L’agroforesterie est la pratique qui associe la gestion de cultures annuelles et/ou d’animaux avec des arbres. Les systèmes agroforestiers, essentiellement composés de cultures pérennes, offrent la résilience nécessaire pour faire face aux événements climatiques extrêmes tels que la sécheresse et les pluies torrentielles, ainsi que des facteurs sociaux et économiques qui influencent la production agricole des agriculteurs de petite échelle. Les arbres utilisés pour l’agroforesterie fournissent de la nourriture, du fourrage, des matières premières industrielles, du bois, des combustibles et du paillage, tout en diversifiant l’alimentation et les sources de revenus. Une note technique d’ECHO intitulée Principes d’agroforesterie contient davantage d’information sur l’utilisation d’arbres à usages multiples.

  1. Baobab Adansonia digitata

    Adansonia digitatagrows and is native to parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It prefers to grow in drier, well-drained, rocky soils ranging between 0-1000m. For centuries it has been used for food, fodder, shelter, and shade. Trees mature slowly and should be protected from any cold temperatures.The...
  2. Sandalwood Adenanthera pavonina

    Adenanthera pavonina is a fast-growing, medium-to-large sized deciduous tree, reaching heights of 6-15 m. Its spreading canopy is filled with feather-like foliage. Creamy yellow, fragrant flowers are borne in 12-15 cm long, narrow inflorescences at the end of each branch. Dark brown pods (15-22...
  3. Sesbania Sesbania rostrata

    Sesbania rostrata is an annual—or short-lived perennial—legume used as a green manure cover crop and fodder species for livestock. Growing to heights of 3 m, S. rostrata is one of the few legumes that produces nodulated stem tissues for further colonization by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Leaves of...
  4. Gliricidia Gliricidia sepium

    Gliricidia is a fast-growingnitrogen-fixing tree that grows up to 15m in height. It is used for living fences, green manure, fodder, honey production, wind breaks, and fuelwood. This tree tolerates dry, acid, alkaline, and salty soils and was traditionally grown to shade cocoa trees.
  5. Monkey Thorn Senegalia galpinii

    Monkey Thorn is very tall, deciduous, nitrogen-fixing tree, growing to 30 m in height. It is adapted to hot dry climates and has bottle-brush cream flowers. This tree is primarily used as a fast-growing timber species for shade and animal fodder.
  6. Kenya Shade Tree Acrocarpus fraxinifolius

    L’Acrocarpus fraxinifolius est originaire des régions tropicales de l’Asie. C’est un arbre à feuilles caduques et à croissance rapide qui peut croître de 1,3 à 3m (de 4,25 à 10pi) par an. Il peut atteindre une hauteur totale de 30 à 60m (de 100 à 200 pi). Cette espèce pousse dans les sols acides...
  7. Moringa Moringa oleifera

    moringa, pois quénique

    The Moringa tree, known also as the Horseradish Tree, is native to northwestern India. Moringa is widely grown, however, in other parts of the old- and new-world tropics, including tropical Asia, many regions of Africa, Indonesia, and South and Central America.
  8. African Mahogany Khaya nyasica

    Khaya nyasica is a large evergreen or semi-deciduous forest tree up to 60 m in height. It has a rounded crown that provides dense shade. This tree is an important timber species and the wood is also used for furniture, firewood, tools, carving and for canoes.
  9. Edible Australian Acacias Acacia colei, A. elachantha, A. torulosa, A. tumida

    edible australian acacias

    Most edible acacia seed species are from northern semi-arid regions of Australia and range from medium-sized trees to large, multi-stemmed bushes. Several edible acacia species have been successfully introduced into African semi-arid regions like Niger and Senegal. A. colei has excelled in acacia...
  10. Guazuma Guazuma ulmifolia

    bois d'orme

    Guazuma is a small to medium-sized tree that grows up to 30 m tall. Its leaves form a compact, rounded canopy, remaining green throughout the year except in areas with a long dry season. It is used as a source of fuelwood, shade, and fodder for livestock.
  11. Acacia Mangium Acacia mangium

    acacia mangium, cassier

    L’Acacia mangium est originaire de l’Australie, de l’Indonésie et de la Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée. C’est une espèce de région à basse altitude que l’on retrouve généralement en bordure de forêts tropicales humides et sur des sols acides perturbés bien drainés.
  12. Acacia Acacia angustissima


    L’origine de cette espèce est inconnue mais elle est aujourd’hui cultivée en Amérique centrale et du Sud
  13. Woman's Tongue Tree Albizia lebbeck

    woman's tongue tree

    Cet arbre est originaire de l’Afrique tropicale, de l’Asie et du nord de l’Australie
  14. Coral Tree Erythrina poeppigiana

    bois immortelle

    Coral Tree is a large, nitrogen-fixing tree up to 35 m in height and used for living fences, shade, mulch, ruminant forage, and alley cropping. The leaves provide very good leaf litter for soil improvement and the tree has been used for shade in cacao plantations.
  15. Buffalo Thorn Ziziphus abyssinica

    Buffalo thorn is a thorny, bushy shrub or small tree of semi-arid climates, growing to 12 m in height. It is used for its edible fruit and livestock browsing. The tree is good bee forage, and makes good firewood, charcoal, fence posts and furniture. Because of its thorns and tangled branches, the...
  16. Fish Bean Tephrosia vogelii

    Fish bean is a short-lived perennial, semi-woodynitrogen-fixing plant that growsup to 3 m in height. Itis used for green manure, erosion control, and mulch. It is known to contain rotenoids and can be used as an insecticide and fish poison. Fish bean should NOT be used as fodder for animals.
  17. Red Gum Eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Red Gum is a very large, spreading tree that can grow to 40 meters. The tree is tolerant to many harsh conditions including drought, salt, heat, alkaline soil, and water-logging. Red Gum Eucalyptus is the most widely planted eucalyptus and is grown on plantations in many countries. It is used for...
  18. Agati Sesbania grandiflora

    Sesbania grandiflora is a small, fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing tree, that can grow to 10 m height in 3-4 years. This plant is grown mainly as a green manure or cover crop but can also be used as forage for livestock.
  19. Moringa Moringa stenopetala


    Moringa stenopetala est souvent appelé le moringa africain parce qu’il est originaire de l’Éthiopie et du nord du Kenya. Même s’il pousse dans de nombreuses autres régions des tropiques de l’Ancien Monde et du Nouveau Monde, il est moins connu que son proche parent, Moringa oleifera.
  20. Cassia Senna spectabilis

    Cassia is a fast-growing, deciduous, nitrogen-fixing tree, growing to 10 m in height that has showy yellow flowers. It is useful for shade, as a landscape plant, for fuelwood, green manure, bee forage and light construction.
  21. Apple Ring Acacia Faidherbia albida

    Apple ring acacias are tall, drought tolerant, deciduous, nitrogen-fixing trees up to 30 m in height. They are commonly used for inter-cropping with staple crops in dry areas as leaves help mulch and shade crops below. Faidherbia albida is an ideal multipurpose agroforestry tree that is widely...
  22. Leucaena Leucaena diversifolia, L. leucocephala, L. pallida X L. leucocephala

    The genus Leucaena includes several multipurpose tree species and interspecific hybrids that can withstand almost any type or frequency of pruning or coppicing. They are native to Mexico and Central America, and now abundant in the Philippines, West Africa, Nepal, Australia and Hawaii. Spanish...
  23. Monkey Bread Piliostigma thonningii

    The Monkey Bread tree is a fairly short, nitrogen-fixing tree, to 15 m in height. It is one of the main species used for Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration in West Africa and is a good for fuelwood, household utensils, farm implements and light construction. It is known as a “famine food”...
  24. Silk Oak Grevillea robusta

    Silk Oak is medium-sized to large tree up to 40 m tall, with dense branches projecting upwards. It is an excellent timber tree and has been used for shade in coffee plantations.
  25. Cytise des canaries Chamaecytisus proliferus

    cytise des canaries

    Le cytise des Canaries ou de Palmas est un arbuste ou petit arbre fixateur d’azote vivace à croissance rapide provenant des Îles Canaries. Il atteint de 5 à 7mètres de hauteur et produit des fleurs blanches en forme de pois. Chaque gousse contient environ 10graines de couleur sombre mesurant...
  26. Black Locust/False Acacia Robinia pseudoacacia

    acacia blanc

    Black Locust is a fast-growing, deciduous, nitrogen-fixing tree, growing up to 25 m in height. It is suited for temperate areas and high altitudes in the tropics. It is useful as a windbreak, erosion control, and shade. Black Locust provides excellent forage for livestock and bees. The hard wood...
  27. Sesbania sesban Sesbania sesban

    Sesbania is a fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing perennial, growing to 7 m in height. It is typically found in wet locations and can withstand water logging and flooded conditions. Sesbania is used as a cover crop or green manure, coppices readily, provides light fuelwood, and good forage for...
  28. Gumbo Limbo Bursera simaruba

    Gumbo Limbo is a very hardy, fast growing tree native to the West Indies and Central America. At maturity it reaches 30 m (100 ft). It is tolerant to long periods of drought and is easily propagated.
  29. Tamarind Tamarindus indica

    Tamarind is an attractive, evergreen, nitrogen fixing tree, growing to 30 m in height, and best adapted to semi-arid conditions. The sweet-tart pulp from the pod is eaten fresh, used as an ingredient in cooking, or made into a refreshing drink. Tamarind wood is used for lumber, firewood, and high...
  30. Markhamia lutea Markhamia lutea

    Markhamia lutea is an upright, evergreen tree, growing to 15 m in height. It is valued for timber, shade, bee forage, fuelwood and landscaping use.
  31. Tara Caesalpinia spinosa

    Tara was first grown in the southwest portion of the island of Madagascar. It is now found on the continents of Asia, Africa, North and South America. It is a leguminous, spiny, slow-growing shrub which can grow into a tree that can produce seed pods for up to 65 years.
  32. Cassod Tree Senna siamea

    Senna siamea is a fast-growing, medium sized, evergreen tree, growing up to 18 m in height. Although it is in the legume family it does not fix nitrogen. Senna is a very useful landscape and timber tree that also provides shade and fodder for ruminants.
  33. Calliandra Calliandra calothyrsus

    Calliandra is a vigorous, nitrogen-fixing, bushy tree that can be fast-growing on poor soils. The tree responds well to coppicing, is a good fuelwood source and the leaves provide excellent fodder. Calliandra is used to enrich soil and provide stability on steep slopes.
  34. Silver terminalia is a small tree or shrub, valued for its strong wood, and growing to 23 m in height. This tree provides good fuelwood and is valuable for land reclamation and erosion control.
  35. Mesquite Prosopis chilensis

    Mesquite is a small, drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing tree, growing to 15 m. It is a good species for restoring degraded soils and establishing trees in overgrazed semiarid areas. The wood is hard, makes very good charcoal and is used for tools and furniture.
  36. Fever Tree Acacia xanthophloea

    Acacia xanthophloea is afast-growing semi-deciduous tree that gets up to 25 m that grows along rivers and lakes. This tree has greenish-yellow bark andthe branches have whitestraight spines that are 6-7 cm long.The main uses are for for timber, polewood, firewood, erosion control, and as a...
  37. Prickly Sesban Sesbania bispinosa

    Prickly sesban is a fast-growing, annual, nitrogen-fixing shrub, growing up to 2 m in one season. It is valuable for soil improvement, erosion control, firewood, forage, fiber, and as a green manure/cover crop.
  38. Arbre à soie Albizia lucida

    arbre à soie

    L’Albizia lucida proviendrait de l’Indonésie et de la Nouvelle-Guinée.
  39. Northern Black Wattle Acacia auriculiformis

    northern black wattle

    Cet arbre est originaire des savanes de la Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée et des régions tropicales du nord de l’Australie
  40. Flemingia Flemingia macrophylla

    Flemingia macrophylla is a perennial, deep-rooted, woody, nitrogen-fixing shrub up to 2.5 m in height. It is useful for shade, and for soil conservation and improvement as an alley crop, green manure, or cover crop.
  41. Toon Tree Toona ciliata

    The first recorded Toon Trees were found in Zimbabwe in 1903 and now can be found in other African countries and Australia. The Toon Tree is a large deciduous tree, reaching 20 m - 30 m (70 ft-100 ft) high and 1.8 m - 3 m (6 ft-10 ft) in girth with a large spreading crown and shallow roots. The...
  42. arbre makola, mahogany bean, collier

    Cet arbre originaire du Malawi pousse aujourd’hui en Afrique de l’Ouest, Afrique de l’Est et Afrique centrale. En Afrique du Sud, il est considéré une espèce rare.
  43. Jatropha Jatropha curcas


    Jatropha is a small, drought-tolerant, perennial tree growing up to 6 m in height. Oil from the seeds is used for candles, soap, and fuel which can be used as a substitute for diesel oil.
  44. Neem Azadirachta indica

    neem, margosier

    Le neem est originaire des régions arides de la Birmanie et de l’Inde. Il a été introduit dans d’autres régions tropicales arides d’Afrique, d’Asie et du Nouveau Monde.