In countries experiencing intense population pressure, there is seldom enough land for pasture or for crops grown specifically for livestock. In many instances they are fed the locally available agricultural by-products and scavenged mature forage, which are usually deficient in minerals, energy and protein. Animals in these situations are not primarily producers but rather serve many purposes: insurance, mobile capital, a source of fuel, traction, a fertilizer factory, and status symbols. Unsophisticated but scientifically based research has been carried out in developing countries, primarily on farms, over the past few decades seeking to optimize the production of such animals from local resources.

Please note that the links listed below may lead to additional resources which have not yet been added to this collection.


  1. 2016-07-15 Since 2014, the ECHO Farm in North Ft. Myers, Florida has been upgrading and expanding its pastures using the managed, rotational, intensive grazing model. With paddocks sub-divided by electric fencing, cows and goats are moved regularly and systematically from intensively grazed plots to fresh,...
  2. 2008-07-20 Bone mealhas another use. You can overcome mineral deficiencies in cattle by making your own cattle lick or mineral block, using bonemeal as the source of phosphorous.
  3. 2016-11-01 Field days focusing on livestock production have been successfully used as a means to introduce and disseminate technologies. Training producers about improved management practices is greatly aided by supporting trainees to visit better off farmers. However, selection of farmers or producers to...
  4. 2016-03-02 Session: Livestock is the main source of livelihoods for pastoralist in Marsabit County with 80% of the population directly depending on them. Food for the hungry supported and established 13 livestock markets in Marsabit. The markets provided great platform where herders, traders, government and...
  5. 2017-02-09
  6. 2015-01-01 One of the newest additions to the ECHO Global Farm is the Natural Farming Pig System located in the Tropical Lowlands area. This component is based on the Natural Farming approach developed in East and Southeast Asia which focuses on harnessing the impact of beneficial microbes for enhancing...
  7. 2016-03-03 Session: Thisl talk will be about the history of Holistic Management in Laikipia since its start in 2010. It will describe the approach used, the tools, the preliminary results and the challenges that remain. The session shares the experience from Northern Kenya Conservancies and speaks of...
  8. 2015-02-15 In its simplest definition a forage is any plant material grazed or fed to livestock. However, a more specific definition that’s presented in this article focuses on plants (grasses and legumes) that are planted specifically to provide superior feed benefits to livestock due to: 1) higher protein...
  9. 2015-05-12
  10. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    2017-02-08 In marginal environments where strong crop-livestock interactions exist, inclusive and equitable access to finance, well-functioning land rental markets, and efficient provision of extension advisory services contribute significantly towards the shift to more sustainable land use management and...
  11. 2016-11-01 Africa Rising was a five-year project, funded by USAID, that sought to identify and promote solutions for for sustainableintenslfication of the mixed farming systems in the Ethiopian Highlands. The project worked closely with both research and development partner to develop and validate...
  12. 2016-03-01 Session: The Livestock to Markets Program(LTM) is a social enterprise owned by NRT through its business company called -NRT Trading company. LTM aims to commercialize livestock marketing among pastoralists by providing an assured, equitable and reliable market for good quality cattle in order to...
  13. Rating: 5.0 - 1 Vote
    1996-12-01 Amazon.com Description Goats play a vital role in the rural economy of many poor countries, and numerous projects have been established to encourage their development. But the extension workers employed on such projects are often untrained in goat production, and the only available textbooks are...
  14. 2015-02-23 ECHO's recent activity to integrate livestock more effectively includes revamping the farm's pastures and grazing approach. While for many years ECHO has demonstrated cut-and-carry forage feeding systems for goats, in early 2014 our interns and staff identified goals for minimizing the labor...
  15. 2016-07-11 Editors: ECHO will be hosting a three-day workshop in September at our Florida campus, on the topic of small-scale livestock production in the tropics (see the “Upcoming Events” section for details). Our Global Farm incorporates many animals, including ducks, rabbits, chickens, pigs, and goats—so...
  16. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    1996-01-19 Raising pigs on moringa leaves is a system developed by missionary Paul Ronk in Jeremie, Haiti.
  17. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    2010-04-01 People will be rewarded by intentionally being browsers. By eating a wide variety of foods, we will be more likely to take in a sufficient daily amount of all that we need for good health. In contrast, cultures that, for example, eat mainly rice or tortillas or bread made from one kind of grain...
  18. Rating: 4.0 - 1 Vote
    2002-07-20 The purpose of this article is to show that with strategic supplementation, using locally available resources (straw, maize stover, poor quality grass, etc.), small-scale farmers in the tropics can have productive ruminants that emit less methane (believed to contribute to global warming) and...
  19. 2015-05-12 How the Aloha House manages its livestock using Natural Farming techniques and effective microorganisms, Part I.
  20. 2016-03-02 Session: The pastoral areas of Kenya are characterised by poor access to quality livestock services. Consequently the pastoralists are forced to purchase sub-standard and/or counterfeit veterinary drugs - often from unqualified people - to meet their animal health needs. They also treat their...
  21. 1995-01-01 This book speaks to the challenges of small farm pig production. The two main themes of malnutrition and parasite control are dealt with in depth, utilizing very practical ideas and methods. The author repeatedly emphasizes the need to deal with these issues if the farmer is to be successful in...
  22. 2008-04-15 Amazon.com DescriptionHeifer International is pleased to present a new, revised edition of Raising Goats for Milk and Meat. This introductory handbook provides an experience-based training model on the basic care and management of dairy and meat goats. The new edition includes training...