In every region of the world it is necessary to find or develop appropriate techniques for agriculture. A large part of the surface of the world is arid, characterized as too dry for conventional rain fed agriculture. Yet, millions of people live in such regions, and if current trends in population increase continue, there will soon be millions more. These people must eat, and the wisest course for them is to produce their own food. Yet, the techniques are so varied that only a very large volume would cover the entire subject. In many cases the most suitable techniques for a particular region may be those already developed by the local inhabitants. In some cases it will be difficult to improve on local techniques, but at times even simple and inexpensive innovations may be almost revolutionary. 



  1. Ressource principale
    14/11/2012 L’UNCCD estime que plus de 250 millions de personnes sont touchées par la dégradation des terres et qu’environ 1 milliard de personnes dans plus de 100 pays sont à risque. Selon l’OMM, 33% de la superficie terrestre de la planète est vulnérable à la dégradation des terres. Elle estime notamment...
  2. Ressource principale
    26/02/2014 Pastoralism is a livelihood whereby people depend upon herding domesticated livestock. In East Africa, pastoralists depend primarily upon cattle, sheep, donkeys, goats and camels— listed in order of least resilience as one moves into drier and more arid lowland areas. Pastoralists play an...
  3. Ressource principale
    28/09/2016 Les agriculteurs dans de nombreuses régions du monde, en raison de la croissance de la population humaine, n’ont guère d’autre choix que de cultiver leurs terres en permanence, ne disposant pas suffisamment de ressources pour remplacer les éléments nutritifs retirés par chaque culture successive....
  4. 01/01/2013 Dans des régions comme le Sahel ouest-africain, la perte des arbres dans le paysage (coupés pour répondre aux besoins en bois de chauffe/bois de construction, ou soumis au surpâturage des animaux) combinée avec de fréquentes périodes de sécheresse conduit à des sols nus exposés à la chaleur...
  5. Ressource principale 01/01/2010 On n‘a pas beaucoup réfléchi à la pertinence de ces méthodes. Les espèces indigènes furent généralement rejetées et considérées comme des broussailles «inutiles.» Cherchant à établir des forêts, de nombreux projets ont même éliminé ces «broussailles inutiles» au profit d’espèces exotiques....
  6. Ressource principale
    20/01/1992 En termes simples, l’agroforesterie est la production d’arbres et de cultures non ligneuses ou d’animaux sur un même territoire. Les activités peuvent être menées sur le même lopin de terre en même temps ou en suivant une séquence ; elles peuvent également être menées sur des lopins distincts en...
  7. Ressource principale 01/01/1990 I often tell folks that ECHO specializes in growing food under difficult conditions. The pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan, is a prime example of a tough but nutritious plant for just such cases. This article is directed toward two audiences. For some of you, pigeon pea is already an important crop. You...
  8. Ressource principale
    01/01/2007 Par F. W. Martin. Publié en partie, 1989 et 1994 ; révisé en 1998 et 2007 par le personnel d’ECHO Même si presque toutes les plantes aient une ou plusieurs utilités, elles n’ont pas toutes la même valeur. Par exemple, le blé, le riz et le maïs sont probablement les plantes les plus utiles au...
  9. Ressource principale
    01/01/2011 Un barrage de sable est un mur de béton armé construit sur une rivière saisonnière pour retenir l’eau souterraine dans le sable. Il est d’abord construit en 1 m de haut et jusqu’à 90 m de diamètre. Pendant les fortes pluies saisonnières et irrégulières, l’eau et le limon s’écoulent au-dessus du...
  10. 23/07/2019 J'ai fait la connaissance des jardins centuples lorsque je faisais des recherches sur des moyens d'irriguer les plantes directement dans la zone racinaire. Je voulais savoir comment maîtriser de manière pratique et abordable certaines des variables qui influencent la croissance des plantes,...
  11. ECHO publications referenced in this document include ECHO Development Notes (EDN), East Africa Notes (EAN), Technical Notes (TN), and ECHO East Africa Symposium (EEAS) presentations. Technical Notes and EDN issues can be found by clicking on the “Publications” tab on ECHO’s networking site,...
  12. 01/07/2013 Conservation agriculture (CA) has been promoted in East Africa through a number of initiatives over the past half year. In this article, we share what ECHO has gleaned from regional partners, in hopes that you can expand upon these successes and also promote further sharing on ECHO’s website....
  13. ICARDA works with a tight focus on the problem-solving needs of resource-poor farmers, achieving this through the in-field delivery of its research outputs. Although global food production has increased by 20 per cent in the past decade, food insecurity and poverty remain widespread, while the...
  14. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an international non-profit organization that undertakes scientific research for development.
  15. 19/10/1996 A Technical Note on Dry Farming Partially Buried Flower Pots or Tin Cans Save in Watering Capturing Water from Fog Drip Irrigation Book Reviews:Ways of Water: Run-off, Irrigation and Drainage and Vanishing Land and Water: Soil and Water Conservation in Dry Lands Book Review:Looking After Our...
  16. 19/10/1996 Zai Holes Harness Termites to Increase Crop Yields Grass Mulch: An Innovative Way of Gardening in the Dry Tropics Colored Plastic Mulches Thick Mulch for No-Till Gardens Rice Hull Mulch
  17. 06/03/2014 The HAFIR is an underground reservoir designed for storing rain water.Hafirs are usually constructed where there is enough rainfall and where there is no underground water.It is usually big enough to cater for the needs of the villagers and their live-stock for a whole season.
  18. 01/02/1991 Food from Dryland Gardens encourages gardens that serve local needs, that are based on local knowledge, and that conserve natural resources and the biological diversity of traditional crops. It was written for field workers, extension agents, students, project workers, and program planners. Both...
  19. 20/07/2005 “Gray water” (also “grey water,” “graywater” or “greywater”) is the term used to describe wastewater from dish washing, laundry, bathing, and rinsing. (Note: the term gray water does not refer to toilet waste, which is often called “black water.”) Although gray water does not need extensive...
  20. This group pageexists so that individuals involved in Dryland Farming around the world can connect. We encourage you to share the challenges you face in yourendeavors, discuss lessons and techniques learned through your experiences, and share your story!
  21. 20/04/2013 The article by Dov Pasternak about lablab (in this issue) reminded me of material in ECHO’s files from many years ago. Reimar von Schaaffhausen, working in São Paulo, Brazil, sent articles and letters over the years about the valuable role that lablab (and pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan]) have played...
  22. 16/10/2020 Vous trouverez ci-dessous un résumé d'un rapport d'essai de semences que ECHO a reçu en 2013 de Chris Peterson, volontaire chez Peace Corps, en service en Ouganda (à Nalugala, dans le district de Wakiso). Le partage des résultats des efforts de Peterson est un exemple de ce à quoi s'attendre d'un...
  23. 19/05/1998 A conversation concerning the difficulty of obtaining mulch in semi-arid areas.
  24. 19/12/1998 Trees can be an effective source of mulch in drylands.
  25. 17/10/2018 La région aride située directement au sud du désert du Sahara (Sahel), qui s'étend du Sénégal à l’Éthiopie, dispose de sources limitées de graisses et d’huiles. Les produits laitiers provenant de vaches et de moutons sont rares et les cultures traditionnelles oléagineuses sont peu nombreuses....
  26. With research, training and advocacy, we help build climate resilience, productivity and equity in the dryland areas of East Africa, Ethiopia, the Sahel and Sudan
  27. 01/11/2016 On average, crop yields under DER+ and TER+ increased by 30% and 16%, respectively, as compared to CT. Our study demonstrates that field water conservation tillage practices that incorporate CA principles are effectively increasing green water in the root zone available for crops. RCA systems...
  28. 20/07/2010 Looking for a nutritious legume that thrives in dry, cool conditions? You might want to tryCicer arietinum, referred to as chickpea and also by many other common names such as garbanzo, gram and bengal gram. Chickpea is noted for drought tolerance. It will produce a crop with an annual rainfall...
  29. Ressource principale
    21/03/2019 Cette Note Technique donne un aperçu des plantes parasites d’importance agricole en Afrique. Les herbes parasites provoquent un stress de sécheresse et un retard de croissance au niveau des cultures. Les plantes affectées comprennent les céréales (par exemple, le sorgho [Sorgum bicolor] et le...
  30. 02/03/2016 Session: World Renew supports innovative ways to combat climate change. The presentation will dwell on lessons learnt from Conservation Agriculture promotion in pastoralist areas which will encompass adaptation, scaling up and extension methodologies based upon lessons learned from the field....
  31. 04/02/2015
  32. In every region of the world it is necessary to find or develop appropriate techniques for agriculture. A large part of the surface of the world is arid, characterized as too dry for conventional rain fed agriculture. Yet, millions of people live in such regions, and if current trends in...
  33. 15/11/2016 Understanding the dynamics of ecological design and agricultural practices connect at the point of design. Travel with us through our design process to create an ecologically balanced and appropriate diagram to implement, whether on small acreage or vast hectares of land. Learn the steps and...
  34. 29/01/2019 Plus de 4 millions de personnes dans le Sahel ouest-africain font face à des difficultés suite à des périodes de sécheresse et à la hausse des prix des denrées alimentaires. En juin, la FAO a envoyé près de 10 millions de dollars d'aide aux agriculteurs de la région frappés par la sécheresse, qui...
  35. 03/03/2016 Session: This session will demonstrate Pastoralist Managed Natural Regeneration, a new reforestation practice which is successfully reversing the rapid deforestation and desertification in dryland Africa. Pastoralist Managed Natural Regeneration (PMNR) has been shown to be a simple, income...
  36. 29/12/2014 Agricultural Prosperity in Dry Africa contains a wealth of practical suggestions for dealing with the problems facing dryland farmers in Africa. He discusses crops, strategies, and technologies that lead to increased production and income for farmers with limited resources.
  37. “You must plant the rain before you plant a seed or tree!” proclaimed rain farmer Mr. Zephaniah Phiri Maseko of Zimbabwe. By doing just that, he and his family turned a wasteland into an oasis, raised groundwater and well levels even in dry years, reduced flooding in wet years, and enhanced the...
  38. 08/02/2017 In marginal environments where strong crop-livestock interactions exist, inclusive and equitable access to finance, well-functioning land rental markets, and efficient provision of extension advisory services contribute significantly towards the shift to more sustainable land use management and...
  39. A farmer from Burkina Faso who popularized an ancient farming technique to reverse desertification is among the winners of Sweden's "alternative Nobel prize", announced on Monday. Yacouba Sawadogo shared this year's award with three Saudi human rights activists and an Australian agronomist. The 3...
  40. 19/01/2016 Prof. Dov Pasternak working in Israel, was among the pioneers of drip irrigation. He researched irrigation with saline water and conducted domestication of arid land crops. He received a UNESCO Chair for his work on desert research. For over 10 years Prof. Pasternak worked as Principal Scientist...
  41. Rural Solutions is a video series that highlights solutions to specific challenges that are common in rural areas of developing countries. As natural resources become more scarce, herders who migrate seasonally have to travel long distances to find water and grazing land. Here is a solution to...
  42. Abstract, 2013,International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is considered as one of the most severe environmental and...
  43. The Journal of Dryland Agriculture (JODA) is an international journal that presents a platform for sharing and dissemination of knowledge in science and technology related to Dryland Agriculture and allied fields. It is a multidisciplinary journal that tries to promote good understanding of the...
  44. Abstract,Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2015 Dryland areas cover about 41% of the Earth’s surface and sustain over 2 billion inhabitants. Soil carbon (C) in dryland areas is of crucial importance to maintain soil quality and productivity and a range of ecosystem services. Soil...