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USAID Sector Environmental Guidelines & Resources - SEG




  1. USAID’s Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sector Environmental Guideline (SEG) are designed for project managers, project implementers, practitioners, or others working on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) issues and in ASM communities. This SEG for ASM introduces the range of possible...





  2. Virtually all small-scale development activities—including aspects of housing, sanitation, water supply, roads, schools, community centers, storage silos healthcare, energy—involve construction. USAID’s global construction and rehabilitation portfolio includes small projects (e.g., individual...





  3. USAID seeks to facilitate inclusive and sustainable agricultural productivity growth to lift people out of extreme poverty and hunger, giving them the ability to move beyond subsistence and engage in their local, national, and/or global economies. Best achieving these critical development...



  4. The world’s drylands include hyperarid, arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas where rainfall is highly variable, droughts are common and water is the principal limiting factor for agriculture. Dryland soils, which are characterized by low levels of moisture, organic matter, and biological...



  5. Ecotourism can contribute to economic development and the conservation of protected areas by generating revenues that can be used to sustainably manage protected areas, and by providing local employment and a sense of community ownership. However, without careful planning and management that...
9 more USAID Sector Environmental Guidelines & Resources - SEG

ECHO Asia Note Articles






  1. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 33. I read David Price’s concerns about promoting invasive forage plants in Asia Note #25 [Eds’ Note: AN #25 was written in response to AN #23] and would like to respond based on my own experience and observations. My reply will be based on the following...





  2. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. Saving your own seeds can be a cost-effective way to access crop seed for future planting and to help maintain the planet’s plant biodiversity. Whether you plant your own saved seeds, give them away to friends and neighbors, or distribute them through...





  3. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #20 In nature, dozens of species of harmful fungi can quickly kill a plant, including Fusarium spp., the causal agents of Fusarium wilt, and Phakospora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust. Fungi are unable to produce nutrients on their own, so they...





  4. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #19 In a tropical setting, growing seedlings can be a difficult task. A major factor of concern for nursery production is water-logging (Zhu, 2007). During the rainy season, oversaturated soils can effectively suffocate root systems of a seedling by restricting...





  5. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #16 During the 2012 ECHO Agriculture Workshop in Yangon, 63 attendees representing at least 25 agriculture and community development organizations from across Myanmar were polled about their observations and opinions related to climate change. The vast majority...
97 more ECHO Asia Note Articles

Food Plants International - Plant Fact Sheets




  1. Fruit Edible parts -Fruit, Leaves - flavouring A spreading, spiny tree. It grows up to 15 m high. It is dome shaped. The leaves are very large. They are glossy and oval anddowny underneath. The leaf stalks have broad wings. Young shoots and stems have fine hairs on them. Flowers are large (2cm)...



  2. Fruit Edible parts -Fruit, Herb, Spice, Leaves A small evergreen tree. It grows up to 3-5 m high and spreads to 2 m across. The stem is stout, erect and thorny. The leavesare green and 20 cm x 10 cm. The tree has fat spines. The leaves have teeth along the edge. The leaf stalk does not havewings....



  3. Fruit Edible parts -Fruit (Poisonous), Gum, Leaves, Flowers, Vegetable A moderate sized tree. It grows 6-16 m high. It can spread 3-12 m wide. The trunk is round and the branches spread outwidely. The bark is greyish-brown. The bark has long shallow cracks along the length. The leaves are...



  4. Fruit Edible parts -Fruit, Herb, Fruit skin, Spice, Flowers An evergreen tree up to 8-10 m high. It spreads to 4 m across. The stem is short, stout and spiny. It has a dense, roundedcrown. The leaves are dark green, sword shaped and tapering towards the tip. They are 5-15 cm long. The leaves have...



  5. Fruit Edible parts -Nuts, Sap, Cabbage, Nuts milk, Apple, Palm heart, Flowers A palm with an unbranched trunk. The trunk has ring-like leaf scars along it. At the base it is swollen and surrounded by a massof roots. They grow to about 25 m tall. Dwarf varieties have been produced. The fronds are...
408 more Food Plants International - Plant Fact Sheets

Research - Posters




  1. Plants contain oxalates for a few reasons. The first is that plants do not have an excretory system like animals, so oxalates allow plants the ability to bind up excess calcium (Webb 1999).Plants high in oxalates can have negative effects on the ability of animals to absorb calcium after eating...





  2. Some tropical crops contain cyanogenic glycosides, toxic substances that release hydrocyanic acid (HCN; also referred to as cyanide) when cells are crushed. Consuming these plants without cooking them can cause cyanide poisoning, with varying effects depending on cyanide levels and how long a...



  3. After modifications to the ECHO Global Seed Bank storage unit, seed storage techniques already in use were assessed for effectiveness in achieving appropriate seed storing conditions within the renovated cooling and dehydrating system.Seed type influenced the effect of container on relative...



  4. Salt buildup typically occurs in dry areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Over time, as water evaporates, the minerals left behind begin to accumulate. Plants need a certain amount of soluble salts, but when the salt content of soil water is greater than that of the water inside plant...



  5. The 2:4 maize–double cowpea system consists of 4 rows of cowpea and 2 rows of maize, all planted on the same day. The second cowpea crop is planted after the first has been harvested (about 60 days after planting).1 The maize and cowpea are densely planted. The objective of this trial is to gain...
20 more Research - Posters

ECHO East Africa News






  1. In this issue: 1. Nutrition in dryland areas symposium 2.Nanenane Agricultural show 3. Appropriate technology 4. ECHO EA seed bank updates 5..Parthenium 6. Upcoming events 7. News in brief





  2. In This Issue Seed Bank Update Students Visit ECHO EA Local CA Training Events Staff Transitions Resources for Organic Certif. The Debate over GMOs New Online Resources





  3. In this issue: Nanenane Agricultural show Appropriate technology ECHO EA seedbank updates Highlights Innovation News in brief ECHO RIC‟s Best Practices
  4. 2021-03-17





  5. 2019-04-20 In this Issue : 5th Symposium on Sustainable Agriculture and Appropriate Technologies Environmental Conservation Empowering Small-scale Farmers with Seeds History of Maresha Plow
10 more ECHO East Africa News

ECHO East Africa Notes






  1. A Combination of Approaches to Conserve Soil and Water Tephrosia: A Multipurpose Tree for GM/CC, Soil Conservation and IPM



  2. Families Benefited with Dairy Goats Project A Research Project:Packed Biogas in Bags Green Manure/ Cover Crops: jack bean



  3. Moving towards energy self-sufficiency: addressing challenges to biogas technology uptake for improving rural livelihoods Improving soil nutrients by planting Jack Bean Parthenium hysterophorus



  4. New seed to try: Banana Passionfruit Sweet Potato Varieties in East Africa Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in East Africa A Focus on Perennial Vegetables



  5. 2022-03-02 Symposium AmidCOVID 19 LILORocket Stove: a life-changing, clean & affordable energy Seed Bank Update:Hope in the Midst ofChallenges: Farmer Field School (FFS): A strategy of promoting Sustainable Integrated Agricultural Practices
3 more ECHO East Africa Notes

General Technical Documents




  1. Benefits 1. Efficient recycling of clean vegetable residues. 2. Feed and multiply earthworms to populate a garden area of up to 1000 sq. ft. (32’ X 32’). 3. Protect young worms from animal predators. 4. Worm numbers per bed increased 25 fold, over 6 months at ECHO in N. Fort Meyers, FL. 5....



  2. Compiled by Gabe LePage, ECHO Florida Intern, 2018 Causes: Soil Borne Pathogens Seed Borne Pathogens Factors: Excessive Soil Moisture Excessive Overhead Misting Lower soil temperatures before emergence Higher soil temperatures after emergence



  3. A community seed bank can compare favourably with its High-Tech cousin.





  4. With support from USAID’s Horticulture Collaborative Research Support Program (Hort CRSP), Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization’s Asia Impact Center (ECHO Asia), Maejo University, Thailand, and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initiated efforts in 2010 to begin strengthening...



  5. An ECHO developed resource.
57 more General Technical Documents

ECHO Research - Guidance




  1. For many of us the idea of “research” is scary. We are not trained in it. We picture rigorous statistical analyses that we are unfamiliar with. We have seen glossy scientific journals with technical words that we do not understand. Besides, isn’t our goal to directly help smallholder farmers? Why...



  2. As you work in agricultural development, there may be times that you find yourself wondering about the answer to a specific question you have. For example, should plants be spaced 30 cm or 60 cm apart to achieve the highest yield? Which one of three tomato cultivars would grow best in a...



  3. 2000-10-20 Halfway through my doctoral studies in biochemistry I had an opportunity to travel to a developing country to visit some missionaries and the people they served. Thanks to that visit I began my “mid-life” crisis in my mid-twenties. My research at Indiana University was in what one would call “...

ECHO Technical Notes






  1. So you want to help people in the tropics. Beautiful! The tropics are waiting for you. No matter what your abilities, you can make life better for others in the tropics. Your concern for the physical and spiritual well-being of people can be translated into fruitful service. Your first asset is...



  2. 2022-05-20 The current global situation calls for a multi-pronged approach to pest management. To be widely applicable, this approach must provide farmers with options to control pests at various scales of production (from small farms to very large operations) with a diversity of resources. Integrated pest...





  3. 2021-03-29 Cultivating plants, sharing seeds and cuttings with neighbors, and seeking better crop varieties are as old as agriculture. We use the word “nursery” for places where we care for and nurture things that are precious and vulnerable, like children and plants. Creating habitats to grow healthy...





  4. 2020-06-29 Seed storage in the tropics has been a frequent topic of ECHO publications and trainings due to its importance to the smallholder farmer. Access to quality seeds is imperative for agronomic and horticultural crop production. While on-farm seed saving benefits the smallholder farmer, cooperative...





  5. 2019-07-23 I discovered 100-fold gardens while researching ways to irrigate plants directly in the root zone. I wanted to know how to practically and affordably control some of the variables that influence plant growth, such as water availability and soil fertility. I read about “wicking beds,” which are...
93 more ECHO Technical Notes

CAN Nutricion






  1. Spanish with Kaqchiquel Organización: Hospitalito de Atitlán





  2. Organización: ODIM





  3. Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social





  4. Organización: ODIM





  5. Organización: ODIM
3 more CAN Nutricion

Feed the Future Publications






  1. Jack bean is an excellent plant for enriching soil, because it grows under very difficult conditions. However, the beans contain toxins that normally make them unsuitable for human consumption. This document describes how to germinate jack bean to remove the toxins and increase the beans’...





  2. This short document contains graphs that show how zero tillage leads to increased water infiltration and increased water retention in soil.





  3. This document distinguishes between ‘anchor’ cover crops (that are intercropped with a main crop such as maize) and ‘secondary’ cover crops (that don’t compete with the main crop because they have a short life cycle, and that can help cover the soil at the start of the growing season). The...





  4. Four nutrient deficiencies--phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, and magnesium--can be diagnosed by observing maize leaves. This document includes photos of a healthy maize leaf and of maize leaves demonstrating each of these nutrient deficiencies. It also contains suggestions for how to address each...





  5. In the Push-Pull system, crops that repel pests and/or attract pests’ predators are intercropped with maize, to ‘push’ pests away from the main crop. Plants that attract pests are planted around the field, to ‘pull’ pests away from the maize. Incorporating legumes in this system means that soil...

ECHO Asia Seed Fact Sheets




  1. General description and special characteristics – Sunn hemp is an erect, Photo: ECHO Asia staff annual legume with rapid, vigorous growth, bright yellow flowers, and plump,pubescent seed pods. The plant generally grows unbranched from the ground to approximately 60 cm (2 ft.) up the stem. Above...



  2. General description and special characteristics – Annual semi-hardy herb up to 1-2 m tall with bright orange or yellow flowers. Variety – Thung Khang Tong, a local Thai variety



  3. General description and special characteristics – Wax gourd is an annual squash-like vine, with large, soft, hairy leaves. Fruits are large, oblong, 25-120 cm long, usually hairy when young, and with a waxy covering when ripe. Fruit may weigh up to 40 kg, though 10 kg is normal. They have solid...



  4. General description and special characteristics – An upright branched annual of which the young leaves and stems are eaten like cooked spinach. Amaranthus tricolor originates from tropical Asia and is one of the major leafy vegetables in South and Southeast Asia. Varieties – Tigerleaf: green leaf...



  5. General description and special characteristics – Ivy gourd is a perennial vine with white, star shaped flowers and cucumber-like fruit which is green when immature and bright red when ripe. It is naturalized or native in Southeast Asia and East Africa, but is listed as an invasive weed in...
55 more ECHO Asia Seed Fact Sheets

Haitian Network Documents






  1. A “how to” guide to successfully install a natural, sustainable latrine using vetiver grass The use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) replaces the need for a concrete block lined pit, creates privacy and actively helps decompose the waste. Jiji grass (Achnatherum splendens) can be used...





  2. A powerpoint explaining rabies in general and in Haiti, how to combat it, signs, what do do if you are bit etc.





  3. A creole document describing illnesses in Haiti that can be prevented with vaccine available in Haiti





  4. Creole Document - Insects in our gardens





  5. Creole Document - Guide to raising piglets
21 more Haitian Network Documents

CTA Publications




  1. The valuable medicinal properties contained in certain plants are not, however, in doubt. In recent years, for example, the Chinese plant Artemisia annua, has become the essential ingredient in a new generation of anti-malaria drugs. The plant is now being grown in East African countries to...





  2. This 8-page fold-out leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, covers the subject of bee-keeping and honey processing. It gives some background to the subject, outlines processes and provides tips, tables and explanatory line drawings.



  3. This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, helps pastoralists understand markets for animals and milk. It gives background information on types of products, market chains, adding value and different types of markets. Marketing processes are clearly outlined, along with...



  4. 2014-01-01 This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, describes 11 ways that pastoralists can improve the marketing of their livestock. Ideas are given on keeping animals healthy, organising marketing groups and transporting livestock. Illustrated with line drawings throughout,...



  5. 2014-01-01 This 8-page leaflet, practical for use in the field and easy to read, describes how pastoralists can produce strong, healthy animals and high-quality milk that will fetch a good price. It gives background information on markets for animals and milk, choosing the right animal breeds, and animal...
17 more CTA Publications

Food Plant Solutions - Publications




  1. This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common food plants ofChad. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every country are very good...



  2. This book is designed as a simple introduction to the more common food plants of Malawi. It is hoped people will take greater pride and interest in these plants and become confident and informed about how to grow and use them. Many of the local food plants that occur in every country are very...
  3. Imagine - You are an immigrant to a country which, in contrast to all that you are familiar with, is in a different climate, with different soils, and different plants which will flourish in these conditions. You are keen to be a good provider for your family and the idea of growing fresh fruit...
  4. Potentially important food plants of Rwanda Food plants for healthy diets in Rwanda Also available in:Kinyarwanda (rw) Potentially important leafy greens and vegetables in Rwanda Potentially Important Fruit, Nuts and Seeds of Rwanda Good gardening and growing root crops in Rwanda If you...
  5. Potentially Important Food Plants of the Western Pacific Potentially Important Fruits and Nuts of the Western Pacific Potentially Important Leafy Greens and Vegetables in the Western Pacific Also available in:Français (fr)Bislama (bi) Food plants for healthy diets in the Western Pacific Also...
121 more Food Plant Solutions - Publications

Resources for Schools and Teachers




  1. Students will investigate recent field research studies on the ECHO-Florida Global Farm and the ECHO-Asia Regional Impact Center and then design their own experiments. Activity 1 ECHO-Florida initiated a multi-year gliricidia intercropping trial. Researchers are trying to determine if the shade...



  2. Frequently asked questions about ECHO, the farm visit, and safety rules for enjoying the ECHO-Florida Global Farm experience...



  3. Students will convert the annual sugar cane harvest data from weight to liquid measure, calculate the number of containers needed (gallons, quarts, and pints) for sale at a farmers’ market, and form a business plan including the calculation of costs and profits. An extension activity includes...



  4. During the ECHO tour, students saw several members of the animal kingdom which play an important role on small-scale farms. After creating a graphic organizer, students will write stories, poems, construct posters, or design illustrated brochures or information sheets describing “How to Raise”...



  5. Students will analyze data from the annual Tilapia harvest comparing the pond raised fish to the aquaponics grown fish. Guess what they found?
6 more Resources for Schools and Teachers

Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) Publications




  1. This handbook will help the sheep producer select production goals, select the type of sheep most suitable for a particular area, and will serve as a guide for the production of healthy sheep.Sheep are one of the most common livestock and among the first to be domesticated. They are very...





  2. 2006-01-20 The author's sincere desire in preparing this booklet is that it will serve to be readily used as a reference and aid in the raising of goats. Veterinary information and assistance are in short supply or nonexistent in many areas of the world. The author has endeavored to write this booklet in a...



  3. 2006-01-20 Why do our farm animals get sick and how can we keep them healthy?" This is a question veterinarians and other specialists who work with small farmers hear frequently. Most of these farmers work very hard, giving time, effort, and loving care to their animals in the hope that their farm will be...



  4. 2005-01-20 All countries have animals that are raised as a source of nutrition. It may be an individually raised animal, or a small herd, that meets the need of meat protein for the people. With this comes a means of slaughter. The proper methods for preparation of meat for human consumption are important...



  5. 2004-01-20 Cattle play important role in animal protein production for two reasons; first, the unique ruminant digestive system utilizes forage for food and secondary, much of the world offers marginal grazing systems on land not suitable for crop production. These feedstuffs would not be utilized were it...
8 more Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) Publications

Amaranth to Zai Holes

  1. After 15 years of EDN, I guess it is not too much to include a bit of levity. Economists, agronomists and planners of late Have discovered a new way to pontificate. Beyond mere jargon, like "Success Enhancement," "Integrated Development," and "Rural Advancement." Working in all their infinite...



  2. 1996-10-19 Many small farmers must grow their crops on small tracts of marginal land, which may be dry or hilly or remote. These difficult growing conditions require special techniques suited to the situation. This chapter contains some ideas which can be adapted for local circumstances. Most of the ideas...



  3. 1996-10-19 Life and agriculture are dependent on water. One of the most frequent questions ECHO receives from the field reflects the need for strategies to produce food in dryland areas or in the dry season. The erratic and unpredictable rainfall in much of the tropics makes food production difficult;...



  4. 1996-10-19



  5. 1996-10-19
40 more Amaranth to Zai Holes

Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM)

  1. Swahili Only October, 2020, Issue 97 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  2. Swahili Only August, 2020, Issue 95 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  3. Swahili Only December, 2020, Issue 99 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  4. 2021-08-20 Swahili Only August, 2021, Issue 107 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
  5. 2021-03-20 Swahili Only March, 2021, Issue 102 Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM) is a journal that provides agricultural education.
5 more Mkulima Mbunifu (MkM)

VITA - Volunteers in Technical Assistance




  1. From Human Factors, 1968 A description of VITA at that time.



  2. Originally published by Volunteers in Techical Assistance between 1959 and 2005, an impressive collection of 137 VITA documents in 6 languages (English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish) have been republished. This list includes titles like: Understanding Evaporative Cooling,...
  3. The brooder is heated by a regular electric light bulb, placed under the brooder floor. Depending on the temperature rise required, the wattage of the light bulb will have to be chosen by experimentation. The metal floor and roof prevent predators such as rats from entering the brooder. If...
  4. This seed cleaner was developed in Afghanistan to remove round seeds of weeds from wheat grains. The round seeds could not be separated by a sieve because they were the same size as the wheat grains. The cleaner described here takes advantage of the round shape of the weed seeds to separate them...
  5. 1995-01-01
134 more VITA - Volunteers in Technical Assistance

Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) Publications

  1. Swahili Only
  2. Swahili only





  3. How do organic farmers benefit from biodiversity? Biodiversity fights pests, improves soil, and increases food security. Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials
  4. Farmers consider crop-reduction organisms to be pests and diseases. Insects, birds or other animals are considered pests whenever they cause damage to crops or to stored harvests. Fungi, bacteria and viruses are identified as diseases, when they invade or alter vital plant growth activities or...
  5. Swahili download only Kilomohai Training Materialshttp://www.kilimohai.org/kilimohai/training-materials
8 more Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) Publications

Using ECHO Resources




  1. The security of the users and members of ECHOcommunity is of utmost importance to us. These resources outline the policies that govern our data collection, the legal terms by which you may use this website and affiliated services, and what privileges are afforded to members. Please read these...





  2. 2021-01-20 Available on iOS 10.0+and Android 5.0+ Search "echocommunity" in the App Store on your iPhone or in Google Play on your Android phone. ECHO has provided resources to farmers and development workers for 40 years. ECHOcommunity.org contains thousands of documents and videos that are relevant for...

SAWBO Publications




  1. Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO) is a Michigan State University based program. SAWBO transforms extension information on relevant topics such as agriculture, health and women’s empowerment, into 2D, 2.5D and 3D animations, which are then voice overlaid into a diversity of global...



  2. Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO) transforms expert knowledge into educational animations, which are then translated into multiple languages from around the world. We use a rigorous co-creation and review process to create highly accurate content.



  3. 2021-03-23 Despite considerable research on YouTube as a digital media platform, little research to date has quantified the device-type used to access that online media. Analyzing access-device data for videos on one YouTube video channel—Scientific Animations Without Borders (SAWBO), which produces...

ECHO Development Notes (EDN)






  1. 2022-07-01 Extending Postharvest Life of Fresh Fruit: Harvest for Quality Chicken Compost System Echoes from our Network:Microcontroller use From ECHO's Seed Bank:Allium cepa ‘Awahia’A Short-Day Onion Option Books, Websites, and Other Resources: Discount on Roland Bunch's Second Edition of "Restoring the...





  2. 2022-04-12 Low-Cost Microcontrollers: Applications for Small-Scale Agriculture Echoes from our Network: A Deep Litter System for Natural Chicken Production From ECHO's Seed Bank: 'KDV-1' Maize Books, Websites, and Other Resources:WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal PlantsandCanadian Foodgrains Bank Video...





  3. 2022-01-12 Extending Postharvest Life of Fresh Fruit: Harvest at the Right Time Echoes from our Network: Homegarden Agroforestry From ECHO's Seed Bank:Chipilín Books, Websites, and Other Resources:CTA publications,CVM publications, and App Translation





  4. 2021-10-04 Moringa Productivity with Legume Intercropping Insect Pest Management:Evaluation and Assessment Echoes from our Network: Gliricidia-Annual Intercropping System From ECHO's Seed Bank:‘Lacinato’ Kale for Home Gardens Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Food Plant Solutions andDownloadable Books





  5. 2021-07-06 Insect Pest Management: Options for Controlling Pest Populations From ECHO's Seed Bank:Everglades (Wild) Tomato Echoes from our Network: Acacia angustissima Farming Improvement Experience Books, Websites, and Other Resources:Soy Kit as an Appropriate Technology for Women Entrepreneurs - A Review...
162 more ECHO Development Notes (EDN)

ECHO Asia Notes




  1. 2022-03-03 Featured in this AN Playing with Water Wheels: Exploring Low-Cost Methods for Pumping Irrigation Water A 'Successful Failure': Introducting SALT Technology in Northern Thailand Upcoming Virtual Event on April 22nd: Adoption of Agriculture Innovations Syposium Upcoming On-Farm In-Person Events:...



  2. 2021-09-15 Featured in this AN Establishing a Scaled-Up Black Soldier Fly System An Innovative 'Do-All' Biochar Burner Design ECHOcommunity Conversations Upcoming Events In Case You Missed Past Asia Notes Call for Articles & Insights



  3. 2021-06-14 African Swine Fever Virus: Overview and Prevention on the Small Farm [Editor’s Note: For questions, comments, or personal experience on this topic visit ECHOcommunity Conversations: African Swine Fever Virus] [Example] Small FarmBiosecurity Plan for the Prevention of African Swine Fever I Suspect...



  4. 2021-03-01 Featured in this AN Stingless Beekeeping (Meliponiculture) on Java [Editor’s Note: For questions, comments, or personal experience on this topic visit the echocommunity ‘conversations’ forum Meliponiculture: Stingless Beekeeping.] Production of Vegetable Fern (Diplazium esculentum Reytz.) Under...



  5. 2020-12-14 Featured in this AN The Martinez Airlift Water Pump Do All Parts of the Chaya Plant Contain Cyanide? Cyantesmo Paper for Detecting Cyanide Job Opportunity at ECHO Asia
43 more ECHO Asia Notes

ECHO Best Practice Notes




  1. 2021-12-16 It is estimated that drylands occupy 40% of the earth’s surface.Drylands are regions where the average annual precipitation is less than 65% of the average annual potential evapotranspiration (an Aridity Index of < 0.65). The FAO Aridity Index is defined as a 30 year average of annual...





  2. 2020-12-14 ECHO recognizes climate change as a profound reality faced by small-scale farmers. Many of our publications have focused on helping farmers cope with related challenges such as heat and drought.Increasing farmer resilience and minimizing risk have been key elements of the practices we have...





  3. 2017-05-26 By integrating legumes into cropping systems, small-scale farmers in low-resource settings can invest in the long-term health and resilience of their soils. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). With that in mind, this document presents insights on legume selection...





  4. 2016-09-28 Farmers in many parts of the world, because of human population growth, have little choice but to crop their land continuously, with scarce resources to replace nutrients withdrawn by each successive crop. Crop residues are often lost as a source of organic matter and mulch, usually through...





  5. 2016-03-22 Yearly production of grains, pulses, and vegetables depends on a reliable supply of quality seed. This is true for the farmer growing a crop to feed their family as well as for the agricultural worker evaluating and growing out seeds of a new crop species or variety that could improve lives. In...
3 more ECHO Best Practice Notes

LEGS Publications and Resources




  1. 2021-05-20 LEGS Participation Mini Module Suji Omeno In this Mini Module, LEGS provides key techniques to aid and facilitate community participation. Some of the techniques includeFocus Group Discussions,Key Informant Interviews,Proportional Piling, Simple Ranking,Pairwise Ranking,Matrix Scoring,Historical...





  2. 2020-10-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Holly Hufnagel The objective of this discussion paper is to inform the LEGS Technical Advisory Committee on issues relating to the quality of veterinary pharmaceuticals for livestock responses in emergency situations....





  3. 2020-10-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Karin de Jonge and Lucy Maarse The aim of this Discussion Paper is to outline the major issues at the crossroads of gender and livestock in the context of humanitarian response, for the Advisory Committee of LEGS...





  4. 2020-09-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Kate Sadler This discussion paper was commissioned by LEGS to review the key issues relating to nutrition in the context of livestock-based emergency interventions, with particular attention to the following key...





  5. 2020-09-20 A Discussion Paper for the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Yacob Aklilu This paper was commissioned to assess livestock insurance schemes and explore what evidence exists regarding the effective implementation of livestock insurance schemes to support the livelihoods of...
7 more LEGS Publications and Resources

Greenhouse Management




  1. 2021-01-01 Greenhouse Managementmagazine is the leading trade publication serving greenhouse growers. Growers depend on us because of the in-depth educational content we provide month after month. Our team provides the most up-to-date independent research, trends reports and relevant business information...

FAO Publications




  1. 2021-01-01 This publication provides information on the top 10 benefits Pastoralism on a community and the environment.Pastoral activities span more than 100 countries, and contribute to global development and food security. This presents opportunities for securing widespread benefits of pastoralism and its...



  2. 2016-01-20 Pulses have been an essential part of the human diet for centuries. Yet their nutritional value is not generally recognized and their consumption is frequently under-appreciated. Undeservedly so, as pulses play a crucial role in healthy diets, sustainable food production and, above all, in food...



  3. 2016-01-20 Desert Locust plagues can be an important contributing factor to famines and a threat to food security in many regions of the world. The Desert Locust plague of 1986–1989 and subsequent upsurges during the past two decades demonstrate the continuing capacity of this historic pest to threaten...



  4. 2013-01-20 Cassava is a tropical root crop, originally from Amazonia, that provides the staple food of an estimated 800 million people worldwide. Grown almost exclusively by low-income, smallholder farmers, it is one of the few staple crops that can be produced efficiently on a small scale, without the need...



  5. 2011-01-20 A guide to preparing for animal health emergencies Nick Honhold, Ian Douglas, William Geering, Arnon Shimshoni, Juan Lubroth An animal disease emergency, such as an outbreak of a transboundary animal disease (TAD), can have serious socio-economic consequences which, at their extreme, may affect...

Grower Talks




  1. 2021-01-01 GrowerTalks magazinemay be the best-known greenhouse trade publication in the world. While it’s published in America’s Midwest, just outside of Chicago, its reach and influence is global, with its editors historically on the road and in the air to find the stories, trends and news. ARTICLES FROM...

ECHO Research Notes






  1. 2021-01-01 ECHO ResearchNotes are topic-specificpublications about crops and agricultural practicesimportant to those working in the tropics and subtropics. Our material is authored by ECHO staff (past and present) as well as outside writers, all with experience and knowledge of their subject. These...





  2. 2020-01-01 ECHO ResearchNotes are topic-specificpublications about crops and agricultural practicesimportant to those working in the tropics and subtropics. Our material is authored by ECHO staff (past and present) as well as outside writers, all with experience and knowledge of their subject. These...

Conservation Agriculture Core Training Guides






  1. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The...





  2. 2020-04-20 Guide Book alsoavailable in Amharic /Chichewa /Kinyarwanda; Posters also available in Amharic / Kiembu / Kikuyu / Kikamba / Kinyarwanda / Chichewa /Alur; Farmers' Booklet also available in Kinyarwanda The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The...

Other Farmer Training Guides




  1. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. This guidebook is designed to help facilitate a Lead...



  2. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Appreciate the...



  3. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Appreciate the...



  4. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will: 1. Understand the...



  5. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the CFGB database. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Intended Learning Outcomes – Participants will be able to:...
6 more Other Farmer Training Guides

ILEIA Newsletter - LEISA Magazine - Farming Matters




  1. 2020-01-20 In this issue: Agrocecology and feminist economics The path to feminist agroecology The economic potential of agroecology in Europe The rise of rural women's movements in Southern Africa Care ethics in agroecology Highland agriculture Growing equity through agroecology in Uganda



  2. 2018-03-20 Community supported agroecology thriving in China Farmers ensure safe water for New York City Agroecology is the way forward for Africa Organic and agroecology Women in Brazil build autonomy with agroecology Land grabbing threatens agroecology Rice Intensification in India Peasant agroecology in...



  3. 2017-04-20 Agtoecology for food sovereignty Food versus the big city of Istanbul Human-centred agriculture fighting exploitation and racism Food sovereignty taking root in women's knowledge Locally rooted ideas and initiatives from the field The vitality of everyday food Food sovereignty stories from...



  4. 2016-12-20 Listening to pastoralists Pastoral Parliament - a platform to be heard and seen Migrant shepherds sustain pastoralism in the Mediterannean Pastoralists' breeds represent generations of knowledge Pastoralist women have the capacity to lead Adapting traditional land goverance in Somalia...



  5. 2016-09-20 The true cost of food Seeing is believing - urban agroecological transition How peasants read their farm Short chains bring long-term gains Ideas and initiatives from the field Agroecology contributes to the Sustainable Development Goals New books on assessing impact of agroecology How to...
117 more ILEIA Newsletter - LEISA Magazine - Farming Matters

SWISSAID Publications

  1. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only





  2. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Guidelines for Vegetable Production Training
  3. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only
  4. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Community seed banks are informal institutions, run and managed by farmers or local and village governments whose primary function is to store seeds for domestic use. These banks are located in many parts of the world and have existed for many years with the aim of preserving,...
  5. 2019-11-20
3 more SWISSAID Publications

CAN Culinaria






  1. 2019-11-20





  2. 2019-01-20 RECETARIO WUQU’ KAWOQ Versión 2018-2019 Elaborado por: Valeria Morales. Spanish Only.

ECHO West Africa Notes






  1. 2019-07-22 Le système de riziculture intensive (SRI) Qu'est-ce que le SRI ? Les étapes de mise en œuvre du SRI L'irrigation des plants Le sarclage et le sarclo-binage, quels sont les avantages ? Le rendement du SRI Etude comparée entre le SRI et la pratique traditionnelle de riziculture Intérêt du SRI...





  2. 2018-01-03 Techniques de production avicole traditionnelle epublication:Options de restauration des sols improductifsetOptions où l'eau est rare





  3. 2017-08-01 Foundations For Farming, an alternative for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa How to prepare compost in 3 weeks? The preparation of organic liquid fertilizer eBook Release:Fundamentals of Agricultural Development epublication

ECHO Latin America and Caribbean Notes (LACN)






  1. 2018-02-22 Green Leafy Vegetables and Powders for Improved Nutrition in Honduras Member Highlight: Elioena Arauz,Artists for Soup, Nicaragua Echoes from our Network: Deep Litter System ECHO Resource Highlight: Green Leafy Vegetables Technical Note Spotlight: "Linking Smallholder Farmers to Markets"





  2. 2017-12-04 ECHO in Latin America and the Caribbean Experimenting with Medicinal Plants in Matagalpa, Nicaragua Staff Highlight Tech Note Spotlight: "Introducing new seeds overseas" Tech Note Spotlight: "Introduction to Tropical Root Crops" Echoes from our Network Resources: Wuqu' Kawoq (The Maya Health...





  3. 2017-07-31 Las Cañadas Agro-ecological Chickens Module Introducing New Team Leader: Cecilia Gonzalez Tech Note Spotlight: "Cafeteria Feeding" of Chickens From ECHO's Seed Bank: Ethiopian Kale Member Highlight: Javier Ignacio Silva Rivera Our Vision:Honoring God by Empowering the Undernourished with...





  4. 2017-03-30 Making Silage in Vichada Tech Note Spotlight: Biosand Water Filter Echoes from our Network: Member Highlight Adria and Job From ECHO's Technical Respose Team: Appropriate forage crops for clay soils From ECHO's Seed Bank: Forage peanut

Agricultural Risk Assessment and Management




  1. 2017-01-20 A Comprehensive Agricultural Risk Assessment Survey should include key informants like those listed below, to assess risk at both: the farmer/ARE level and the value-chain level. It will never be possible to include all the informants listed below, but the best risk assessment resulting in the...



  2. 2013-03-13 Within the internationally recognized field of agricultural risk assessment and management, riskscan be evaluated according to three basic criteria : 1. Impact: In other words, how severe will the risk event be if it actually happens? Some risks can destroy the whole year's farm income and even...



  3. 2013-01-20 Risk Management Planning assumes that assessment of risks has taken place, and that risks have been prioritized according to severity, likelihood, and manageability of the risks. The resulting risks can then be placed on the scoring grid below and actions identified to address the risks. Once...



  4. 2013-01-20 This information in this worksheet is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges, Managing Director/Consultant,African Agriculture Risk Management Services, Uganda. Steve spoke at the 2012 ECHO International Agriculture Conference



  5. 2013-01-20 This Risk Assessment Exercise is bestused in conjunction with the other Risk Management materials provided by Steve Hodges

ECHO Asia News




  1. 2016-11-20



  2. 2016-05-20



  3. 2015-09-20



  4. 2015-03-20



  5. 2014-11-20
5 more ECHO Asia News

Sustainable Nutrition Manual, 2nd Edition (2016)




  1. 2016-01-20 HealthHumans isaboutthe human body and nutrition. You will also learn about foodchoicesand the benefits of diversity in diet. It has lots of useful ideas toimprove life and manydelicious recipes and suggestions for tasty, healthymeals. *Sustainable Nutrition Manual (SNM): Food, Water, Agriculture...



  2. 2016-01-20 HealthyDesigns is about designing for sustainable living. This book brings parts 1 and2together and guides you to make a personalised plan for SustainableNutrition. This book ispractical to design everything on your land. There islots of information in the appendicesabout foods of Malawi and...





  3. 2016-01-20 HealthyEnvironments is about natural systems and sustainability. You will learn abouttheNature Cycle and the Water Cycle and natural sustainable systems. You willbe introduced toPermaculture ideas and gain an understanding of the benefitsof diversity in Nature. *Sustainable Nutrition Manual...

ECHO Summaries




  1. 2015-08-05 The complexity of the global food system creates a diverse group of actors ranging from smallholders to large corporations involved in the agriculture sector. Each of the many actors in an agriculture value chain has different needs, objectives, strengths and weaknesses. With women accounting for...





  2. 2015-08-05 Good intentions and viable solutions will have little impact unless we engage with farmers in ways that are meaningful to them. Farmers put a great deal of confidence in what they learn from fellow farmers’ experiences, and they are more likely to trust what they see over what they hear....





  3. 2015-07-14 Workshops are an often-used and effective tool that extension workers can use to teach new skills to groups of farmers. This document, drawn from the USAID/MEAS Technical Note on Presenting Workshops to Adults, explains how a workshop setting differs from that of a classroom/teaching setting, and...



  4. 2015-07-13 Based on a MEAS paper entitled, The Current and Future Roles of Small Farm Resource Centers in Extension and Advisory Services: Synthesis Report from Seven Case Studies in Southeast Asia, this document highlights key take-a-ways of an assessment by ECHO of seven SFRCs in Southeast Asia. Through...



  5. 2015-06-03 Field-based teaching provides first-hand experience about the subject matter being discussed. An on-site encounter allows farmers to observe innovations in practice, discuss them, and ask questions. Farmers exposed to new ideas will be much more likely to understand and apply the information if...
7 more ECHO Summaries

Heifer International - Selected Publications




  1. 2015-01-20 Dairying as an enterprise has got a place alongside other viable tools of poverty alleviation, besides creating job opportunities to jobless families in Tanzania. Statistics from the ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development show that there are about 800,000 improved dairy cattle in...
  2. 2010-01-20 Swahili Only Ufugaji bora wa ng'ombe wa maziwa-2





  3. 2010-01-20 Pig farming in Tanzania has primarily been for a long time of backyard and informal sector producers. However in order to secure both food and nutritional security to rural Tanzania households, there is a need of embracing integrated approaches in livestock farming. Pig farming in Tanzania is...





  4. 2010-01-20 Swahili only Mwongozo wa ufugaji bora wa mbuzi wa maziwa
  5. 2008-07-20 Swahili Only Kitabu cha kuku wa asili
5 more Heifer International - Selected Publications

CAN Agricultura






  1. 2014-01-20 5ta Edición revisada y ampliada Chile Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura Spanish Only.

USDA Agriculture Handbooks




  1. 2014-01-20 A Guide to Starting and Operating a Nursery for Native and Traditional Plants This handbook was written for anyone endeavoring to start and operate a nursery for native and traditional plants in the tropics. Because the tropics cover a vast area of the world, however, the scope of the handbook is...



  2. 2002-01-20 File: Download [PDF File] 38MB Author(s): Vozzo, J. A.,United States. Forest Service. Subject(s): Trees -- Tropics -- Seeds.,Trees -- North America -- Seeds.,Tropical plants -- Seeds -- Identification.,Tropical plants -- North America -- Seeds -- Identification. Format: 899 p. Coverage: tropics...



  3. 1987-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Campbell, Carl W.,Ruberte, Ruth M.,United States. Agricultural Research Service. Subject(s): Plants, Edible -- Tropics.,Tropical fruit. Format: 247 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural...



  4. 1978-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Degras, Lucien. Subject(s): Yams -- Tropics. Format: iii, 23 p. Coverage: tropics Language: English Publisher: Science and Education Administration, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in cooperation with Agency for International Development Year:...



  5. 1978-01-19 File: Download [PDF File] Author(s): Martin, Franklin W.,Degras, Lucien. Subject(s): Yams. Format: iv, 26 p. Language: English Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Year: 1978 Series: USDA agriculture handbooks Rights: This item is authored by federal employees as part of their official duties...
5 more USDA Agriculture Handbooks

COMPAS - Newsletter for Endogenous Development




  1. 2011-06-20 Policy support for endogenous development Seed diversity celebration in Peru Ghanaian community protects sacred groves from mining Holistic assessment program in Bolivia Recognion and support for traditional anti-malarial programmes Organic farming - India



  2. 2010-07-20 Bio-cultural community Bio-cultural protocols The stuggle for a law on Sacred Sites in Guatemala



  3. 2009-06-20 What mattters most for local wellbeing in Peru? Proud to be an African Merging livihoods and ecology in the forest of Vietnam A folk healer tells his story Guru-Gola



  4. 2008-12-20 Small grains effective against food shortages Intercultural hospital Drawing onc culture to protect AIDS widows and orghans Biodiveristy education Biodynamic agriculture



  5. 2007-01-20
6 more COMPAS - Newsletter for Endogenous Development

A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics




  1. 2005-01-20 With all the instant gratification available to the consumer these days, nature seems to take a long time. Stabilizing your soil, pasture and livestock areas don’t happen over night. Nevertheless, Microbial Management with foliar sprays and fertilizers can help in the transition.



  2. 2005-01-20 The rice industry in the Philippines has gone through various challenges and will benefit from EM technologies. Growing, harvesting and processing rice creates high volumes of waste that can be captured and converted back into fertilizer for the next crop. It is important to understand the...



  3. 2005-01-20 Cover cropping is Fundamental #7. It is the technique of growing plants that protect the soil to conserve topsoil and moisture. It can be considered a living mulch. Under sowing legumes below existing crops and other companion plants will work well. You get all the advantages of mulching; soil...



  4. 2005-01-20 Plans should be drawn up before any effort is wasted. Think through your traffic routes and flow of materials. Integrate your resource recovery plan in this process. Set your goals and lay down the steps that you think are needed as you see it now. Write it down; it will be a flexible starting...



  5. 2005-01-20 It’s time for some hands on farming. This step makes inoculation affordable to the masses. We will grow some microbes. We call this EM Extended. We will make a concoction that used to take me 27 man-hours to make and weeks to watch and monitor while propagating. I had to grow each organism...
24 more A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics

Books






  1. 1995-01-01 Dans le présent manuel de référence, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi les promoteurs de groupe peuvent aider hommes et femmes, dans les communautés rurales, à s'unir et à travailler ensemble pour améliorer leur revenu et leurs conditions de vie. Le manuel présente une approche participative dans...





  2. Devant l'aggravation de la dégradation de nos milieux agricoles, certains ont la tentation de baisser les bras, d'autres se tournent vers les solutions ésotériques qui évidemment n'aboutissent pas, et d'autres impertubablement, continuent à mettre en œuvre, soil la technique plus ou moins...



  3. 1999-01-01 A collection of messages brought at the Washington Forum for all attending to deepen their understanding of worldwide humanitarian needs and issues and to become better informed onthe subject.
7190 more books



  1. That sweet, orange-colored root vegetable that you love so dearly is actually a sweetpotato. Yes, all so-called “yams” are in fact sweetpotatoes. Most people think that long, red-skinned sweetpotatoes are yams, but they really are just one of many varieties of sweetpotatoes. So where did all of...
  2. Srivastava, Shobhit & Kumar, Sunil & Sharma, Kapil. (2016). BOTTLING OF BIOGAS-A RENEWABLE APPROACH. 1. Abstract :Energy is essential for human development. Energy is the key input for socioeconomic development of any nation. The fast industrialization and rapid urbanization besides...



  3. Citation: Prasedya, E.S.; Kurniawan, N.S.H.; Kirana, I.A.P.; Ardiana, N.; Abidin, A.S.; Ilhami, B.T.K.; Jupri, A.; Widyastuti, S.; Sunarpi, H.; Nikmatullah, A. Seaweed Fertilizer Prepared by EM-Fermentation Increases Abundance of Beneficial Soil Microbiome in Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) during...
3280 more links

Presentations




  1. 2022-05-19 A quick overview of the different categories of common crop pests and diseases, and tools for identifying them.



  2. 2022-05-19 This is an introductory overview of Integrated Pest Management as a management system and includes a summary ofprevention, cultural, physical, biological, and chemical controls.



  3. 2022-04-08 This presentation helps to help prevent the spread of the African Swine Fever Virus and other illnesses that can impact livestock. Good planning and consistent execution of biosecurity measures can help reduce the risk to livelihoods dependent on livestock.
1005 more presentations

Plant Information Sheets

  1. Acacia mangium can grow to be a tall tree up to 30 m. It is a fast-growing tree that can tolerate acidic and degraded soils. This tree grows best with moderate rainfall and full sunlight. It is one of the major leguminous species used in plantation forestry programs throughout Asia and the...
  2. Adzuki bean is a bushingor vining, nitrogen-fixingannual plant that is moderately drought tolerant. This bean grows best in temperate climates or higher altitudes in the tropics. The young pods, fresh seeds, and dry beans are used for human consumption.
663 more plant information sheets

Videos




  1. This video will demonstrate the following techniques with various crops: Leafy crops like collard greens (Brassica oleracea[Acephala group]) may be harvested by snapping or pinching the leaves off the plant by hand. This is best done by cupping your hand above the leaves to be harvested and...



  2. Lightning Talk, ECHOEast Africa Pastoralist Symposium, March 29, 2022. Presenter: Nate Flood



  3. Lightning Talk, ECHOEast Africa Pastoralist Symposium, March 29, 2022. Presenter: Jeremy Lowney
549 more videos