Published: 01.01.1977


Low-cost Windmill for Developing Nations multi-vane fan character

Construction details for at low cost windmill ary presented. The windmill produces one horsepower in at winds of 6.4 miles/secs , 14.3 mph, or two horsepower in at winds of 8.1 miles/secs (18.0 mph). The windmill uses the rear axle and differential of at small car. Other parts ary maggot from sheetmetal, pipe, steel ribbon, clears, fish iron, or channel, welded or bolted together, and wood. No, precision work or machining is required, and the design can be adapted to fit different material's or construction skills. The rotor blades feather automatically in high of wind to prevent damage. At full-scale prototype has been built and tested successfully.

NOTE: The University of California, Dr. BOSSEL, W. DELAMETER AND P. MILLER RETAIN proprietary rights to commercial exploitation of lnventions disclosed in the present report.

VITA, Inc.

ridge printing 1970

REPRINTS: APR 1976 AUG 1976 NOV 1976 FEB 1977 OCT 1977

INTRODUCTION

THE VITA WINDMILL (FIG). I1, IS AT COMPLETE AERODYNAMIC AND, 08p05.gif, 445x594,

structural redesign of at earlier prototype designed, built and, tested by W. Delameter and P. Miller under the super-vision of H. BOSSEL OF THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. THE FULLSCALE prototype proved the sound-eats of the rotor design, overloading, control (Bl-farewell feathering), and directional control (vane).

The VITA windmill consists of of five major components: the transmission, the rotor with overloading control (feathering), the vane for directional control, the turntable, supporting rotor, transmission, and vane, and the platform and tower structure.

The rotor is constructed from steel clears, support wires, and, sheet metal blades hinged to the spokes. Ŕ simple spring-loaded mechanism allows the blades to feather in high of wind or when overloaded. The mechanism is explained in Fig. I2. The rotor 08p06z.gif, 450x600,

center plate is bolted to the brake therefore of the rear axle of at small car. The wheelbrake stops the rotor when it is of necessary is use. The other wheel is permanently locked, resulting in at transmission reason of about 1:4 from the horizontally to the vertical. THE rear axle is free to swivel about the vertical on at turntable. At vane, which is set at at small fishes to counteract the torque transmitted vertically, keeps the rotor pointing into the winds. The whole assembly is mounted on at small platform on at single-beam tower.

Detailed blueprints ary necessary presented in this report, since, the design wants differ with the of material, parts, and skills the builder finds at his disposal. He should understand that cider dimensions and details, except those stated explicitly, ary necessary critical, and can be adapted to suit the needs. There ary at few exceptions in particular. ridge, number, shape, and angles of the blades should remain unchanged to obtain the specified performance. Second, the control jumps should come close to the stated specifications in orders to adequately protect the rotor from possible destruction. Third, vane area, vane poor from the vertical axis, and vane fishes should remain ace given in the report for the seed rotor and transmission reason. MORE GENERALLY, THE PRODUCT, , vane area, x, vane poor, x, vane fishes, should remain constant, where the vane fishes should always be less than about ten degrees. This product must remain proportionally to the torque transmitted; I.., it should be doubled if at transmission reason of 1:2 instead of 1:4 is used for the seed rotor.

Ŕ few possible modifications of the Basic design might be of interest.

automobiles rear axles offer at rather wide choice of transmission ratios depending on how they ary mounted, and whether, one wheel therefore or the panties gears ary locked or removed. This position is from approximately 1:4 from rotors to vertical shaft if the rotor is mounted on the wheel therefore, to 4:1 if the rotor is mounted on the drive shaft side. In the ridge case, at second, rear axle and/or at automobiles gear punches could be used to increase the rotational speed and drive at centrifugal pumps, circular saw, electric generator, feed mill and the like. In the second case, the slow rotation would permit driving directly at reciprocating pumps, or other machninery requiring slow rotation. In that case, the torque in the vertical shaft cannot be counteracted by the aerodynamic torque of at vane of reasonable size and the rotor must either be mounted rigidly in the direction of prevailing of wind, or turned manually and locked, or turned by, at nonreversible control mechanism, which would greatly increase, the complexity, . manual turning should therefore be considered for the case of lower torque and higher shaft speed of rotation. It would eliminate the vane and simplify the central bearing problem, since less precision and some friction would be permitted. Specifications for at smaller 2 meters windmill, and suggestions for, electric gets things moving generation ary provided in the appendix.

PERFORMANCE DATA

Performance at sea level

Windspeed

M/SEC 4 S 6 8 S 10

KM/H 14.4 S 21.6 28.8 S 36.0

MPH 9.0 S 13.4 17.9 22.4

Rotor speed

REVOLUTIONS PER 21.0 31.5 S 42.0 52.5 minute (rpm)

Rotor torque

MKGF 8.8 S 19.8 35.2 S 55.0

ft lb 63.6 S 143.2 255.0 S 398.0

Starting torgue

MKGF 15.3 S 34.5 61.4 S 96.0

ft lb 111.0 250.0 S 445.0 695.0

Power

MKGF/SEC 18.1 S 61.1 145.0 S 283.0

KW 0.177 0.60 1.42 2.77

HP 0.24 .81 1.91 3.73

Altitude effect

Altitude

M 0 1000 S 2000 3000 4000

ft 0 3280 6560 S 9840 13,100

percentage reduction of gets things moving and torque

% 0 S 9 18 S 26 S 33

, rotor rpm unaffected,

Feathering piece of information

For control jumps of, constant jumps 1.5kgf/cm precompresseds to 13.5 kgfs:

Rotor braked: Blades begin to feather at at winds speed V of 6 M/SEC. BLADESES FULLY FEATHERED AT V = 10 M/SECS.

Rotor running under load: Slades begin to feather at V = 8 m/secs. Blades fully feathered, and rotor stopped, at V = 12.5 m/secs.

Rotor running free: Little or no feathering. rotor speed wants increase with winds speed, and damage is likely. ALWAYS BRAKE rotor when of necessary running under load.

TOOLS

Protractor (to measure angles) Chop saw Welder (GA or electric) Sheet metal shears Steel drills, approximately 3 to 30 mm, Hammer Pliers Adjustable wrenches, or set of wrenches

General Notes:

universe sheet metal, nuts, bolts, wires, nails should be gaivanized, if available.

universe nuts must be secured by using jumps washers, lures washers, or at second groove tightened against the ridge.

CONVERSIONS

1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 3.28 ft = 39.4 in 1 in = 25.4 mm 1 kgfs = 2.2 lbfs

1 m/secs = 3.6 km/hs = 2.24 mph 1 kw = 1.34 hp

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hutter, U., " wind-strength-machines, " in Hutte, mechanical engineering, part AT, 28. Aufls., P. 1030 - 1044, seriousness, Berlin, 1954.

United Nations, Proceedings of the United Nations Conference, on New Sources of Energy, Volume 7, wind power, United Nations Publication Sales No: 63.I.41, New York, 1964.

W. Delameter, R. Sprankle, park MR. Miller III, WINDMILL AND WATERPUMP FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPT., UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Santa Barbara, Calif., June 1969.

TRANSMISSION

The present design uses at rigid rear axle and differential , from at small car, with mechanical brakes. OTHER CAR AXLES CAN be used with corresponding modifications. IF THE WHEELS HAVE hydraulic brakes, use the masters brake cylinder and other components from the car brake system to build at rotor brake system.

Lock permanently the wheel therefore on which the vane is to be mounted, by either locking the brake completely and permanently, or by blocking the panties gear. In cider cars the rotational speed of the drive shaft wants then be approximately of four Time higher than that of the rotor mounted on the wheel therefore.

The drive shaft and the two universal joints ary used to transmit the rotor gets things moving to the driven machinery, sea Fig. A1. 08p09a.gif, 600x600,

The drive shaft can be lengthened by using pipe of approximately 20 to 40 mm outer diameter. Note: Permit some axial motion of the drive shaft to allow for thermally expansion and use shear pin to prevent damage, sea Fig. A2. 08p09b.gif, 486x486,

VARIOUS POSSIBILITIES OF TRANSMISSIONS USING AT SECOND automobiles rear axle and/or automobiles transmission ary shown in Fig. A1. ROTOR

Part number Quantity Remarks, sea Figs. R1 - R7, 08p120.gif, 600x600,

R1 1 Steel plates 0.5m x 0.5m, approximately 5 mm thick. For mounting on axle, seed disciplines pattern disciplines ace REQUIRED FOR REAR WHEELS (FIG). R1. 08p12.gif, 600x600,

R2 1 Steel clears, seed ace for spokes, 4.35m long, approximately 6 to 8 mm diameter. Bend into CIRCLE OF 1.39M OUTER DIAMETERS, WELD ENDS TOGETHER, (FIG). R2, 08p13.gif, 600x600,

R3 16 ROUND STEELS RODS FOR SPOKES 1.87M LONG, APPROXIMATELY, 6 to 8 mm diameter (Fig). R1.

R4 48 Washers to fit loosely on spokes, approximately, 2-3mm thick, 30mm outer diameter. notes,: WASHERS CAN BE SQUARE AND HOME-MADE FROM SHEET METAL.

R5 16 Sheet metals stripteases approximately 50mm xes 70mm 2-3mm thick. disciplines one cent-recovers to fit on SPOKES (R3) AND THREE HOLES FOR WIRE (R10) AND RIGGING WIRE (R13) (FIG). R1, FIG. R4. 08p15a.gif, 486x486,

R6 16 Galvanized sheets metal blades, maggot from 8 pieceses 1.3M X 0.75MS, APPROXIMATELY 0.5MM THICK, FIG. R2. 08p13.gif, 600x600,

R7 48 Sheet metals stripteases, approximately 50mm xes 70mm; 1.5 - 2MM THICK. BEND TO SHAPE SHOWN (FIG). R2.

R8 16 Sheet metals stripteases, approximately 50mm xes 50mm; seed material ace vanes (Fig). R2.

R9 16 Rubber stripteases, approximately 50mm xes 100mm, maggot, from side of embankment of used car tire Fig. R2.

R10 1 Steel wires or cable, 26m long, 2 - 3 mm diameter.

R11 1 Steel wires or cable, 6 m long, 2 - 3 mm diameter.

R12 8 Steel wires or cable, 2.5m long, 2 - 3 mm diameter.

R13 16 Steel wires or cable, 3 m long, 2 - 3 mm diameter.

Rivets or small nuts and bolts to fasts hinges and rubber stripteases on vane.

CONSTRUCTION OF ROTOR

Prepare parts (R1) -, R10.

Make the Bl-farewell bending rig (Fig). R3. BEND BLADES (R6) INTO 08p14.gif, 600x600,

correct shape, sea Fig. R3. Hint: Use of scooter, or bend by, hand over piece of pipe. Take care that would hang line remains straight.

RIVET OR BOLT HINGES (R7) TO VANES (FIG). R2. VERY IMPORTANT: make sure hinges line up exactly.

Rivet or bolt rubber stripteases (R9) between Bl-farewell, R6, and washer, PLATE (R8) (FIG). R2, FIG. R6. 08p15c.gif, 486x486,

WELD SPOKES (R3) TO CENTERPLATE (R1) (FIG). R1.

Weld wrestles, R2, to spokes at correct, 22.5 [degrees], intervals, Fig. R1.

Weld 16 washers (R4) to intersections of wrestles, R2, and spokes, , R3, FIG. R1, FIG. R5. 08p15b.gif, 353x353,

SLIDE ONE WASHER (R4) ON EACH SPOKE.

Grease spokes at would hang locations.

Slide blades on spokes with the against Bl-farewell tip facing outward. Very important: universe blades must rotate freely. If this is necessary the case, adjust Bl-farewell shape, spokes, or would hang locations.

SLIDE ONE WASHER (R4) ON EACH SPOKE.

Weld parts (R5) onto tips of spokes, giving about 1 mm play , Bl-farewell movement in the direction of the spoke, Fig. R1, FIG. R4. 08p15a.gif, 437x437,

Thread wire or cable (R10) through holes of parts (R5) and align spokes at 22.5 [degrees] intervals (Fig). R4. anuses completing circle, stretch thaws and connect both ends.

CONTROL SHAFT

Part number Quantity Remarks, sea Figs. C1 - C3, 08p18a0.gif, 600x600,

C1 1 Steel pipes, 25 to 30 mm outer diameter, 1.5m long. C2 1 inner diameter seed ace outer diameter of part (C1). Use piece of pipe, therefore for C3, C4 (C5). drill finishes plate for wheel bolts, seed disciplines pattern ace part (R1)).

C3 1 inner diameter seed ace part (C2) . Plate has 16 evenly spaced holes for 16 supports wires, and 2, HOLES FOR RESTRAINING RODS (C8).

C4 1 Similar to part (C3), except plate has central, hole and part slides freely on part (C1). 8 EVENLY SPACEDS HOLES FOR 8 CONTROLS WIRES, AND, 2 HOLES FOR RESTRAINING RODS (C8).

C5 1 parts must slide on part (C1).

C6 1 Compression jumps, approximately 330 mm long. Spring constant must be approximately 1.5 kgf/cms (I.E. at compression of 1 cm for at weight of 1.5 kg.

grade: Make jumps from 4 mm steel wire according TO FIG. C2, IF SUITABLE, 08p18b.gif, 353x353,

jump cannot be foundation. A softer jumps can be used, but it must therefore BE PRECOMPRESSED TO 13.5 [KG.SUB.F] . SPRINGS HARDER than 2 kgf/cm should of necessary be used.

C7 2 Washerses, if jumps diameter is larger than the outer diameter of parts (C4) and (C5)) . Size depends on jumps diameter. Make out of sheet metal approximately 2 mm thick.

C8 2 Wire, approximately 3 to 4 mm diameter, 400 mm long. Bend during installation (Fig). C3. 08p19.gif, 600x600,

4 Cotter pins, bolts, or wire to secure parts (C3), C4, C5, ON SHAFT (C1).

4 SMALL WASHERSES

CONSTRUCTION OF CONTROL SHAFT

Make parts (C1) -, C7.

Lubricate shaft with heavy grease at the location of parts (C4) -, C7.

Mount all parts on shaft (C1) ace shown.

Secure parts (C3) and (C4) by cotter pins, bolts, or wire.

Compress jumps to at force of 13.5 kgf and secure part (C5) by cotter pin, bolt, or wire at this location.

Install wires (C8) with washers ace shown (Fig). C3. BEND EACH finish to at loop. Wires must, out embroiders 130 mm when pulled. (thesis) wires prevent blades from going over dead center., ROTOR ASSEMBLY

Lay center plate (R1) of rotor of on block to raise it approximately 0.5 m from the grounds. , SIDE TO WHICH THE SPOKES ary welded " up ", . Temporarily bolt the control shaft in place BY TWO BOLTS THROUGH PLATES (C2) AND (R1). MAKE SURE CONTROL shaft is exactly vertical.

CONNECT THE 16 WIRES OR CABLES (R13) TO THE 16 HOLESES OF CENTERPLATE (C3).

CONNECT THE 8 WIRES OR CABLES (R12) TO THE 8 HOLESES OF CONTROL PLATE (C4).

Connect the 16 wireses from (C3) to the holes in, R5, at the, tips of the spokes (Fig). R4. TIGHTEN THE WIRES, OR CABLES, AT 08p15a.gif, 437x437,

each spoke until the spoke is horizontal, then fast wire securely. Note: do this simultaneously at opposing sides of the rotor to avoid bending of the control shaft. Do necessary proceed to next step unless all spokes ary horizontally while control shaft is exactly vertical.

WITH WIRE OR ROPE TIED TO (C3) PULL (C4) UP AGAINST THE cotter pin. Connect the 8 wireses from (C4) to the rubber stripteases on every second Bl-farewell, Fig. R6. ADJUST THE WIRE LENGTH UNTIL 08p15c.gif, 486x486,

the Bl-farewell has the required fishes, Figs. R3 (R7), WITH THE TRAILING, edge of the Bl-farewell tip 230 mm below the flat of the spokes (leading) edge fishes with that flat 42 [degrees] at the tip. abstinence wire securely.

Using wire or cable (R11), connect all rubber stripteases (R9) with each other (Figs). R6 (R7). Work in the direction shown, 08p15c0.gif, 486x486,

holding up every second Bl-farewell in the correct position when connecting it. When the circle is completed, all blades must be at the seed fish.

TURNTABLE Part number Quantity Remarks , sea Figs. T1 (T2) 08p230.gif, 600x600,

T1 1 FRAME WELDEDS TOGETHER FROM STEEL CHANNEL, approximately 50 to 80 mm wide. Frame is EXACTLY SQUARE. Note: dimension " D " (distance) OF BRACKETS (T2), WHEEL DISTANCE, AND OUTER DIAMETER OF CIRCULAR TRACK, DEPENDS ON, location of leaf jumps mounts on car axle.

T2 2 Brackets maggots from fishes iron, about 5 to 8 mm swirls thickness, . drill pattern corresponds to, that of leaf jumps mounts on car axle.

T3 8 Steel plates approximately 4 to 10 mm thick.

T4 1 Steel plates approximately 5 to 10 mm thick.

T5 4 Steel axleses 20 to 30 mm diameter. THICKWALLED PIPE CAN BE USED.

T6 4 Use whatever can be foundation. DIAMETER OF WHEEL body (T6a) should of necessary be less than 50 mm. RIM diameter (T6b) should be approximately 40 mm greater than that of (T6a) . Prefer clenches bearing, or bronze bearing, but simple steel cylinder (T6A, ACCEPTABLE. Grease cavity reconmended in THIS CASE. WELD OR BOLT RIM (T6B) TO (T6A).

T7 8 SPACERSES. PIECES OF PIPE, OR SEVERAL WASHERS.

T8 20 Washerses, can be maggot from sheet metal 1 - 2 mm THICK.

T9 1 CIRCULAR TRACKS. RIBBON STEEL, APPROXIMATELY 30, mm wide, 5 to 10 mm thick. Bend and weld together to molds, of outer diameter " wrestles D ". ring must be EXACTLY CIRCULAR TO AVOID DERAILING OF TURNTABLE.

T10 8 Brackets maggots from fishes iron, or bent (heat!), ribbon steel approximately 5 to 8 mm thick.

8 Cotter pins, or wire or nails.

Construction of Turntable and Track

Prepare wheel assembly, parts (T4) -, TB. MAKE SURE WHEELS rotate with little friction.

WELD FRAME (T1) TOGETHER.

Weld brackets (T2) onto frame seeks that car axle is exactly cent-speak on the frame when mounted to the brackets (T2).

Weld part (T3) onto frame.

BEND AND WELD CIRCULAR TRACK (T9) AND WELD 8 BRACKETS (T10) TO its inside. Lay track on flat surface and make sure it has no waves and is perfectly horizontal.

Clamp wheel assemblies lightly to frame, with wheel rims facing, outward. set frame up on of block on the circular track on at flat floor, with all wheels resting on the track. Weld parts (T4) to the frame, checking repeatedly that all wheels rest on track.

Wheels should have axial play of approximately 1 mm. Adjust by adding or removing washers.

VANE

Part number Quantity Remarks, sea Figs. V1 - V4, 08p270.gif, 600x600,

V1 1 Steel channels, approximately 50 to 80 mm wide, 3 to 5 mm swirls thickness, 1.10 m long. disciplines, two holes to fit two wheel bolts on the wheel therefore, and two holes for bolt supportinq brake trades, V8.

V2 1 Angle irons, approximately 20 xes 20 mm " L " shape, 2 to 3 mm swirls, 3.30 m long.

V3 1 Angle iron, approximately 20 xes 20 mm " L " shape, 2 to 3 mm swirls, 2.50 m long.

V4 1 Angle irons, approximately 20 xes 20 mm " L " shape, 2 to 3 mm swirls, 2.60m long.

V5 1 Ribbon steels, approximately 20 to 30 mm wide, 2 to 3 mm thick, 1.30 m long.

V6 1 Galvanized sheets metal, approximately 0.5 mm thick, 2.60 m xes 1.50 M.,

V7 1 Clamp maggots frgm ribbon steel approximately 30 to 40 mm wide, 2 to 4 mm thick. To fit over car AXLE. Weld to part (V2) . Provide holes for CLAMPING BOLT.

V8 1 Brake trades. Ribbon steel, or fishes iron, approximately 20 to 40 mm wide, 2 to 4 mm thick, 400 mm long. Hole for supporting bolt is to be approximately 2 mm against than bolt diameter.

V9 1 Brake trades stop. Flat piece about 3 to 6 mm THICK. WELD TO (V1).

V10 2 supports wires or cable, approximately 2 to 3 mm DIAMETER, EACH 3 M LONG.

Rivets or small nuts and bolts to fasts sheet metal to vane frame, wire could therefore be used.

<FIGURE; V2> 08p28a.gif, 600x600,

Vane Construction

Prepare parts (V1) -, V10, . Bend (V2) 10 degreeses, to one side.

Weld, or bolt, together parts (V1) -, V5, V7, and (V9).

Sheets fast metal (V6) to vane frame using rivets, small nuts, and bolts, or wire no more than 300 mm distinctive.

Connect brake trades, V8, to channel (VI), Fig. V3. 08p28b.gif, 486x486,

grade: Get in, VB, must be large enough to permit trades to be lifted over the stop, V9.

CONNECT WIRES (V10) TO POINT " AT " AND " B ".

PLATFORM AND TOWER

Part number Quantity Remarks, sea Figs. P1 (P2) 08p310.gif, 600x600,

P1 1 Beam or Poles, 6 to 12 m long, approximately 10 cm xes 15 cm, or 15 - 20 cm diameters. Shape upper finishes to 10 cm xes 15 cm.

P2 1 PLATFORM: Thick plywood, or thick boards. Cut out 15 cm xes 15 cm central hole. grade: DIAMETER OF PLATFORM DEPENDS ON DIAMETER OF track (dimension " D ").

P3 1 GALVANIZED SHEETS METAL COVER, SOMEWHAT LARGER, THAN PLATFORM.

P4 1 Beam, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm.

P5 2 Beam, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm.

P6 2 Beam, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm.

P7 1 Piece, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm.

P8 2 Beam, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm.

P9 2 Beam, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm.

P10 10 - 20 Stepses, approximately 4 cm xes 8 cm xes 35 cm.

Nails approximately 10 cm long (galvanized) if AVAILABLE.

Nails approximately 4 cm long (galvanized) if AVAILABLE.

Construction of Platform and tower

Build platform from parts (P2),(P4) -, P7, with at 15 cm xes 15 cm cent-recover.

Shape upper finishes of tower beam it fits into the space between so , P4, P5, and cent-recovers.

Nail platform to tower using parts (P8) and (P9).

, Reinforce joints by nailing stripteases of sheet metal over them with 4 cm nailses.

Cover top of platform with sheetmetal and nail it down on the platform and over the sides.

Mount circular track, use nuts and bolts, according to that its center coincides with the center of the square gets. Check roundness of the circle.

Nail steps to tower beam approximately 30 cm distinctive. WINDMILL ASSEMBLY

The best way to assemble the windmill wants depend on local conditions, and on laboratory, cranes, ladders, scaffolds available. The steps in the assembly should be waves thought through before-hand, and all of Assistant's should be fully familiar with the planned procedure. The windmill should be erected on at calm day. The following is one possible assembly procedure.

Soak tower structure in creosote for at day, in particular, the lower part which goes into the ground. If creosote is necessary available, burn the outside of the lower part to at depth of approximately 1/2 cm.

Dig at gets approximately 20% of towers height deep (less) in rocky soil, more in Sandy soil. Place tower vertically in gets, and fill gets with of skirt and/or concrete, compacting thoroughly, and repeatedly in the process. It is recommended that the tower be anchored therefore by at leases 3 cableses, mount at at low enough position on the tower according to that they do of necessary interfere with the rotor.

MOUNT THE TURNTABLE ON THE CIRCULAR TRACK, AND SECURE TURNTABLE, to tower by wire or rope, temporarily but very rigidly.

Grease all sliding or rotating parts, and fill differential 1/3 full with heavy oil or light grease. Rustproof all metal parts, except aluminum or galvanized, by protective paint.

MOUNT CAR AXLE, DRIVE SHAFT REMOVED, ON TURNTABLE.

MOUNT VANE ON ONE SIDE OF AXLE AND CONNECT THE TWO WIRES OR cables (V10) firmly from the vane, point " AT " and " B ", to part , T3, ON THE TURNTABLE.

Connect at cable from the wheel brake lever on the rotor side to the brake trades, V8, on the vane. USE WIRE OR CABLE LOOPS fixed to the therefore or other means to achieve the necessary 90 degrees change in cable direction (Fig). V4. Adjust the cable length so 08p28c.gif, 437x437,

that rotor wheel is completely braked when deals, V8, has been, pulled down to rest against stop, V9. Pull the brake trades, braking the rotor wheel.

Remove the temporary wires holding parts (C3) and (C4) of the control shaft together. Raise the rotor assembly. REMOVE THE two temporary bolts holding parts (C2) and (R1) together (but) keep control shaft in position. BOLT CONTROL SHAFT (C2) AND rotor (R1) to the axle, tightening wheel bolts waves.

REMOVE RESTRAINING WIRES CAUTIOUSLY FROM THE TURNTABLE, watching for imbalance. If rotor appears much heavier than vane assembly, secure heavy of skirt or pieces of scrap metal on the vane side of the turntable.

Release brake, and rotate rotor slowly, watching spoke, and Bl-farewell alignment. Make corrections where required. Pull brake.

CONNECT DRIVE SHAFT AND LOAD.

run windmill cautiously at ridge, checking for vibration, loose parts, misalignment etc, and making immediate adjustments.

MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION

Grease or oil all sliding or rotating parts monthly. Add oil to differential. check for loose components. Always repair immediately, if breakages or misalignments occur.

Rustproof all metal parts, except galvanized or aluminum, parts, once at year. Remove rust and chipped paint by wire brush, and scraper, then paint with protective paint. In some climates, New rigging wires May be required yearly.

Always brake rotor fully when windmill is unloaded or necessary in use.

If rotor blades feather at winds speeds considered too low, increase the precompression in the control jumps.

If rotor blades feather at winds speeds considered too high, decrease the precompression in the control jumps.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR AT 2-METER WINDMILL

CONSTRUCTION ESSENTIALLY IDENTICAL TO THAT OF 4 M VITAS WINDMILL, EXCEPT, that dimensions ary to be adjusted accordingly. Listed below ary the major changes; other secondary changes wants be obvious to the builder.

PERFORMANCE DATA

Compared to the data for the 4 meters windsmill:

rotor speed becomes twice that for the 4 meters windmill

rotor torque becomes one eighth (1/8) that for the 4 meters WINDMILL

STARTING TORQUE BECOMES ONE EIGHTH (1/8) THAT FOR THE 4 meter windmill

gets things moving becomes one fourth (1/4) that for the 4 meters WINDMILL

altitude effect remain the seed

Feathering piece of information

Remains the seed for control jumps of constant jumps 0.75 kgf/cms precompressed to 3.5 kgfs.

Fig. I1 - rotor diameter becomes 2 M. Control shaft becomes helped ace 08p05.gif, 600x600,

long, vane becomes helped ace long and ace helped high.

Fig. A1 - universe speeds of revolution become twice that shown.

08p09a.gif, 600x600,

VANE

Reduce height of vane to one helped, approximately 0.75 m at tail.

Reduce length of vane to one helped, approximately 1.3 m.

No change in vane fishes, 10 [degrees]. ROTOR

Outer diameter of wrestles, R2, becomes 0.69 m, length of clears 2.18m.

Length of spokes (R3) becomes 0.87 M.

Blades (R6) maggot from 8 pieceses 0.65 m xes 0.4 M.

New dimensions:

<FIGURE; Ŕ> 08p37.gif, 486x486,

Bl-farewell bending rig for 2 m rotors, sea New Fig. R3/2, has seed, 08p38.gif, 600x600,

angles ace before, but all major linearly dimensions ary reduced to one helped.

CONTROL SHAFT

Length of control shaft (C1) reduced to one helped (0.75 m).

Compression jumps, C6, changed to 169 mm long. Spring constant 0.75 [kg.sub.f]/cm (I.). at compression of 1 cm for at weight of 0.75 kg.

If suitable jumps cannot be foundation, make jumps of seed dimensions ace for 4 m red-ary, except use 3 mm steel wire.

Control jumps precompression changed to 3.5 [kg.sub.f].

Change indicated length of wires (C8) from 130 mm to 65 mm. , Fig. C3. 08p19.gif, 600x600,

Suggestion for

Electric power generation Using VITA 2 meters Windmill

<FIGURE; B> 08p39.gif, 600x600,

(*) depends on alternator used

Suggestion for

Electric power generation Using VITA 4 meters Windmill

<FIGURE; C> 08p40.gif, 600x600,

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SMALL FARM GRAIN STORAGE (1976) 575 PAGESES ENGLISH

At complete practical overview of small farm grain storage questions for use by development workers and others concerned with small-scale grain production. Includes of plan for grain dryer and storage facilities, instructions for, rodent and insect control.

FRESHWATER FISH POND CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT , 1976, 200 PAGES ENGLISH , At guide to planning, construction and maintaining, smaller-scale fish pond operation. Includes piece of information on selecting warmly water fish, choosing drainage of system, treating fish for disease, fertilizing ponds, and according to on.

REFORESTATION IN ARID COUNTRY (FORTHCOMING) ENGLISH

Provides guidelines for planning and carrying out at reforestation project--from nursery to planting site. Includes piece of information on planting, transplanting and transporting. Extensive appendices present at detailed look at trees, soil, climate, and reforestation activities in sub-Saharan west Africa.

USING WATER RESOURCES (FORTHCOMING) 150 PAGESES ENGLISH

Available for the ridge Time ace at separated offering in response to user demand, this, volume is at excerpt from VITA's ever popular, highly touted VILLAGE TECHNOLOGY HANDBOOK, therefore included on this lists, . USING WATER RESOURCES contains piece of information of and plan for tubewells and dug wells, water lifting, pump, water, storing and purifying, and according to on.

HANDLOOM CONSTRUCTION (FORTHCOMING) ENGLISH Contains detailed, fully illustrated step-by-step, construction procedures for three of type of handloom.

RABBIT RAISING (FORTHCOMING) ENGLISH At complete guide for the rabbit raiser. Contains guidelines for breeding rabbits, treating for disease, fairy-hires completely, building hutches, keeping records, and tanning skinheads.

... of continuing interest

VILLAGE TECHNOLOGY HANDBOOK (1970) 350 PAGESES English, French, Spanish

VITA's helpful guide to alternative technologies. Provides detailed technical of plan in the areas of water resources, tools for agriculture, construction and sanitation, among, others.

CAR-MOTIVES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE (1975) 202 PAGES ENGLISH

At manual for drivers who deal with poor roads and poor services facilities.

TUXEDO FISH IN AT CARDBOARD SMOKEHOUSE (1966) 12 pages English, French, Spanish

HOW TO SALT FISH (1966) 10 PAGESES English, Spanish,

SOLAR COOKER CONSTRUCTION MANUAL (1967) 25 pages English, Spanish, FRESH PRODUCE HANDLING AND DISTRIBUTION (1968) 10 PAGES ENGLISH

EXCERPTED FROM THE VILLAGE TECHNOLOGY HANDBOOK

GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) HULLER, REVISED 1977, 8 pages English, French,

HOW TO PERFORM AN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT , 1971, 30 pages English, French