ဟင်းသီးဟင်းရွက်များသည် အပင်အစိတ်အပိုင်းများဖြစ်ပြီး လူ၏အစားအစာအဖြစ် အသုံးပြုသည်။ ၎င်းတို့ကို အရွက်၊ ပင်စည်၊ အမြစ်၊ အပွင့်၊ အဖူး၊ အစေ့နု၊ အခွံမာအစေ့ သို့မဟုတ် ပင်ပေါက်များ (အစေ့မှ အပင်ပေါက်စအခြေအနေ) အဖြစ် သုံးရန် စိုက်ပျိုးသည်။ အာဟာရစွမ်းအားအပေါ် မူတည်ပြီး အရွက်ဖားဟင်းသီးဟင်းရွက်များနှင့် ဘူးဖရုံသခွားများကို ဥယျာဉ်ဟင်းသီးဟင်းရွက်များနှင့် ခွဲခြားထားပါသည်။ ဟင်းသီးဟင်းရွက်များသည် ဗီတာမင်နှင့် သတ္တုဓာတ်ရရှိရေးအတွက် အရေးပါသော စားကုန်များဖြစ်သည်။


  1. African Okra Abelmoschus caillei

    Abelmoschus caillei originated and is now grown mostly in West and Central Africa, where it has become an important vegetable crop. This variety of okra is particularly popular with subsistence farmers as it can produce a food crop year round, has a higher market value as it is available in the...
  2. Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.

    Okra probably originated in North East Africa growing along rivers and bodies of water at 0 - 1000m elevation. It remains widely grown around the world for its nutritious pods, leaves, and fiber. It prefers hot temperatures with plenty of water. Regular picking of the pods triggers continuous...
  3. Vegetable Amaranth Amaranthus tricolor., A. cruentus, A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus

    Vegetable amaranths are mostly erect, annual plants, and are collected from the wild or cultivated in hot humid regions of Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. Several species of Amaranthus are grown for their protein-rich leaves and plant tops. The seeds of vegetable amaranths may be eaten but grain...
  4. Cowpea Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata

    Cowpea can be erect, climbing, vining, or prostrate, is a nitrogen-fixing annual, and is one of the most common legumes globally. The young pods, mature green seeds and dry seeds are eaten, and for livestock it is consumed as hay, pasture, or dried vines and pods. Cowpea is also an excellent...
  5. Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

    The common bean is one of the main food crops globally. Bush varieties reach 20-60cm while climbing (or “pole”) varieties reach up to 3m in height. Depending on the variety, common beans are grown for their green pods and/or mature, dry seeds.
  6. Wax Gourd Benincasa hispida (syn. B. cerifera)

    Wax gourds are vining plants that produce large, round wax-covered fruits. Originally from Southeast Asia, the species is grown in many lowland tropical environments up to 1,300 m in elevation. The long vines may be trained along trellises or up buildings where they produce fruit. Fruits are...
  7. Onion Allium cepa L

    Onion is a hardy biennial from southern parts of Russia and Iran. It was disseminated by the Indo-European peoples during their numerous migrations. Very ancient forms of Onion are still for sale in Middle Eastern markets.
  8. Garlic Chives Allium tuberosum

    Garlic Chives have mild, flat, tender leaves that taste like onion and garlic. Garlic Chives are a perennial, cool season vegetable, which flowers in the hot summer. They can tolerate high temperature and grow in many soil types.
  9. Collards Brassica oleracea var. viridis

    Collards are a cruciferous crop (cabbage family) grown for the leaves. The wide, smooth, blue-green leaves of collards have a spinach-like flavor and are the highest in nutrients of the dark green, leafy vegetables.
  10. Cucumber Cucumis sativus

    Cucumbers probably originated in India and became popular in Greece and Italy. They are now grown worldwide both commercially and in home gardens. The fruit of this vegetable plant is thick, cylindrical, 6-40 cm long, and shiny green. It can be eaten raw in salads, pickled or cooked in stews or...
  11. Beets Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris

    Garden Beets, also called beetroot, are a hardy, cool-season root crop with edible leaves and a fleshy, tap root. The most common beets are deep red throughout but there are varieties that are yellow, white or mixed. The roots are a source of calories and the leaves are a good source of fiber...
  12. Broccoli Brassica oleracea var. italica

    Broccoli is a cruciferous crop (cabbage family) grown for the head that is made of a cluster of many, dark green buds formed at the end of an edible stalk. It is a temperate crop that can be grown in the tropics at higher elevations. Broccoli has become a common, favorite vegetable around the...
  13. Kale Brassica oleracea var. viridis syn. acephala

    Kale is a cruciferous crop (cabbage family) grown for the leaves. Kale will withstand more heat than other Brassicas and is also tolerant of light frost, which can actually improve flavor. There are many varieties of leaf shape, color and height from a low mat of curled shoots to 2 m high. The...
  14. Chinese Kale Brassica oleracea alboglabra

    Chinese Kale, also called Kailaan or Chinese Broccoli, has glossy, blue-green leaves with crisp and thick stems. This vegetable adapts well to cold and hot climates and is grown all year round in mild climates. After the first cutting of the main stem, the plant will grow many branches for...
  15. Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Cabbage is a hardy, leafy cruciferous vegetable that forms a compact, round head. It is native to southern Europe but can be grown in tropical or semi-tropical areas in cooler highlands where the winters are mild and there is a good supply of moisture. Some varieties in stock at ECHO are fairly...
  16. Tree Tomato Cyphomandra betacea

    Tree tomatoes are small, half-woody, fast growing, solanaceous trees reaching 3 to 5.5 m in height that are native to South American highlands. Tree tomatoes are edible and can be consumed either as a fruit or vegetable. In the tropics, tree tomatoes do best at elevations between 1500 and 2800...
  17. Eggplant Solanum melongena

    Eggplant is a popular solanaceous garden vegetable grown for its edible fruit. There are many varieties of this strong upright plant. Some produce fruits that are long and thin, some produce round fruits and others large bell shaped fruit. The varieties range in color from white to purple to...
  18. Pak Choi, Bok Choy Brassica rapa var. chinensis

    Pak Choi is a cruciferous crop (cabbage family) grown for the rosette of flattened white stems topped by green leaves. This nutritious and fast growing green leafy vegetable is popular in Asian stir-fries and in other dishes calling for cooked or fresh greens.
  19. Hot Bush Pepper Capsicum frutescens

    Capsicum frutescens peppers are much more pungent than the C. annuum species and produce fruits that are erect and usually appear just above the foliage. Peppers include tabasco, bird peppers, and other chili peppers. Varieties of this species have also been selected for their ornamental...
  20. Habanero Pepper Capsicum chinense

    Capsicum chinense or bonnet peppers are typically very hot including the hottest peppers in the world according to the Scoville scale. These include the habanero, ghost peppers, and bonnet peppers. ECHO also has a unique “Sweet” Habanero that produces peppers that are not hot, although...
  21. Sweet Pepper Capsicum annuum

    There are several different species of Capsicum. The common capsicum, Capsicum annuum is divided into groups depending on the shape of the fruit; cherry peppers, cone peppers, red cone peppers, sweet bell peppers, and chili and cayenne peppers. Common capsicum pepper varieties can be pungent...
  22. JalapeÑo Pepper Capsicum annuum var. annuum 'Jalapeño'

    Peppers are recorded as cultivated in Bolivia and Meso-America ca. 16th century. Christopher Columbus recorded the use of “a vegetable called agi …employed to give a sharp taste to the fish and such birds as they can catch…” (ca.1494). Jalapeño is a medium-hot pepper originating in the region of...
  23. Watermelon Citrullus lanatus

    Watermelon is a spreading vine producing large, fleshy fruit. Although all parts of the fruit are edible it is mainly grown for the juicy flesh which is typically red but can be yellow or pink. There are both seeded and seedless varieties.
  24. Lagos Spinach/Quailgrass Celosia argentea

    Lagos Spinach is a member of the Amaranth family and shares many features with members of the genus Amaranthus such as broad edible leaves with high protein content and flowers and seeds produced in dense spikes. Some members of the genus Celosia are well-known ornamentals called "Cockscombs.”...
  25. Egusi Melon Citrullus lanatus

    Egusi melon is a fast-spreading creeping vine. The taxonomy is not clear but the ECHO seed comes from what is probably a variety or sub-species of watermelon. The white, bitter fruits are inedible; instead it is grown for the seeds which contain 50% oil and 30% protein and can be ground into a...
  26. Tropical Pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    The Tropical Pumpkin originated in tropical South or Central America, possibly Peru or Mexico, and is now widely distributed throughout the tropics. Tropicalpumpkins are very well adapted to hot, humid conditions and the ripe fruits can be stored for months or even a year under dry well...
  27. Caigua Cyclanthera pedata

    Caigua isan Andean fruit that grows on a climbing vine similar to cucumbers. The mature fruit is hollow and is often stuffed for cooking. The immature fruits and young shoots are eaten raw and cooked.
  28. Summer Squash Cucurbita pepo

    Summer Squashes are distinctive from all other squashes because they are eaten when they are immature. They grow on either vines or bushes with large leaves that are hairy underneath. They have smooth, edible skin, flesh that varies from light to dark green or yellow, and seeds that are soft and...
  29. Cantaloupe Cucumis melo

    The Cantaloupe is a creeping annual gourd producing round or oval fruits, 10-15cm (4-6”) diameter with a rough, scaly, netted outside skin. Cantaloupe is delicious as a dessert or in a fruit salad.
  30. Tahitian Butternut Cucurbita moschata

    This winter squash has been cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas since Pre-Colombian times. Evidence of its use has been found in archeological diggings. It is a very old variety not often available through seed companies.
  31. Ethiopian Kale Brassica carinata

    Ethiopian Kale originated in the East African plain, particularly Ethiopia. The young, tender leaves and stem tips may be eaten raw in salads. Older leaves and stouter stem portions are cooked and eaten as a dark green leafy vegetable. The flowering stalks may also be cooked and eaten. Ethiopian...
  32. Mustard, Mustard Greens Brassica juncea

    Mustard greens are a cruciferous crop (cabbage family) grown for the leafy greens that have a slightly bitter, peppery or mustardy taste. Mustard’s dark green color makes it a very nutritious leafy vegetable that can be grown year round in many parts of the world.
  33. Cauliflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

    Cauliflower is a cruciferous crop (cabbage family) grown for its compact white immature flower head. Cauliflower is generally suited to temperate climates or higher altitudes in the tropics, preferring cool, moist soil and air. The heads are cut and eaten while the buds are still closed. In order...
  34. Snake Gourd Trichosanthes cucumerina (syn. T. anguina)

    A vining annual vegetable crop. The plant produces a wavy cucumber-like fruit that is harvested immature and cooked like a squash. This crop is well suited to growth in the humid lowland tropics. The delicate vines need a trellis. The mature fruit turns orange or red when ripe and can be used in...
  35. Pigeon Pea Cajanus cajan

    Pigeon pea is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial shrub, growing to 4 m in height, that produces green or dry seed in seasonally dry climates. Pigeon peas are adaptable to many soil types and are used as a dry pea, green vegetable, fodder, fuelwood, green manure or cover crop.
  36. Sunflower Helianthus annuus

    Sunflowers are tall showy, usually yellow flowers grown for their seeds. The flower head is composed of the showy perimeter ray flowers and the inner disc florets which produce the seeds. As well as being an ornamental plant, sunflower seeds are pressed for oil or used whole as a snack food or...
  37. Lablab Lablab purpureus

    Lablab is a vigorous, vining, nitrogen-fixing, short-lived perennial that produces edible seeds which can eaten fresh or as a dry bean. It is an excellent choice for forage, green manure, and cover crops. Flowers and young pods are also eaten as a vegetable.
  38. Tropical/Indian Lettuce Lactuca indica

    Tropical lettuce is a fast-growing, self-seeding, upright, semi-perennial that will reach 2m in height and is very productive. Young leaves can be eaten raw, but can be bitter. Older leaves are usually steamed or boiled and served with vinegar. Tropical lettuce tolerates a variety of climates,...
  39. Italian Edible Gourd/Cucuzzi Lagenaria siceraria

    This ItalianEdible Gourd, long cultivated in Italy, is believed to have its origin in India. The parent species, the Bottle Gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, is believed to have its origin in Africa.
  40. Angled Luffa Luffa acutangula

    Luffas are vining annual plants that produce fruits for food and the luffa sponge. The young fruits of Angled Luffa are edible raw or cooked. Although two species produce a fibrous skeleton in the mature fruit, Smooth Luffa (Luffa cylindrica) is the preferred species for the luffa sponge. This...
  41. Bitter Gourd Momordica charantia

    Momordica comprises about 40 species, the majority of which are African. The fruits of several wild species are consumed as a vegetable, whereas several others are used in traditional medicine. Bitter Gourd is one of the most popular vegetables in Southeast Asia and China. It was first found...
  42. Tomatillo Physalis ixocarpa

    Tomatillo is a close relative of the tomato and is grown and used like tomatoes. The flowers are yellow and the ~2.5cm diameter fruit develops in a green-purple bladder like calyx resembling a Chinese lantern. The ripe fruit can be green, yellow or purple depending on the variety and can be eaten...
  43. Edible Podded Peas Pisum sativum var. saccharatum

    Peas are among the oldest cultivated plants. Carbonized seed remains have been identified as being 7,000 to 9,000 years old. The edible pod forms are thought to be of recent development. Edible podded pea plants produce large (up to 4 inches long) tasty pods with immature seeds that may be eaten...
  44. Rhubarb Rheum rhabarbarum

    Rhubarb is a perennial leafy vegetable grown for its tart leaf stalks. Rhubarb is used as a cooked vegetable and in pies and sauces. It is usually thought of as a temperate-climate plant but rhubarb can be grown as an annual in subtropical and tropical climates that have a cool season.
  45. Maize Zea mays

    Maize is an annual, warm-climate crop in the grass family, thriving in open sunny environments with daytime temperatures of 20-24C. Maize is used fresh, frozen, canned, rolled and roasted for corn flakes, pressed for oil, or processed for ethanol as fuel. Maize is also an important feed source...
  46. Tomato Solanum lycopersicum (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum)

    The tomato is one of the most common garden vegetables worldwide. It is a solanaceous plant that produces fruit of various shapes, sizes and colors. Growth of tomato plants is described as either determinate or indeterminate. Determinate varieties produce compact plants that stop growing when...
  47. Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes. L.

    Kohlrabi is a short (45cm), biennial cruciferous crop (cabbage family) that is cultivated as an annual vegetable. The stems of each plant swell at the base to form a 5 - 10 cm in diameter edible, starchy globe. The broad edible leavesspiral in whorls around the globe-like swollen stem and are...
  48. Leek Allium ampeloprasum

    Leeks are a close biennial relative of both onion and garlic, but do not form bulbs. Leaves are flat and large, when cooked they are milder in taste than onions, and are mainly used in soups and similar dishes.
  49. Bunching Onion Allium fistulosum

    Bunching onions are perennial (often grown as an annual), and are similar in taste and smell to their relative the common onion, Allium cepa. Though some cultivars have a slightly-thickened base (pseudostem), bunching onions rarely form bulbs. Thus, they are eaten as a green onion.
  50. New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia tetragonoides

    New Zealand Spinach is a vining herbaceous plant grown for the young, succulent leaves and stem tips are an excellent hot weather leafy green. Its growth habit is low and sprawling, reaching 30-40 cm in height and 100-125 cm in circumference.
  51. Cushaw Pumpkin Cucurbita argyrosperma

    Cushaw pumpkins are a herbaceous, vining, winter squash grown for the edible flesh and seeds. Flowers and tender shoots are also edible. The seeds are high in oil and protein and can be eaten roasted or ground up for an ingredient in sauces. The flesh is eaten as a vegetable and can be used in...