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This collection of resources pertaining to Mediterranean Climate Agriculture was compiled by ECHO Intern Eleni Patitsas in April, 2017.

"It is generally accepted that the mediterranean climate occurs in southern and southwestern Australia, central Chile, coastal California, the Western Cape of South Africa and around the Mediterranean Basin. The largest area with a mediterranean climate is the Mediterranean Basin, which has given the climate its name, although stretches of the Mediterranean coast (in Egypt, Libya and part of Tunisia) are too dry to be thus classified. More than half of the total mediterranean-climate regions on earth occur on the Mediterranean Sea.

Mediterranean-climate regions are found, roughly speaking, between 31 and 40 degrees latitude north and south of the equator, on the western side of continents. Yet they can extend eastwards for thousands of kilometers into arid regions if not arrested by mountains or confronted with moist climates, such as the summer rainfall that occurs in certain regions of Australia and South Africa. The most extended penetration goes from the Mediterranean Basin up into western Pakistan and into some areas of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (the source of many of our cherished bulbous plants)."  [ As described by the Mediterranean Garden Society ]

The native vegetation of mediterranean climate lands must be adapted to survive long, hot summer droughts and prolonged wet periods in winter.  Mediterranean vegetation examples include the following:

  • Evergreen trees: such as bay laurel, pine, cypress, and oak

  • Deciduous trees: such as sycamore, oak, and buckeyes

  • Fruit trees such as olive, figs, walnuts, and grapes

  • Shrubs: rosemary, Erica, Banksia, and chamise

  • Sub-shrubs: such as lavender, Halimium, and sagebrush

  • Grasses:  grassland types, Themeda triandra, bunchgrasses, sedges, and rushes

  • Herbs: such as Achillea, Dietes, Helichrysum, and Penstemon


  1. The True RedCranberry Bean is deep red in color like a cranberry but the pod is ivory with red flecks. It is a pole bean that blossoms and sets pods over the course of a growing season. Beans from this species serve as a major protein source for humans. Cranberry Bean was first grown in South...
  2. Sesame is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world. It has been cultivated for some 4,000 years. India and China are the largest producers of Sesame. Other large producers include: Pakistan, Turkey, Thailand, Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua....
  3. A distinct benefit of Foxtail Millet is that it is one of the most water efficient, (10-12 inper crop) short term, (60-70 days), warm weather crops that can be used as a “catch” crop, planted after another crop has failed due to hail, wind, late frost. It can be grown in mountains or plains up to...
  4. This ItalianEdible Gourd, long cultivated in Italy, is believed to have its origin in India. The parent species, the Bottle Gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, is believed to have its origin in Africa.
  5. Rating: 3.0 - 1 Vote
    2001-10-20 Varroa mites (two strains of Varroa destructor), which parasitize the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) over much of the world, can seriously weaken and even kill honey bee colonies. Some possibilities for control are discussed.
  6. Crimson Clover is a temperate legume, native to southeastern Europe and southwestern Turkey. It spread to Asia and then to the U.S. by 1819. It has a distinctive, brilliant, crimson cone-shaped head of florets.
  7. 1997-01-19 CARAPHIN NEWS. Dr. Pamela Anderson writes that"CARAPHIN NEWS provides a medium for disseminating technical information on matters related to agricultural and environmental health, particularly information that is generated in and should be shared within the Caribbean Region. MALL SCALE VEGETABLE...
  8. 2013-01-20
  9. Cucumbers probably originated in India and became popular in Greece and Italy. They are now grown worldwide both commercially and in home gardens. The fruit of this vegetable plant is thick, cylindrical, 25-37 cm (6-10 in) long, and shiny green. It can be eaten raw in salads, pickled or cooked in...
  10. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an international non-profit organization that undertakes scientific research for development.
  11. The Cantaloupe is a creeping annual gourd producing round or oval fruits, 10-15 cm (4-6 in) diameter with a rough, scaly, netted outside skin. Cantaloupes were originally grown in the hot, dry savanna regions of Africa and southwest Asia. Egyptian, Chinese and Greek art included this edible fruit...
  12. This herb used for flavoring is thought to have come from southern Europe or Asia Minor.
  13. Chickpea’s origin is possibly western Asian, specifically southeast Turkey.
  14. Though the first jujube trees grown were in Syria, Chinese records show that the jujube has been cultivated in China for 4,000 years. Most locations with warm long summers can support growth of these fruit trees. The jujube is a medium size tree, up to 25 or more feet, with glossy green,...
  15. 2006-10-20 Banana Wilt Disease in East Africa Common Mistakes in Agricultural Development and a Key to Success Used Motor Oil A Non-chemical Method of Rat Control for Rice Fields Seed Yields Decline at Higher Average Temperatures The World's Wheat Crop Under Threat from New Disease Maize in Semi-arid Areas...
  16. The Greeks and Romans used Chinese broccoli as a vegetable 2500 years ago. Its origin is believed to be the Atlantic coastline of Europe and the Mediterranean though it is now cultivated widely in Australia.
  17. Radishes are found growing wild in Turkey, Palestine and Armenia. The white Radish is common and a staple food in Asia. Spain grows the black variety.
  18. It is believed that lupines have been cultivated for 2,000 years, beginning in Egypt. Until recently, nearly all of the 300 lupinus species were considered bitter (high-alkaloid).
  19. 1983-01-01 What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing citrus from seed when that is possible? One obvious advantage is that it is much less labor intensive to simply sow citrus seeds and eliminate the grafting step. Another advantage is that the seedling will most likely be free from viruses that...
  20. Wild carrots (Daucus carota) are native in Western Europe, the Near East, and the Mediterranean region. Wild carrots now are widely distributed in temperate Europe, Asia, and in parts of Africa, Australia, and the Americas. It has become a common weed species in croplands in many portions of its...
  21. In North America, Sunflower is grown in the Great Plains region of the United States and adjacent Canada. Traditionally, Russia has been the leading sunflower producer. Argentina is another world leader in Sunflower production.
  22. 2009-04-01 When ripe, the yellow and apricot-colored fruit of the marian plum (Bouea macrophylla Griff.) seem to glow among the tree's glossy green leaves. The ripe fruit of marian plum offers an edible, crisp skin and juicy flesh. Besides being eaten raw as a dessert fruit, marian plum is also cooked,...
  23. There are more than fifty varieties of this aromatic perennial herb. The subtle flavors of the leaves of each vary with climate and soil conditions. The small, soft leaves attach to erect hairy stems that can grow up to 90 cm (3 ft) high. Its origin is the Mediterranean and North and West Asia...
  24. Parsley is native to southern Europe and is now grown in all temperate areas of the world and some tropical areas with cool seasons. The Romans began using Parsley as early as 3rd century BC. Its oldest uses were medicinal, fresh or in lotions as first aid for insect bites, as a mosquito...
  25. 2007-01-01 By Dr. F. W. Martin. Published in parts, 1989 and 1994; Revised 1998 and 2007 by ECHO Staff Though nearly all plants are useful in some way, they are not equally valuable. For example, wheat, rice and corn may be considered the most valuable plants in the world based on the vast acreage planted...
  26. 1985-04-01 On the small farm, or in the home garden, techniques suitable for the production of food might be quite different from those used in large-scale production systems. The use of machinery, for example, might be impossible or uneconomical, or special small-scale equipment might be needed. The wide...
  27. 1993-01-01 In every region of the world it is necessary to find or develop appropriate techniques for agriculture. A large part of the surface of the world is arid, characterized as too dry for conventional rain fed agriculture. Yet, millions of people live in such regions, and if current trends in...
  28. 2014-03-20
  29. 1992-01-01 A case could be made that onions are one of two universal vegetables that are cherished in almost every culture, tomatoes being the other. Both are difficult to grow in many tropical and subtropical climates. Where a vegetable is both popular and difficult to grow, it brings a good price. If a...
  30. 2015-01-20 In this book,Professor Pasternak shares insights from his lifelong work in international agriculture and specifically the dry areas of West Africa and Israel. From 2001 to 2011 he was head of Crops and Systems Diversification at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics...
  31. 2004-01-20 This Report is a joint product of IFAD, DANIDA, World Bank, DAAS, University of Reading and national institutions in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Denmark, India and Kenya. The judgements made herein do not necessarily reflect their views. Designations employed in this Report do not imply the expression...
  32. 1993-01-01 In every region of the world it is necessary to find or develop appropriate techniques for agriculture. A large part of the surface of the world is arid, characterized as too dry for conventional rain fed agriculture. Yet, millions of people live in such regions, and if current trends in...
  33. White clover is a temperate, legume developed in North Italy. The first cultivation was begun in the Netherlands in the 16th century, England and North America in the 18th century. This perennial, pasture plant has large, oval leaflets, white flowers and creeping stems that form new roots at each...
  34. The atemoya is a hybrid of the cherimoya (Annona cherimola) and the sugar apple (Annona squamosa), two members of the Annona family. The name comes from an old Mexican word "ate" for sugar apple combined with "moya" from cherimoya
  35. 2005-10-01 An article by Francis Hallé in Nature and Resources, Volume 32, Number 3, 1996, explains several techniques used to “improve, select, propagate or preserve plant growth.” These techniques are called “phytopractices.” Most of them are inexpensive and simple to use but labor-intensive. The...
  36. 1999-01-01 The cashew, Anacardium occidentale, is a resilient and fast-growing evergreen tree that can grow to a height of 20 m (60 ft). It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, which also contains poison ivy and the mango. Native to arid northeastern Brazil, the cashew was taken around the world by the...
  37. 2007-11-18 This manual was produced by Roots of Peace under USAID subcontract No. GS-10F- 0359M, Task Order #306-M-00-05-00515-00, Afghanistan Alternative Livelihoods Program for the Eastern Region. It was written by Ferenc Sandor of Roots of Peace, with support from Juan Estrada of DAI for the use by Roots...