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FAO Field Manual :

Plants have two ways of reproduction, sexual by means of seeds, and asexually or vegetatively by means of vegetative tissue. Both ways occur in living plants in nature. In nature, some plants reproduce mainly vegetatively while others rely almost totally on sexual reproduction. For the plant breeder it is desirable to be able to manipulate sexual and vegetative reproduction (propagation) to fit into the tree improvement programme.

Genetically the two ways of reproduction differ. Seeds contain genes from the female parent (where we collect the seeds) and the male parent (which contribute the pollen and which is often unknown). Vegetative material is genetically identical to the mother plant from where it was collected. The present guide entirely deals with vegetative propagation.

There are four main uses of vegetative propagation in a Tree Breeding Programme:

  1. The establishment of clonal seed orchards.

  2. The establishment of clonal banks.

  3. The propagation of special breeding material, e.g. exceptional hybrids that are lost through sexual reproduction, sterile hybrids etc.

  4. Mass propagation of selected materials.

There are several ways of vegetative propagation. The three main types in forest tree propagation are grafting, air-layering and the use of cuttings. The three types are referred to as macropropagation, as alternative to micropropagation or tissue culture. Propagation by cuttings is the most convenient and cheapest method and usually preferred when possible. Air-layering is a variation of propagation by stem cuttings in which root formation is initiated before the plant part is separated from the mother tree. In grafting, the shoot (scion) of the desired tree is joined with a root (stock or root stock) of different genetic origin.

Which methods of propagation to be used in a particular situation is a matter of experience with the individual tree species plus the purpose and conditions of the propagation. The methodologies of vegetative propagation should be adapted to the individual plant species. The same method may work differently at a different time of the year, etc. 

 

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  1. 1983-01-01 What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing citrus from seed when that is possible? One obvious advantage is that it is much less labor intensive to simply sow citrus seeds and eliminate the grafting step. Another advantage is that the seedling will most likely be free from viruses that...
  2. Rating: 2.0 - 1 Vote
    2000-03-20 Question from Chester Brinser (World Relief Nicaragua) . Reply by Danny Blank, nursery manager at ECHO.
  3. 2007-11-18 This manual was produced by Roots of Peace under USAID subcontract No. GS-10F- 0359M, Task Order #306-M-00-05-00515-00, Afghanistan Alternative Livelihoods Program for the Eastern Region. It was written by Ferenc Sandor of Roots of Peace, with support from Juan Estrada of DAI for the use by Roots...
  4. 2016-02-02 An explanation of what vegetable grafting is, considerations that should be made, and step-by-step methods graft vegetables
  5. Rating: 1.0 - 1 Vote
    2011-07-20 Experience with tomato cuttings
  6. 2016-02-02 An introduction to fruit tree propagation and overview of various techniques such as air layering, budding, grafting, and topping.
  7. 1982-05-19 Judging by the response to comments about tropical fruit trees in the last E D Notes, many of you are including tropical fruit trees in you development efforts. I have used the FAO book Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees to answer several of your questions.
  8. 2018-11-25 The University of California, Davis has opened registration for Class IVof the African Plant Breeding AcademySMin collaboration with The African Union New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Agency, the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), The Alliance for a Green Revolution for Africa...
  9. Abstract, Journal of Vegetation Science, 2003 Harsh conditions in arid and semi-arid environments make seedling establishment rare. Plant recruitment in arid environments often occurs only in years with above average rainfall or in safe sites under the canopy of nurse plants that provide shelter...
  10. Plants have two ways of reproduction, sexual by means of seeds, and asexually or vegetatively by means of vegetative tissue. Both ways occur in living plants in nature. In nature, some plants reproduce mainly vegetatively while others rely almost totally on sexual reproduction. For the plant...
  11. 1983-01-01 In response to various questions from overseas, we have tracked down some answers that are of general interest to our readers. These have been published in past issues of ECHO Development Notes. This technical note reprints those in their entirety. It also adds a couple of helpful tables that...
  12. 2017-08-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 32. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain high-quality food properties and are very good protein and energy sources on a daily per hectare basis of production (Frusciante et al. 2000). Potatoes are grown mostly in cool climate areas. In the tropics, they...
  13. 2017-08-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 32. Dr. Tapani Haapala Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain high-quality food properties and are very good protein and energy sources on a daily per hectare basis of production (Frusciante et al. 2000). Potatoes are grown mostly in cool climate areas. In the...
  14. This workshop will explore the methods and benefits of vegetable grafting, specifically for tomato, pepper, and eggplants. Plant propagation is the ability to multiply plant numbers while preserving plant characteristics or develop better characteristics. Vegetable grafting is a mechanism by...
  15. 2016-04-12 Plantains and several banana varieties are mainly propagated through vegetative means. The slow rate of sucker multiplication is one of the major constraints to plantain production The usual process of sucker removal and transplanting has been observed to be inadequate and encourage infection...
  16. 2017-02-08
  17. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    2007-10-20 A pot irrigation system was used to water newly planted mango grafts. Instead of direct watering, water was poured into four cylindrical clay pots installed around the plant.
  18. 2003-02-01 This Manual is the second in a series of readable, well illustrated handbooks about propagating and planting tropical trees.The five Manuals have been designed to provide clear and concise information on how to select, grow, plant and care for tropical trees, in both moist and drier parts of the...
  19. 1976-09-01 Amazon.com Description This book is divided into 2 parts. Part I, by R.J. Garner, deals with the establishment and equipment of the nursery, the pots and other containers, the various methods of propagation and with the transplanting of the young plants. This part is well illustrated. Part II is...
  20. From FAO Field Manual : There are several ways of vegetative propagation. The three main types in forest tree propagation are grafting, air-layering and the use of cuttings. The three types are referred to as macropropagation, as alternative to micropropagation or tissue culture. Propagation by...
  21. 2007-05-24 Uploaded on May 24, 2007 Kath explains what needs to be considered when planting a grafted fruit tree
  22. Uploaded on Oct 12, 2010 Demonstration of terminal grafting method used to grow mango and other trees in one of Tree Aid's community tree nurseries in Burkina Faso, W. Africa. July 2008. In French with English subtitles. www.treeaid.org.uk
  23. 1993-11-01 This Manual is the first in a new series of readable, illustrated handbooks for propagating and planting tropical trees.The series is designed to provide clear and concise information on how to select, grow, plant and care for tropical trees. The Manuals are intended for anyone interested in...
  24. Royal Horticultural Society Air layering is a method of propagating new trees and shrubs from stems still attached to the parent plant. The stem is wrapped with damp moss to encourage roots to form. Air layering is an effective propagation method for some plants that do not root readily from...
  25. Texas A&M Extension Air layering is a useful method of producing roots on the stem of indoor landscape plants that have become “leggy” through the loss of their lower foliage. This method, believed to have been developed centuries ago by the Chinese, has been used successfully as a mean of...
  26. NC State Extension Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The...
  27. What is Plant Propagation? Multiplication of plants and preservation (maintaining) their unique qualities for human use Purposeful act of reproducing plants via sexual and asexual reproduction Sexual: seed germination, some variation, not always identical to parent plant
  28. Perennial plants can be propagated in vegetative or generative ways. Fruit and nut trees are usually propagated by vegetative means using grafting methods. For this, there are two types of grafting methods: budding and grafting. Both of them are used for the same purpose - to create a new plant...
  29. 2016-03-17 1990 video of grafting techniques
  30. Abstract - Botanical Journal of Scotland Three apparently disparate topics are brought together to focus on ways in which science and even technology have often been insulated from pressing human needs. A notable example is the 20th Century's down-grading of the value of tropical trees in...
  31. Abstract - Pennsylvania State University Stem cuttings of five tree species from dry and semi-arid woodlands (Acacia torti/is, Prosopis juliflora, Terminalia spinosa, Terminalia brownii and Albizia guachapele) and seven species from moist tropical forests (Cordia alliodora, Vochysia hondurensis,...
  32. For probably as long as people have lived in Africa, they have eaten culturally and traditionally important indigenous fruits such as baobab, desert date, black plum, and tamarind. Farmers have been able to enjoy the fruit of these plentiful wild trees without developing any knowledge of how to...
  33. Abstract -Journal of Experimental Botany While much recent science has focused on understanding and exploiting root traits as new opportunities for crop improvement, the use of rootstocks has enhanced productivity of woody perennial crops for centuries. Grafting of vegetable crops has developed...
  34. Abstract -World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology An increasing world population and rise in demand for tree products, especially wood, has increased the need to produce more timber through planting more forest with improved quality stock. Superior trees are likely to arise from several...
  35. Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case...
  36. Abstract - International Journal of Botany, 2010 Vegetative propagation techniques are increasingly being applied to the domestication of tropical tree species as a means of producing planting stock and capturing genetic variation. However, the level of knowledge of cost-effective for vegetative...
  37. AccessAgriculture Training Video Onion seedlings need a healthy, loose soil. Add well-aged manure or compost. In the rainy season you need to raise the seedbed so the onion roots will not rot. If you use quality seed, most of the seed will germinate and you need much less of it. Onion seedlings...
  38. "Agriculture and Horticulture are vital sciences as they suffice the very basic need of food for Human beings. Qualitative and quantitative food can essentially be produced from healthy plants which in turn are produced only when their seedlings/sapplings are vigorous and healthy. Nursery is...
  39. Growing plants in general and Jatropha curcas L. in particular requires knowledge and understanding of the environmental conditions these plants require to grow and thrive. Regarding the factors influencing plant growth, an understanding of soils probably is the most important one. In subtropical...
  40. "Reflecting the severity of global food insecurity, over 60% of the East African population is considered malnourished, with many regions in a state of famine. There is broad agreement on the need to help small-scale farmers move from subsistence to sustainable and profitable farming by boosting...
  41. Protected Agriculture (PA) is defined as “modification of the natural environment to achieve optimal growth” (Jansen and Malter 1995) The definition of protected agricultural production includes “mulches, row covers, shade structures, greenhouses, etc. Any type of method or structure used to...

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