LEGS to review the key issues relating to nutrition in the context of livestock-based emergency interventions, with particular attention to the following key...





  5. 2018-03-20 A LEGS-based preparedness, planning and response tool for improved resilience in the drylands of the Horn of Africa The Drought Tool is structured as follows: the background section provides an overview of recent droughts in the HoA, looks at the costs of drought, and introduces the LEGS Core...
1 more LEGS Publications and Resources

Conservation Agriculture Core Training Guides






  1. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The...





  2. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The...

ECHO West Africa Notes






  1. 2019-07-22 Le système de riziculture intensive (SRI) Qu'est-ce que le SRI ? Les étapes de mise en œuvre du SRI L'irrigation des plants Le sarclage et le sarclo-binage, quels sont les avantages ? Le rendement du SRI Etude comparée entre le SRI et la pratique traditionnelle de riziculture Intérêt du SRI...





  2. 2018-01-03 Techniques de production avicole traditionnelle epublication:Options de restauration des sols improductifsetOptions où l'eau est rare





  3. 2017-08-01 Foundations For Farming, an alternative for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa How to prepare compost in 3 weeks? The preparation of organic liquid fertilizer eBook Release:Fundamentals of Agricultural Development epublication

ECHO Summaries






  1. 2015-08-05 Good intentions and viable solutions will have little impact unless we engage with farmers in ways that are meaningful to them. Farmers put a great deal of confidence in what they learn from fellow farmers’ experiences, and they are more likely to trust what they see over what they hear....





  2. 2015-07-14 Workshops are an often-used and effective tool that extension workers can use to teach new skills to groups of farmers. This document, drawn from the USAID/MEAS Technical Note on Presenting Workshops to Adults, explains how a workshop setting differs from that of a classroom/teaching setting, and...





  3. 2015-05-19 A participatory learning approach, applied at each stage of a community development project, is crucial to reaching the level of stakeholder involvement needed for lasting, positive change. The use of participatory survey and planning methods in the development process encourages community...





  4. 2015-05-01 This article draws from the MEAS Brief # 2 Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services: How to Find the Best Fit for Men and Women Farmers. Many of the gender-related topics and lessons discussed in the MEAS Brief also apply to the transfer of knowledge and resources...





  5. 2015-04-30 This document draws from the MEAS brief #3Adaptation under the New Normal of Climate Change: The Future of Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services. Written for extension and advisory service providers, the MEAS brief contains insights helpful to practitioners working to develop strategies...
1 more ECHO Summaries

Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) Publications






  1. 1990-01-19 W. Malcolm Reid (1910-1990) was Professor Emeritus of Poultry Science (Parasitology) at the University of Georgia. He saw a need for a book dealing with basic poultry production and recruited others to help him develop one. He knew firsthand the value of poultry as a source of food and manure for...

Books

  1. 2005-01-01 Un livre de référence pour les soignants des patients atteints du SIDA. Cette brochure décrit comment la "médecine naturelle", c'est-à-dire. L'utilisation pratique de plantes qui poussent ou peuvent être cultivées dans les pays tropicaux, peut offrir un soutien traitement aux malades du SIDA et...





  2. 1995-01-01 Dans le présent manuel de référence, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi les promoteurs de groupe peuvent aider hommes et femmes, dans les communautés rurales, à s'unir et à travailler ensemble pour améliorer leur revenu et leurs conditions de vie. Le manuel présente une approche participative dans...





  3. Devant l'aggravation de la dégradation de nos milieux agricoles, certains ont la tentation de baisser les bras, d'autres se tournent vers les solutions ésotériques qui évidemment n'aboutissent pas, et d'autres impertubablement, continuent à mettre en œuvre, soil la technique plus ou moins...
92 more books
  1. Nutrition Smart Agriculture (NSmartAg) aims to simultaneously improve agriculture incomes and nutrition outcomes through agriculture interventions. NSmartAg practices and technologies contribute to address local nutrition issues and increase farm and/or agribusiness productivity and income...





  2. The Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) is a pan-African Center of Excellence for rice research, development and capacity building. It contributes to reducing poverty, achieving food and nutrition security and improving livelihoods of farmers and other rice value-chain actors in Africa by increasing...





  3. FROM SEED TO SEED From Seed to Seed is a series of 40 short films allowing anyone to learn how to produce vegetable seeds. It provides the basics of theory and practice, an ABC of seed production and shows all the necessary steps for producing seeds of 40 vegetable species. From Seed to Seed was...
272 more links

Plant Information Sheets

  1. Acacia angustissima grows as a thornless shrub or small tree to an average of 2-7 meters tall with a single short trunk. It is a legume, capable of fixing nitrogen in nodules on its roots if the appropriate strain of Rhizobium bacteria is present in the soil. It is often found in tropical...
  2. Acacia mangium can grow to be a tall tree up to 30 m. It is a fast-growing tree that can tolerate acidic and degraded soils. This tree grows best with moderate rainfall and full sunlight. It is one of the major leguminous species used in plantation forestry programs throughout Asia and the...
  3. Amaranthus spp. is an annual, erect herb (up to 1 m tall) grown for its edible leaves Leaves grow up to 8 cm in length and are present in an alternate arrangement along the stem. Small flowers are borne on slender spikes within inflorescences up to 12 cm long. Fruit are small, compressed,...
36 more plant information sheets

Videos






  1. When the government gives someone permission to use your land or natural resources, which may require you to leave your land they must discuss options to avoid and minimize the negative impacts. They must give you information prior to decisions being made and give you and your community an...





  2. Compost can be used to improve the quality of your soil. You can use plant materials, animal manure and kitchen scraps to create compost. Compost will add nutrients and organic matter to your soil. This animation explains the process of creating and storing compost. Scientific Animations Without...





  3. Compost can be used to improve the quality of your soil. You can use plant materials, animal manure and kitchen scraps to create compost. Compost will add nutrients and organic matter to your soil. This animation explains the process of creating and storing compost. Scientific Animations Without...
53 more videos