In countries experiencing intense population pressure, there is seldom enough land for pasture or for crops grown specifically for livestock. In many instances they are fed the locally available agricultural by-products and scavenged mature forage, which are usually deficient in minerals, energy and protein. Animals in these situations are not primarily producers but rather serve many purposes: insurance, mobile capital, a source of fuel, traction, a fertilizer factory, and status symbols. Unsophisticated but scientifically based research has been carried out in developing countries, primarily on farms, over the past few decades seeking to optimize the production of such animals from local resources.



  1. 2018-05-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 35. One of the best things that you can do to complete your sustainable farm or garden is to balance it with a small livestock unit. Livestock integration is fundamental #10 in my book Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics. If you read ECHO Asia Notes,...
  2. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. The amazing multi-stomached ruminant comes in many forms, with varied nutritional requirements. Ruminants are even-toed, cloven-hoofed, four-legged, cud-chewing mammals of the suborder Ruminantia (within order Artiodactyla). Cattle, water buffalo, goats,...
  3. 2010-04-01 People will be rewarded by intentionally being browsers. By eating a wide variety of foods, we will be more likely to take in a sufficient daily amount of all that we need for good health. In contrast, cultures that, for example, eat mainly rice or tortillas or bread made from one kind of grain...
  4. 2002-07-20 The purpose of this article is to show that with strategic supplementation, using locally available resources (straw, maize stover, poor quality grass, etc.), small-scale farmers in the tropics can have productive ruminants that emit less methane (believed to contribute to global warming) and...
  5. 2005-01-20 The best way to finish off your dream farm or garden is to balance it with a small livestock unit. Animal integration is Fundamental #10. It will create a low cost high quality fertilizer source as well as produce food to eat. Livestock properly managed will bring the tropical farmer higher...
  6. 2008-07-20 Bone mealhas another use. You can overcome mineral deficiencies in cattle by making your own cattle lick or mineral block, using bonemeal as the source of phosphorous.
  7. 2016-11-01 Field days focusing on livestock production have been successfully used as a means to introduce and disseminate technologies. Training producers about improved management practices is greatly aided by supporting trainees to visit better off farmers. However, selection of farmers or producers to...
  8. 2016-07-11 Editors: ECHO will be hosting a three-day workshop in September at our Florida campus, on the topic of small-scale livestock production in the tropics (see the “Upcoming Events” section for details). Our Global Farm incorporates many animals, including ducks, rabbits, chickens, pigs, and goats—so...
  9. 2017-02-08 In marginal environments where strong crop-livestock interactions exist, inclusive and equitable access to finance, well-functioning land rental markets, and efficient provision of extension advisory services contribute significantly towards the shift to more sustainable land use management and...
  10. 2016-11-01 Africa Rising was a five-year project, funded by USAID, that sought to identify and promote solutions for for sustainableintenslfication of the mixed farming systems in the Ethiopian Highlands. The project worked closely with both research and development partner to develop and validate...
  11. 2016-03-01 Session: The Livestock to Markets Program(LTM) is a social enterprise owned by NRT through its business company called -NRT Trading company. LTM aims to commercialize livestock marketing among pastoralists by providing an assured, equitable and reliable market for good quality cattle in order to...
  12. 2015-05-12 How the Aloha House manages its livestock using Natural Farming techniques and effective microorganisms, Part I.
  13. 2016-03-02 Session: The pastoral areas of Kenya are characterised by poor access to quality livestock services. Consequently the pastoralists are forced to purchase sub-standard and/or counterfeit veterinary drugs - often from unqualified people - to meet their animal health needs. They also treat their...
  14. The Portal of the Community of Practice for Pro-poor Livestock Development (CoP-PPLD) is an on-line sharing network for practitioners, managers, researchers and other actors involved in pro-poor livestock development that want to exchange experiences, innovative approaches, best/next practices...
  15. 1978-01-01 This book is useful for students, livestock extension specialists, progressive livestock owners and administrators concerned with the development of livestock industries and the economy.
  16. Pastoralists live precarious lives with extreme weather, such as drought, posing a potentially fatal threat to livestock – often pastoralists’ only asset and income source. To buffer livestock keepers from these risks, insurance schemes such as the Kenya Livestock Insurance Programme (KLIP),...
  17. AccessAgriculture Training Video In semi-arid West Africa, farmers and herders explain why and how trees and livestock play a crucial role in obtaining a productive soil and crop. In Niger and Ghana this is one of the strategies of integrated striga and soil fertility management that has a...
  18. This section on livestock includes all animals that are farmed, as well as insects such as bees. Fish and other aquatic animals are covered in the fisheries section.
  19. Animal health Cattle Horses & Donkeys Other Livestock Pigs Poultry Rabbits Sheep & Goats
  20. Abstract,Animal Health Training and Consultancy Service , 2012 Livestock is directly related to the lives and livelihoods of the world's most poor and marginalized citizens. By definition. a poor livestock keeper does not hold enough livestock to meet basic subsistence needs. yet depends upon...
  21. Eric Toensmeier is a lecturer at Yale University and a senior researcher with the climate change-focused nonprofit Project Drawdown. He is the author of “The Carbon Farming Solution.” Silvopasture systems combine trees, livestock (ruminants like cattle, sheep and goats) and grazing. Ranchers and...
  22. In many countries across the world, livestock are an integral part of poor people’s livelihoods, contributing to household income, food security and nutrition. They can provide quality food (meat, milk, and eggs); capital (sale, barter and hire); fertilizer (manure); draught power for cultivation...
  23. Balancing the needs of livestock and the need to keep soils covered is an on-going challenge with conservation agriculture throughout the world. When crop residues, grass, and mulch materials are in short supply, animal health and soil health both suffer. Competition for these materials can lead...
  24. 2016-04-12 Small ruminants are of the order of animals which have a stomach with four complete cavities (rumen, reticulum, omasum , abomasums) , through which the food passes in digestion. The division includes sheep and goats. Some other in this order (ruminants) that are not small ruminants are cattle,...
  25. 2017-02-09 This presentation will look at the differences between relief, rehabilitation, and development. We will see some of the challenges involved in determining which one of those three interventions is needed in different situations and we will talk about what to consider when transitioning from...
  26. Abstract, International Livestock Research Institute, 2006 : Livestock keeping is critical for many of the poor in the developing world, often contributing to multiple livelihood objectives and offering pathways out of poverty. Livestock keeping also affects an indispensable asset of the poor,...
  27. 2018-03-06
  28. Key Resource 1991-01-01 An intriguing, well-organized discussion of a large number of smaller animals that can be raised for multiple purposes, whether for food, fur, milk, or other purposes. These animals often reproduce more quickly than conventional farm animals, are able to thrive in environments where other animals...
  29. Key Resource 1996-01-01 Animal health Vol. 1 is a valuable guide for anyone involved with maintaining and establishing the health of animals in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It explains the causes of animal diseases, how they are spread and the means available for their control.
  30. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37. One of the great challenges of sustainable agriculture is the sourcing of adequate and affordable organic (carbon based) resources that can be used on-farm for the production of food and feed. Utilizing composts, manures, mulches, and other organic inputs...
  31. Abstract,Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability2014 Fodder trees are important feed sources for livestock in a wide range offarming systemsin Africa. Researchers, extension services and farmers have developed and promoted fodder tree practices in many different countries and contexts....
  32. Now is a time of exciting new developments for live animal power. As the numbers of adherents to this way of life grow, ecologically minded farmers in their fields are developing efficient horse-drawn systems, and equipment manufacturers in small shops all across North America and Europe are...
  33. 1977-06-01 After explaining why the draft horse is again in demand by farmers, the author explains the basics of farming with horses: how to care for the animals, find and repair horse-drawn machinery, and harness a team
  34. 2018-05-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 35. Introduction One of the best things that you can do to complete your sustainable farm or garden is to balance it with a small livestock unit. Livestock integration is fundamental #10 in my book Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics. If you read ECHO Asia...
  35. Livestock research and development work has tended to lag behind crop production work in the development and application of methods for participatory technology development. However, the case for participatory research is just as strong in relation to livestock as it is in relation to crops; and...
  36. 1970-01-01 In this trial, molasses alone and molasses-urea were compared with corn-and-cob meal-urea on an equivaltent T.D.N. and /or protein basis.
  37. This handbook presents a wealth of information on the theory and practice of animal husbandry in clear and precise terms. It attempts to show a broad panoramic picture of the many problems facing the animal husbandry workers and is intended to meet the practical requirements of students,...
  38. This book looks at food processing wastes, industrial nonfood processing wastes, forest residues, animal wastes, crop residues, and aquatic plants as to their value and safety as animal feedstuffs.
  39. 2016-01-01 Since 1944, the National Research Council (NRC) has published seven editions of theNutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the cattle and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs...
  40. 1971-01-01 This book describes some of the health and management problems of the feedlot industry. The volume may help practicing veterinarians in preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases; feedlot operators in understanding, accepting and planning health programs; and students in perceiving the...
  41. This manual is designed for development assistance workers and others who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects. Although aimed specifically at those working in less-developed areas of the tropics and subtropics, these environmental guidelines apply to almost any region of the...
  42. 1985-01-01 The content of the symposium is limited entirely to bovine neonatal diarrhea, those disorders responsible for causing enteric disease in enonates (calves less than 2 wksofage). Intestinal parasites, viral respiratory agents and other agents capable of causing diarrheal disease in older calves...
  43. Animal Breeding examines in detail the various techniques that can be used in breeding animals, such as selection, cross-breeding and inbreeding. Examples of the various techniques are given, including their advantages and disadvantages in tropical and sub-tropical environments, and how they can...
  44. 1985-01-01 This book describes the causes, symptoms, treatment and control of the main diseases of tropical livestock. The second edition has been thoroughly revised to take account of recent developments in veterinary science and the changing incidence of many diseases.
  45. 2016-01-01 The main aim of this Agrodok is to provide information on how to increase beef production in extensive and low-input systems, utilizing existing conditions, but in a different way. This is a different form of intensifcation of production and requires a different look at the system, and probably a...
  46. This booklet was provided by Christian Veterinary Missions to provide basic information concerning beef cattle for missionaries, small farmers, and agricultural workers. Topics discussed are Facilities and Handling, Nutrition, Management, DIseases and Poisonings.
  47. 1983-01-01 This report began as a brief examination of the domesticated banteng, a little studied bovine that is an important livestock resource in eastern Indonesia. But the study expanded to include other possibly useful but obscure bovines of Asia: the madura, gaur, mithan, kouprey, anoa, tamaraw, yak,...
  48. 1994-01-01 Animal Health Volume 2 is a valuable guide for anyone involved with maintaining and establishing the health of animals in tropical and sub-tropical countries. All the important diseases are covered, including infectious and contagiouse diseases, helminth infections, diseases transmittey by...
  49. 1996-01-01 This publication includes a glossary of English-French terms that are a useful tool for translators, interpreters and scientists working in animal agriculture and related fields.
  50. 1994-01-01 This book has been written in response to the growing interest in restocking with livestock following the drought of 1991-92 in eastern and southern Africa. It draws together the salient points from a number of rehabilitation projects in Africa, which can usefuuly help the practitioner decide...
  51. 1995-01-01 Despite today's low cattle prices you can make a good profit with a small beef cattle operation. This book will show you how. However, this is not just a "how-to" book. It is also a book of philosophy, feelings and beliefs.
  52. Animal-source foods are commonly lacking in the diets of the poor and vulnerable in developing countries, particularly children and women who need them most. Due to their high content of quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients,increased consumption of animal-source foodscan improve the...
  53. Abstract,Basic and Applied Ecology, 2019 Agroecosystems represent a large geographical footprint in most terrestrial landscapes, and management decisions within these systems affect their function in species conservation. We evaluated the effects that rangeland management systems (based on...
  54. Abstract, Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science, 2016 This study was designed to examine the characteristics of sawdust and cocopeat bedding materials, including physicochemical properties (Exp. I) and on-farm trial (Exp. II). In Exp. I, the proportion of particle size was in the order of...
  55. 2020-04-20 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes At the end of this course,...
  56. 2007-04-30 This publication describes how pasture, fodder and livestock production have been integrated into conservation agriculture systems in Brazil's tropical zones. Vast areas of forest have been cleared in the tropical areas of Brazil for establishment of pastures that become unproductive once the...
  57. See Rangelands Decision Support Tool
  58. Livestock contribute to the farming operations of more than 800 million poor smallholders. Rural households can improve their livelihoods by raising a wide variety of animals: cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, camels, llamas, alpacas, horses, donkeys, rabbits and even bees. It is...
  59. The main goal of developing the tool is to facilitate multi-temporal assessment and monitoring of rangeland resources by developing a web based tool that will aggregate key indicators to rangeland productivity with ancillary data and allow for integration of user selected indicators to produce...