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  1. 1984-01-01 People discovered bow to use clay over 20,000 years ago. The basic principles of shaping, drying, and firing clay are still the same today as they were then. The only significant changes since the discovery of clay have been the identification of additional clay materials and improvements in the...
  2. 1988-01-01 The investment and labor force required for this plant are very small. The objects are decorated with the application of ceramic colors, engobes, and stains, all of which can be purchased initially in the United States, England, France, or Germany, and later fabricated by the potter. The local...
  3. 1990-01-01 Bridges are a part of the transportation system of a region. They are used to span an obstacle like a stream or chasm. Bridges make the system more efficient either by saving travel distance or by enabling vehicles or pedestrians to reach places that were previously inaccessible. There are four...
  4. 1990-01-01 The purpose of this manual is to outline, in as simple a manner as possible, the details of making and burning clay brick suitable for domestic building. The scope of the manual is confined to "cottage industries"; it does not cover large commercial production such as is known in the United...
  5. 1990-01-01 Sun-dried earthen blocks (adobe) have been used as a building material for thousands of years, especially in very dry areas. Clay is mixed with water, and sometimes straw to keep the finished blocks from cracking, and formed by hand into blocks. The blocks are placed in the sun until they are...
  6. 1989-01-01 This process is for the manufacture of small, box-shaped paper bags (our specific process turns out one and three quarters kilo bags, but a similar process is possible for other sizes as well.) It is designed to make 500 bags per day with a labor force of 3 to 5 people. This method uses labor as...
  7. 1986-01-01 One field in which hand and small-scale papermakers do find a niche is the production of the very highest quality "art" papers, or the manufacture of a variety, of paper products or small local markets that are not served by large producers. Another area in which papermaking processes can be...
  8. 1989-01-01 This paper describes how to start or expand a paint manufacturing facility in a nonindustrial country. The business information can also apply to the manufacture of number of other products, printing inks, cosmetics, glues and adhesives, textile treatments, carpet backing, paper modifications,...
  9. 1985-01-01 The purpose of this manual is to help development workers and others to become aware of the environmental factors that should be considered in planning small-scale energy projects that are environmentally sound and therefore more likely to be sustained. Environmentally sound planning includes the...
  10. Effective management during the postharvest period, rather than the level of sophistication of any given technology, is the key in reaching the desired objectives. While large scale operations may benefit from investing in costly handling machinery and high-tech postharvest treatments, often...