FAO Field Manual :

Plants have two ways of reproduction, sexual by means of seeds, and asexually or vegetatively by means of vegetative tissue. Both ways occur in living plants in nature. In nature, some plants reproduce mainly vegetatively while others rely almost totally on sexual reproduction. For the plant breeder it is desirable to be able to manipulate sexual and vegetative reproduction (propagation) to fit into the tree improvement programme.

Genetically the two ways of reproduction differ. Seeds contain genes from the female parent (where we collect the seeds) and the male parent (which contribute the pollen and which is often unknown). Vegetative material is genetically identical to the mother plant from where it was collected. The present guide entirely deals with vegetative propagation.

There are four main uses of vegetative propagation in a Tree Breeding Programme:

  1. The establishment of clonal seed orchards.

  2. The establishment of clonal banks.

  3. The propagation of special breeding material, e.g. exceptional hybrids that are lost through sexual reproduction, sterile hybrids etc.

  4. Mass propagation of selected materials.

There are several ways of vegetative propagation. The three main types in forest tree propagation are grafting, air-layering and the use of cuttings. The three types are referred to as macropropagation, as alternative to micropropagation or tissue culture. Propagation by cuttings is the most convenient and cheapest method and usually preferred when possible. Air-layering is a variation of propagation by stem cuttings in which root formation is initiated before the plant part is separated from the mother tree. In grafting, the shoot (scion) of the desired tree is joined with a root (stock or root stock) of different genetic origin.

Which methods of propagation to be used in a particular situation is a matter of experience with the individual tree species plus the purpose and conditions of the propagation. The methodologies of vegetative propagation should be adapted to the individual plant species. The same method may work differently at a different time of the year, etc. 

 

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  1. 1983-01-01 What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing citrus from seed when that is possible? One obvious advantage is that it is much less labor intensive to simply sow citrus seeds and eliminate the grafting step. Another advantage is that the seedling will most likely be free from viruses that...
  2. 2000-03-20 Question from Chester Brinser (World Relief Nicaragua) . Reply by Danny Blank, nursery manager at ECHO.
  3. 2007-11-18 This manual was produced by Roots of Peace under USAID subcontract No. GS-10F- 0359M, Task Order #306-M-00-05-00515-00, Afghanistan Alternative Livelihoods Program for the Eastern Region. It was written by Ferenc Sandor of Roots of Peace, with support from Juan Estrada of DAI for the use by Roots...
  4. 2016-02-02 An explanation of what vegetable grafting is, considerations that should be made, and step-by-step methods graft vegetables
  5. 2011-07-20 Experience with tomato cuttings
  6. 2016-02-02 An introduction to fruit tree propagation and overview of various techniques such as air layering, budding, grafting, and topping.
  7. 1982-05-19 Judging by the response to comments about tropical fruit trees in the last E D Notes, many of you are including tropical fruit trees in you development efforts. I have used the FAO book Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees to answer several of your questions.
  8. 2018-11-25 The University of California, Davis has opened registration for Class IVof the African Plant Breeding AcademySMin collaboration with The African Union New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Agency, the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), The Alliance for a Green Revolution for Africa...
  9. Abstract, Journal of Vegetation Science, 2003 Harsh conditions in arid and semi-arid environments make seedling establishment rare. Plant recruitment in arid environments often occurs only in years with above average rainfall or in safe sites under the canopy of nurse plants that provide shelter...
  10. Plants have two ways of reproduction, sexual by means of seeds, and asexually or vegetatively by means of vegetative tissue. Both ways occur in living plants in nature. In nature, some plants reproduce mainly vegetatively while others rely almost totally on sexual reproduction. For the plant...
  11. 1983-01-01 In response to various questions from overseas, we have tracked down some answers that are of general interest to our readers. These have been published in past issues of ECHO Development Notes. This technical note reprints those in their entirety. It also adds a couple of helpful tables that...
  12. "Reflecting the severity of global food insecurity, over 60% of the East African population is considered malnourished, with many regions in a state of famine. There is broad agreement on the need to help small-scale farmers move from subsistence to sustainable and profitable farming by boosting...
  13. Protected Agriculture (PA) is defined as “modification of the natural environment to achieve optimal growth” (Jansen and Malter 1995) The definition of protected agricultural production includes “mulches, row covers, shade structures, greenhouses, etc. Any type of method or structure used to...
  14. "Agriculture and Horticulture are vital sciences as they suffice the very basic need of food for Human beings. Qualitative and quantitative food can essentially be produced from healthy plants which in turn are produced only when their seedlings/sapplings are vigorous and healthy. Nursery is...
  15. From FAO Field Manual : There are several ways of vegetative propagation. The three main types in forest tree propagation are grafting, air-layering and the use of cuttings. The three types are referred to as macropropagation, as alternative to micropropagation or tissue culture. Propagation by...
  16. Pollinationis the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. The goal of every living organism, including plants, is to create offspring for the next generation. One of the ways that plants can produce offspring is by making seeds. What is...
  17. 2017-08-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 32. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain high-quality food properties and are very good protein and energy sources on a daily per hectare basis of production (Frusciante et al. 2000). Potatoes are grown mostly in cool climate areas. In the tropics, they...
  18. 2017-08-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 32. Dr. Tapani Haapala Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain high-quality food properties and are very good protein and energy sources on a daily per hectare basis of production (Frusciante et al. 2000). Potatoes are grown mostly in cool climate areas. In the...
  19. This workshop will explore the methods and benefits of vegetable grafting, specifically for tomato, pepper, and eggplants. Plant propagation is the ability to multiply plant numbers while preserving plant characteristics or develop better characteristics. Vegetable grafting is a mechanism by...
  20. 2016-04-12 Plantains and several banana varieties are mainly propagated through vegetative means. The slow rate of sucker multiplication is one of the major constraints to plantain production The usual process of sucker removal and transplanting has been observed to be inadequate and encourage infection...
  21. 2017-02-08
  22. 2007-10-20 A pot irrigation system was used to water newly planted mango grafts. Instead of direct watering, water was poured into four cylindrical clay pots installed around the plant.
  23. 2003-02-01 This Manual is the second in a series of readable, well illustrated handbooks about propagating and planting tropical trees.The five Manuals have been designed to provide clear and concise information on how to select, grow, plant and care for tropical trees, in both moist and drier parts of the...
  24. Key Resource 1976-09-01 Amazon.com Description This book is divided into 2 parts. Part I, by R.J. Garner, deals with the establishment and equipment of the nursery, the pots and other containers, the various methods of propagation and with the transplanting of the young plants. This part is well illustrated. Part II is...
  25. Key Resource 1998-01-01 This book is divided into four parts - Part 1 explains what you need to keep a successful nursery. Part 2 describes propagation from seeds and Part 3 covers methods of vegetative propagation. Part 4 gives the best way to propagate 100 selected useful plants.
  26. 2007-05-24 Uploaded on May 24, 2007 Kath explains what needs to be considered when planting a grafted fruit tree
  27. Uploaded on Oct 12, 2010 Demonstration of terminal grafting method used to grow mango and other trees in one of Tree Aid's community tree nurseries in Burkina Faso, W. Africa. July 2008. In French with English subtitles. www.treeaid.org.uk
  28. 1993-11-01 This Manual is the first in a new series of readable, illustrated handbooks for propagating and planting tropical trees.The series is designed to provide clear and concise information on how to select, grow, plant and care for tropical trees. The Manuals are intended for anyone interested in...
  29. Royal Horticultural Society Air layering is a method of propagating new trees and shrubs from stems still attached to the parent plant. The stem is wrapped with damp moss to encourage roots to form. Air layering is an effective propagation method for some plants that do not root readily from...
  30. Texas A&M Extension Air layering is a useful method of producing roots on the stem of indoor landscape plants that have become “leggy” through the loss of their lower foliage. This method, believed to have been developed centuries ago by the Chinese, has been used successfully as a mean of...
  31. NC State Extension Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The...
  32. What is Plant Propagation? Multiplication of plants and preservation (maintaining) their unique qualities for human use Purposeful act of reproducing plants via sexual and asexual reproduction Sexual: seed germination, some variation, not always identical to parent plant
  33. Perennial plants can be propagated in vegetative or generative ways. Fruit and nut trees are usually propagated by vegetative means using grafting methods. For this, there are two types of grafting methods: budding and grafting. Both of them are used for the same purpose - to create a new plant...
  34. 2016-03-17 1990 video of grafting techniques
  35. Abstract - Botanical Journal of Scotland Three apparently disparate topics are brought together to focus on ways in which science and even technology have often been insulated from pressing human needs. A notable example is the 20th Century's down-grading of the value of tropical trees in...
  36. Abstract - Pennsylvania State University Stem cuttings of five tree species from dry and semi-arid woodlands (Acacia torti/is, Prosopis juliflora, Terminalia spinosa, Terminalia brownii and Albizia guachapele) and seven species from moist tropical forests (Cordia alliodora, Vochysia hondurensis,...
  37. For probably as long as people have lived in Africa, they have eaten culturally and traditionally important indigenous fruits such as baobab, desert date, black plum, and tamarind. Farmers have been able to enjoy the fruit of these plentiful wild trees without developing any knowledge of how to...
  38. Abstract -Journal of Experimental Botany While much recent science has focused on understanding and exploiting root traits as new opportunities for crop improvement, the use of rootstocks has enhanced productivity of woody perennial crops for centuries. Grafting of vegetable crops has developed...
  39. Abstract -World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology An increasing world population and rise in demand for tree products, especially wood, has increased the need to produce more timber through planting more forest with improved quality stock. Superior trees are likely to arise from several...
  40. Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case...
  41. Abstract - International Journal of Botany, 2010 Vegetative propagation techniques are increasingly being applied to the domestication of tropical tree species as a means of producing planting stock and capturing genetic variation. However, the level of knowledge of cost-effective for vegetative...
  42. AccessAgriculture Training Video Onion seedlings need a healthy, loose soil. Add well-aged manure or compost. In the rainy season you need to raise the seedbed so the onion roots will not rot. If you use quality seed, most of the seed will germinate and you need much less of it. Onion seedlings...
  43. Key Resource 2012-01-20 Plant Pathology, Third Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of plant pathology, incorporating important new developments in the field. The present volume also follows closely the organization and format of the Second Edition. It includes two new chapters, ""Plant Disease...
  44. Key Resource 1996-10-15 Use this book to identify, control, and prevent diseases and disorders of melons, watermelons, squash, cucumbers, and other cucurbits. Table of Contents Introduction; Cucurbit Diseases; Infectious Disorders; Noninfectious Disorders; Botany and Culture; Seed Production; Cultural Practices Part 1:...
  45. Key Resource 1990-01-01 This manual is intended to be a guide to the vegetable production training course for developing country specialists offered at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center. It is designed as well to be a resource book for extension subject matter specialists and vocational agriculture...
  46. Key Resource 2010-01-20 Cleome, spiderplant, Hibiscus sabdariffa, roselle, Sorghum bicolor, sorghum, Acanthosicyos horridus, nara, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Alstonia boonei, alstonia, Anogeissus leiocarpa, n'galama, Baillonella toxisperma, moabi, Ceiba pentandra, kapok tree, Celosia argentea, celosia, Curcuma longa,...
  47. Key Resource 1987-07-15 The most comprehensive wheat disease identification guide in print. Covers more than 100 diseases, disorders, and pests.
  48. Key Resource 1975-01-19 (Amazon.com Description from1999 4th edition) 2 copies Compendium of Soybean Diseases, 4th Edition combines the finest qualities of best-selling previous editions with updated and new sections, making it a thorough, authoritative and practical reference. Revisions to the 4th Edition include five...
  49. Key Resource 2007-01-20 The purpose of the Compendium of Brassica Diseases is to provide a thorough, authoritative, and practical reference guide for people engaged in diagnosing and managing disease problems in brassica crops destined for vegetable markets, seed, oil, and condiments the world over. Brassica, vegetable...
  50. Key Resource 1999-01-19 Then, PERMACOPIEA TWO; THE ENDEMIC, INDIGENOUS, & POLYNESIAN SPECIES of HAWAII, is the most important book for Hawaii. This would be the first place to identify the appropriate & sustaining plants for these islands. It includes information on 235 important plants from ‘A’ALI’I through...
  51. Growing plants in general and Jatropha curcas L. in particular requires knowledge and understanding of the environmental conditions these plants require to grow and thrive. Regarding the factors influencing plant growth, an understanding of soils probably is the most important one. In subtropical...
  52. This report will acquaint you with tissue culture methods, bring you abreast of developments in their application, and indicate the broad range of emerging business opportunities.
  53. 1985-01-01 Plant propagation is a fun, rewarding, and economical way to add shrubs to your yard or multiply your collection of houseplants. With step-by-step instructions for a variety of proven techniques, this comprehensive guide covers everything you need to know to successfully start your own plants....
  54. This book prvides information concerning the fundamental principles involved in plant propagation and serves as a manual that describes useful techniques for propagating plants.
  55. The book emphasizes the organization and reproduction of representatives of the plant kingdom and of the Kingdom Moera (bacteria and blue-green algae) and the Kingdom Myceteae (Fungi).
  56. 1977-01-19 Fred Briggs: Over a research career devoted to the genetics of resistance and the breeding and improvement of cereal grains, Briggs earned himself a reputation as a pioneer in the application of genetics to crop improvement. This status is due in large part to his development and advancement of a...
  57. 1989-01-19 Hallmarked as the most successful book of its kind, this remarkably thorough book covers all aspects of the propagation of plants - both sexual and asexual - with considerable attention given to human (vs natural) efforts to increase plant numbers. The latest applied techniques and theories of...
  58. This comprehensive book presents the basic concepts and applied techniques of plant cell and tissue culture. More and more, commercial plant breeding and development employs these methods to protect crops from weather, pests, and disease. Covering the history of in vitro breeding as well as...
  59. All aspects of the subject are covered and every method is clearly illustrated. Colour photographs and numerous line drawings enhance the very detailed text covering not only the history of plant propagation and a study of recent developments, but more specific instructions on techniques such as...
  60. Anyone intending to embark on the planting of tropical trees should read this manual which is concerned with the key choices and issues that lie between the propagation of good planting stock and its eventual planting and successful establishment. It highlights the need for good communicaiton,...

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