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ECHO Asia Notes is a quarterly technical e-bulletin containing articles of interest to agriculture and community development workers in Asia.

This list contains articles from ECHO Asia Notes, many of which have been translated into regional languages.  

77 该出版物的期数 (正在显示期号 37 - 32)

Preventing Insect Damage of Stored Seed Using Low-Cost Control Options - 2019-02-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37.

Seed saving in sub-tropical and tropical climates is challenging. Without equipment designed to maintain dry and cool environments, the quality of seeds may quickly deteriorate. High temperature and humidity during storage increase seed metabolism and encourage the proliferation of seed-eating insects (Lale and Vidal, 2003; Upadhyay and Ahmad, 2011). Technologies such as refrigerators, dehumidifiers, and pesticides can help prevent these seed-damaging conditions, but may not be available to smallholder farmers in the tropics. Traditionally, many locally available treatments have been used to prevent insect pests. These treatments, typically added to seeds prior to storage, are meant to poison, damage, or discourage movement of insects around the seeds. Some treatments may effectively reduce insect growth, but they may also damage seed viability; it is important to identify which treatments are effective and appropriate for use by farmers. ECHO Asia research staff analyzed five low-cost treatments to determine their effectiveness in preventing the growth of a common seed storage pest called cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) in stored Lablab bean seeds (Lablab purpureus L.). In keeping with previous ECHO research by Croft et al. 2012, each treatment was also analyzed with and without vacuum sealing. 

Rice Hull Gold - 10 On-Farm Uses of Rice Hulls - 2019-02-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37.

One of the great challenges of sustainable agriculture is the sourcing of adequate and affordable organic (carbon based) resources that can be used on-farm for the production of food and feed. Utilizing composts, manures, mulches, and other organic inputs from the farm is a challenge on its own, and the production of each often requires its own input of materials. These are materials that are often in direct competition of each other on the farm and a challenge to supply completely with smaller land holdings or available labor. A mulch for example, may be in direct competition with livestock fodder, thus making it a challenge to feed it out while still producing enough mulch. Using some of that same material to produce a compost or a fuel becomes even more challenging still.

Gracious Greetings from the New Regional Director of ECHO Asia - 2019-02-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37.

With deep gratitude, I wish to thank you all ECHO network members for continuous support of and participation in this ECHO Asia Notes published quarterly. Without your valuable participation, this newsletter would not sustain its wide readership and distribution, as well as its value addition to the different endeavors that we do as farmers, community development workers, teachers, managers, researchers, educators, social entrepreneurs, missionaries, trainers, leaders and others. To a significant degree, our inspiration and motives behind this quarterly publication hinge on our collective interests for information sharing, resourcing, networking and learning with and from each other. This is a public good that we, together, contribute to the greater society.

Soil Amendments for Healthier Soils - 2018-10-31

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 36.

Soil chemical, physical, and biological properties range from those highly favorable to plant growth to those highly unfavorable to plant growth. It is rare—especially in the tropics—to find a soil in its natural state in which all properties are highly favorable to plant growth. Nevertheless, as long as there is sufficient soil depth to provide an adequately deep and well-drained root zone, proper amendment and management of soil properties can result in almost any soil becoming suitable for plant growth. Even naturally infertile soils and soils with very low water-holding capacity can produce extraordinarily high crop yields with proper management and inputs.

将生物炭放在边缘使用:质量、土壤和测量 - 2018-05-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 35.

Michael Shafer 博士身为美国罗格斯大学政治学退休教授,其于 2008 年创立了暖心基金会。在于 2013 年 ECHO 会议上首次了解到生物炭之后,暖心团队开始为小型农场主设计并测试改进型生物炭制造设备,其具有成本低、技术要求低的优势。在 2017 年,暖心团队因开发村级生物炭社会企业模型而获得世界能源全球奖(泰国)。该团队刚刚推出了一家以“Rak Din”品牌销售农民生物炭产品的社会企业。 


在这篇文章中,Shafer 博士分享了他在发展中国家世界中实际使用生物炭的经验。他的目标是重新关注生物炭的研究,将其从学术实验室转移到发展中国家混乱的农场环境之中。他希望让“泥巴里的靴子”开发实践者放心,他们可以在现场制造、使用甚至测试生物炭。 

热带地区小型农场的家畜一体化 - 2018-05-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 35.

如果想要实现您所拥有的农场或花园的可持续化,您能做到最好的一件事就是努力使其与一个小型家畜单元之间实现良好的共存和平衡。在本人所著的《热带可持续农业》一书中,家畜一体化是农业可持续发展的基础支持。如果您读过《ECHO 亚洲笔记》,您就很有可以更加容易的参与到农业和园艺工作之中。家畜不仅能够产出成本低且质量高的粪肥,同时还能产出用来食用或制造衣物的食物或材料。尽管科学家试图复制传统畜牧系统一体化的好处,但具体量化结果并不总是很容易的在现场试验中显示出来。 

使用发泡胶盒对热带蘑菇培养基进行巴氏灭菌的一种创新、廉价、环保的方法

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 33.

平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)等蘑菇通常生长在装有有机物质的塑料袋中,这些有机物质可能包括有机农业废弃物。该材料必须消毒(加热到100℃以上)或巴氏灭菌(加热到更低
的温度,60℃或更高)才能防止细菌、病毒和真菌孢子的污染。然而,由于能源需求,消毒和巴氏杀菌对小农户来说很有挑战性。通常,小规模农民使用滚筒杀菌法,在此过程中,水被加热至沸腾。农民必须购买或收集木柴来加热水(一项昂贵和/或劳动密集型的工作)。木炭的购买和制造成本更高。此外,滚筒灭菌的结果可能不一致,这取决于所使用的设备和防火木材的质量。 
本文中介绍的新型、易于制造的巴氏杀菌设备价格低廉、经久耐用、易于制备,并且不需要化石燃料能源。巴氏杀菌过程不需要监控,因此需要较少的劳动力。 
本文的目的是鼓励其他开发人员和当地农民继续这些初步实验,以改进这种设备或其他类似的设备,使它们能够在他们自己的不同环境中使用,目的是帮助小规模农民在种植蘑菇时节约能源和金钱。 

Op-Ed:促进人类发展的饲料植物

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 33.

我拜读了David Price对于在亚洲(注25)推广入侵性饲料植物的观点,并希望根据自己的经验和观察做出回应。 
我的答复将基于以下原则: 

1.    尽一切可能帮助贫困农民这种行为完全合乎道德。
2.    人类活动的主要目的是改善人类的生存状况。因此,保护自然环境不一定是发展活动的首要目标。

在过去的45年里,我一直在向小农推广David列出的所有物种的使用和扩展。我想解决谈谈David对亚洲(注25)中列出的每一种物种的开发。我现在住在泰国北部,所以我将使用当地的例子,但是这些观点应该同样适用于大多数潮湿和半潮湿的热带地区。 

在热带地区引进改良马铃薯品种的廉价播种技术 - 2017-08-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 32.

Dr. Tapani Haapala

主旨:

  • 土豆可产生大量蛋白质和其他所需的营养素。
  • 因为气候炎热,土豆在热带地区难以生长。
  • 适合热带地区种植的新品种
  • 急需事半功倍的原料制造方法
  • 测试中的新的高效方法

多种作为气化炉的原料的生产废料的比较 - 2017-08-15

This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 32.

简介
对于许多发展中国家的家庭而言,烹饪所需的日常能量是繁重且昂贵的。 幸运的
是,对于家庭而言,低成本的烹饪方法越来越容易,这些方法需要更少的燃料,同时
得以更加清洁和有效地燃烧。 一种行之有效的方法是家用气化炉灶,家用气化炉灶旨
在将少量的碳基固体生物质(通常来自废物或低成本物质)转化为用于烹饪的可燃气
体(参见Dussadee 博士关于气化炉如何工作来获取更多信息) 工作(2013))。


与燃烧传统木材或其他生物质的烹饪技术相比,气化炉烹饪炉具有许多优点。 在
气化炉中燃烧二次气体(热解)可以实现二次清洁,形成更有效的燃烧,减少烟雾。
否则将导致严重的健康问题(Berkelaar 2004)。 由于这些炉子旨在使用少量的碳基生
物质材料,因此还可以大大减少烹饪所需的燃料量。 因此,收集木材变得简单高效,
并且使用更少的树木,尤其是使用低质量或废弃的原料代替木材时。 在某些情况下,
这些炉子甚至可以帮助隔离碳,而不是将碳释放到空气中 - 例如,将废燃料(从气化
炉的低氧环境产生的高质量富碳废物)用作生物炭土壤改良剂时(Hugill 2013)。


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Asia