In countries experiencing intense population pressure, there is seldom enough land for pasture or for crops grown specifically for livestock. In many instances they are fed the locally available agricultural by-products and scavenged mature forage, which are usually deficient in minerals, energy and protein. Animals in these situations are not primarily producers but rather serve many purposes: insurance, mobile capital, a source of fuel, traction, a fertilizer factory, and status symbols. Unsophisticated but scientifically based research has been carried out in developing countries, primarily on farms, over the past few decades seeking to optimize the production of such animals from local resources.

Please note that the links listed below may lead to additional resources which have not yet been added to this collection.


  1. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. The amazing multi-stomached ruminant comes in many forms, with varied nutritional requirements. Ruminants are even-toed, cloven-hoofed, four-legged, cud-chewing mammals of the suborder Ruminantia (within order Artiodactyla). Cattle, water buffalo, goats,...
  2. Rating: 4.0 - 1 Vote
    2002-07-20 The purpose of this article is to show that with strategic supplementation, using locally available resources (straw, maize stover, poor quality grass, etc.), small-scale farmers in the tropics can have productive ruminants that emit less methane (believed to contribute to global warming) and...
  3. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    2010-04-01 People will be rewarded by intentionally being browsers. By eating a wide variety of foods, we will be more likely to take in a sufficient daily amount of all that we need for good health. In contrast, cultures that, for example, eat mainly rice or tortillas or bread made from one kind of grain...
  4. ECHO's Natural Farming Pig System is comprised of a deep-litter pig pen in which hogs are raised atop a one-meter deep layer of bedding comprised mostly of sawdust, rice husks and ground charcoal. By excluding the rain and preventing excessive spillage of feed and water, the bedding remains...
  5. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    This article is from ECHO Asia Note #25 As densities of livestock increase, an industrious farmer finds ways and means to increase his farm’s nutrient stream for the benefit of his system. This article will describe methods and techniques necessary for a smallholder farmer to succeed with...
  6. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #23 In its simplest definition a forage is any plant material grazed or fed to livestock. However, a more specific definition that’s presented in this article focuses on plants (grasses and legumes) that are planted specifically to provide superior feed...
  7. 2015-02-23 ECHO's recent activity to integrate livestock more effectively includes revamping the farm's pastures and grazing approach. While for many years ECHO has demonstrated cut-and-carry forage feeding systems for goats, in early 2014 our interns and staff identified goals for minimizing the labor...
  8. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    1996-01-19 Raising pigs on moringa leaves is a system developed by missionary Paul Ronk in Jeremie, Haiti.
  9. Rating: 4.0 - 1 Vote
    1996-07-19 Information about using Chaya to feed pigs.
  10. 2016-07-15 Since 2014, the ECHO Farm in North Ft. Myers, Florida has been upgrading and expanding its pastures using the managed, rotational, intensive grazing model. With paddocks sub-divided by electric fencing, cows and goats are moved regularly and systematically from intensively grazed plots to fresh,...
  11. 2008-07-20 Bone mealhas another use. You can overcome mineral deficiencies in cattle by making your own cattle lick or mineral block, using bonemeal as the source of phosphorous.
  12. 2016-11-01 Field days focusing on livestock production have been successfully used as a means to introduce and disseminate technologies. Training producers about improved management practices is greatly aided by supporting trainees to visit better off farmers. However, selection of farmers or producers to...
  13. 2016-07-11 Editors: ECHO will be hosting a three-day workshop in September at our Florida campus, on the topic of small-scale livestock production in the tropics (see the “Upcoming Events” section for details). Our Global Farm incorporates many animals, including ducks, rabbits, chickens, pigs, and goats—so...
  14. 2016-03-02 Session: Livestock is the main source of livelihoods for pastoralist in Marsabit County with 80% of the population directly depending on them. Food for the hungry supported and established 13 livestock markets in Marsabit. The markets provided great platform where herders, traders, government and...
  15. 2017-02-09
  16. 2016-03-03 Session: Thisl talk will be about the history of Holistic Management in Laikipia since its start in 2010. It will describe the approach used, the tools, the preliminary results and the challenges that remain. The session shares the experience from Northern Kenya Conservancies and speaks of...
  17. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    2017-02-08 In marginal environments where strong crop-livestock interactions exist, inclusive and equitable access to finance, well-functioning land rental markets, and efficient provision of extension advisory services contribute significantly towards the shift to more sustainable land use management and...
  18. 2016-11-01 Africa Rising was a five-year project, funded by USAID, that sought to identify and promote solutions for for sustainableintenslfication of the mixed farming systems in the Ethiopian Highlands. The project worked closely with both research and development partner to develop and validate...
  19. 2016-03-01 Session: The Livestock to Markets Program(LTM) is a social enterprise owned by NRT through its business company called -NRT Trading company. LTM aims to commercialize livestock marketing among pastoralists by providing an assured, equitable and reliable market for good quality cattle in order to...
  20. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    1996-12-01 Amazon.com Description Goats play a vital role in the rural economy of many poor countries, and numerous projects have been established to encourage their development. But the extension workers employed on such projects are often untrained in goat production, and the only available textbooks are...
  21. 2015-05-12 How the Aloha House manages its livestock using Natural Farming techniques and effective microorganisms, Part I.
  22. 2016-03-02 Session: The pastoral areas of Kenya are characterised by poor access to quality livestock services. Consequently the pastoralists are forced to purchase sub-standard and/or counterfeit veterinary drugs - often from unqualified people - to meet their animal health needs. They also treat their...
  23. 1995-01-01 This book speaks to the challenges of small farm pig production. The two main themes of malnutrition and parasite control are dealt with in depth, utilizing very practical ideas and methods. The author repeatedly emphasizes the need to deal with these issues if the farmer is to be successful in...
  24. Rating: 1.0 - 1 Vote
    2008-04-15 Amazon.com Description Heifer International is pleased to present a new, revised edition of Raising Goats for Milk and Meat. This introductory handbook provides an experience-based training model on the basic care and management of dairy and meat goats. The new edition includes training...
  25. The Portal of the Community of Practice for Pro-poor Livestock Development (CoP-PPLD) is an on-line sharing network for practitioners, managers, researchers and other actors involved in pro-poor livestock development that want to exchange experiences, innovative approaches, best/next practices...
  26. 1986-12-01
  27. 1978-01-01 Amazon.com Description Updated and re-written, this edition aims to summarize knowledge of tropical livestock husbandry that could be useful for students, extension and development specialists, administrators and progressive farmers.
  28. 1976-12-01 Amazon.com Description Raising Sheep the Modern Way covers everything from breeds of sheep to recipes. It is a must read for anyone new to raising sheep, and is a good reference book for the experienced shepherd as well. I have been in the sheep business for 14 years. I purchased the book when I...
  29. 1994-01-01
  30. Feedipedia is an open access information system on animal feed resources that provides information on nature, occurrence, chemical composition, nutritional value and safe use of nearly 1400 worldwide livestock feeds. Feedipedia is a joint project ofINRA(Institut National de la Recherche...
  31. Research on the use of insects for feed is also being led byICIPE(The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology. Programs by ICIPE includeINSFEED(“Insect feed for poultry and fish production in sub Saharan Africa”);GREEiNSECT(“Mass-rearing insects for greener protein supply”) andILIPA...
  32. It is best not to assume that such high efficiency is possible in every case. In an article titled “Crickets are not a free lunch,” authors Lundy and Parrella (2015) point out that crickets’ growth and even viability depends on the quality of their diet, especially at an industrial scale. Still,...
  33. Abstract -Environmental Entomology, 2015 Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly,Hermetia illucensL. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in...
  34. Pastoralists live precarious lives with extreme weather, such as drought, posing a potentially fatal threat to livestock – often pastoralists’ only asset and income source. To buffer livestock keepers from these risks, insurance schemes such as the Kenya Livestock Insurance Programme (KLIP),...
  35. AccessAgriculture Training Video By making a base mix that can be fed to all animals, you save time and money. Two thirds of the mix is made from grains, like paddy, maize, sorghum and millet. One third of the mix should be rich in protein and fat. Mill the base mix into a coarse flour. Depending...
  36. AccessAgriculture Training Video This video examines ways of reducing worm and fluke infestation in African livestock. There is advice on how to break the worm cycle and treat animals with reliable drugs.
  37. AccessAgriculture Training Video Ticks are small creatures like insects that attach to the body of animals to suck their blood. Ticks cause diseases like skin lesions. The animals will become skinny and no longer produce milk. English French Hausa Peulh Fulfuldé Yoruba
  38. AccessAgriculture Training Video Donkeys, mules and horses are important working animals, many diseases are transmitted by insects such as flies. Flies can transmit a parasitic worm called Habronema that causes several problems in horses and donkeys. There are many precautions which you can take...
  39. AccessAgriculture Training Video In traditional sheds, sheep and goats are often kept on the ground. The animals are in direct contact with their urine and droppings. Because of poor hygiene many animals get sick. You can easily make a raised platform inside your existing shed to solve these...
  40. AccessAgriculture Training Video In semi-arid West Africa, farmers and herders explain why and how trees and livestock play a crucial role in obtaining a productive soil and crop. In Niger and Ghana this is one of the strategies of integrated striga and soil fertility management that has a...
  41. Across the Horn Africa, pastoralist areas have been one of the most persistent and difficult challenges for governments, and development and humanitarian agencies. Although often viewed as physically remote, universally poor, and subject to droughts and conflicts, in reality these areas can also...
  42. Across the Horn Africa, pastoralist areas have been one of the most persistent and difficult challenges for governments, and development and humanitarian agencies. Although often viewed as physically remote, universally poor, and subject to droughts and conflicts, in reality these areas can also...
  43. This section on livestock includes all animals that are farmed, as well as insects such as bees. Fish and other aquatic animals are covered in the fisheries section.
  44. Pig rearing is the main focus of two of our value chain projects – inUgandaandVietnam. Here we provide links to some useful manuals and guides to raising pigs. Add your resource by clicking the ‘comment’ feature on this post.
  45. 2009-01-20 Published for Nepal Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  46. 2004-01-20 Pigs and pig keeping in one form or another can be found almost anywhere in the world. Especially of course in country areas it is common for communities to have pigs rooting and roaming freely around the dwellings, to be brought in one day as household needs require. Pig keeping enterprises are...
  47. 2017-10-05 This workshop will look at indigenous microbial fermented feeds as an alternative to our expensive foreign/imported GMO corn-soy based feed ration for our native animals (chicken and swine). Experiments on microbial fermentation on indigenous plants was conducted in terms of palatability,...
  48. Sustainable Agriculture Research Elizabeth Langford, Patrick J Trail, Abram J Bicksler, Rick Burnette Abstract Smallholder farmers raising pigs in northern Thailand rely heavily on banana stalks as a fermented feed source, but struggle to reproduce banana plants fast enough to keep up with...
  49. Animal health Cattle Horses & Donkeys Other Livestock Pigs Poultry Rabbits Sheep & Goats
  50. Abstract, Researchgate, 1998 The effect of including a legume in sugarcane forage on milk yield was examined in 12 Holstein * zebu cows. Legumes were distributed in a switch-back design in the following treatments: sugarcane (A), sugarcane + urea (B) and sugarcane + Macroptilium atropurpureum cv....
  51. 2005-01-20 The best way to finish off your dream farm or garden is to balance it with a small livestock unit. Animal integration is Fundamental #10. It will create a low cost high quality fertilizer source as well as produce food to eat. Livestock properly managed will bring the tropical farmer higher...
  52. 2017-02-07 Successful pig raising factors 1.Good breed 2.Good food 3.Good house 4.Good management 5.Good disease prevention
  53. Program options Together we can create a better context for local livestock farmers to thrive and prosper. Here's how: PROGRAM FOR POULTRY AND PIG FARMERS Include FeedCalculator in your current programs and learn farmers how to make their own quality feed from local resources. We designed a...
  54. The site is devoted to gather a maximum of research and development institutions working on pig production and wild hogs in tropical regions, in order to promote research results. With a strong commitment to create a “Tropical Pig Network”, PigTrop website aims to be a collective platform to...
  55. 2014-02-26 Pastoralism is a livelihood whereby people depend upon herding domesticated livestock. In East Africa, pastoralists depend primarily upon cattle, sheep, donkeys, goats and camels— listed in order of least resilience as one moves into drier and more arid lowland areas. Pastoralists play an...
  56. 2015-01-20 Adaptable, tough and relatively cheap to keep, goats play an important role in food production systems in developing countries. These animals are also popular for their high-quality meat and milk, and can serve as a ‘bank account’ that can be drawn on when cash is needed. Appealingly laid out,...
  57. 2017-02-09 This presentation will look at the differences between relief, rehabilitation, and development. We will see some of the challenges involved in determining which one of those three interventions is needed in different situations and we will talk about what to consider when transitioning from...
  58. 2016-04-12 Small ruminants are of the order of animals which have a stomach with four complete cavities (rumen, reticulum, omasum , abomasums) , through which the food passes in digestion. The division includes sheep and goats. Some other in this order (ruminants) that are not small ruminants are cattle,...
  59. 2013-02-20