Notas Técnicas de ECHO son publicaciones que tratan específicamente a un tema importante para aquellos que trabajan en los trópicos y subtrópicos. Nuestro material es escrito por funcionarios de ECHO y escritores ajenos, los cuales tienen experiencia y conocimientos con la técnica. Estos documentos están disponibles de forma gratuita y ¡esperamos que sean valerosos para su biblioteca de recursos en el desarrollo de agricultura!

93 Contenido (Mostrando Ediciones 45 - 36) |

TN #45 Should an Institution Grow its Own Food - 1/6/2001

Several times each year ECHO hears from someone (1) at an institution that is evaluating whether it should attempt to grow food for its [students, orphans, feeding program, staff, etc.] or (2) from someone contacted by such an institution and are asking ECHO's advice about whether/how to help them. Usually the institution has land that they could be farming or the government has promised to give it to them.

TN #44 Digestores de Metano - 1/1/2001

Cuando el material orgánico se descompone bajo condiciones anaeróbicas, produce biogás, que es una mezcla de metano (CH4) y dióxido de carbono (CO2) con pequeñas cantidades de hidrógeno, nitrógeno, monóxido de carbono y otros componentes. El biogás puede utilizarse como fuente de combustible para cocinar, calentar, alumbrar o incluso surtir de combustible a un generador. Un digestor de metano es un dispositivo utilizado para producir y capturar este biogás. Existen muchos diseños para digestores de metano, que van desde modelos grandes y complejos hasta pequeños y sencillos. Este documento cubrirá 2 tipos principales de digestores: digestores de flujo discontinuo y digestores de flujo continuo; y 2 principales tipos de colectores de gas: colectores tubulares y colectores flotantes.

TN #43 Filtro de Agua Bioarena - 1/1/2001

Los servicios inadecuados de agua potable y saneamiento resultan en un estimado de 4 mil millones de casos de
diarrea y 2.2 millones de muertes cada año (OMS/UNICEF 2000). En áreas donde no hay acceso a agua potable,
el tratamiento del agua en los hogares puede contribuir de manera significativa a reducir los problemas de salud
relacionados con el agua. Los métodos de tratamiento del agua más efectivos siguen un proceso de sedimentación,
filtración, y desinfección para eliminar bacterias, virus, helmintos y protozoarios.

TN #42 Haybaler - 1/1/2001

This simple device provides a method of manually producing bales of hay. Small-scale farmers may be interested in this technology because hay is both easier to store and easier to transport when it has been baled. Also, baled hay retains a higher nutrient content than hay that has been cut and left exposed to the sun.

TN #41 Solar Dehydrator - 1/1/2001

Often the biggest challenge faced by a tropical farmer is not in the production of a crop but rather in the preservation of the crop. Farmers may want to preserve a crop for future consumption or for sale at a time when the market will offer a higher price.

Using a solar dehydrator is a simple, cost-effective way to preserve a variety of different crops. Dehydrating removes the moisture from food so that bacteria, yeast and mold cannot grow and spoil it. 

TN #40 Estufa de Aserrin - 1/1/2001

Estas estufas son útiles en áreas donde el aserrín es un producto de desecho fácilmente disponible. El aserrín u otro combustible se apisonan bien en un marco de ladrillos o lata y arderá en forma bastante limpia con poco humo. Estas estufas pueden llevar a ebullición un galón de agua en aproximadamente 12 a 15 minutos y mantendrán una temperatura intensa por dos a cinco horas, en dependencia del combustible utilizado y compresión del combustible (aserrín fino, altamente comprimido se quema durante más tiempo que material grueso o suelto). Además del aserrín, los desechos fibrosos de plantas como la cascarilla de arroz, la cáscara de otros cereales, la cáscara de los granos de café y la paja pueden utilizarse como combustible. Al utilizar material más grueso es útil mezclarle algo de aserrín para ayudar a mantener compacto el combustible.

TN #39 Temas Relativos a la Introduccion de Nuevas Semillas en el Extranjero - 21/1/2000

Usualmente los norteamericanos no tienen idea de cuan diferente puede ser la horticultura en el trópico. Personalmente experimenté algo de este fenómeno cuando me mudé de Ohio en 1981 para convertirme en Director de ECHO. Yo ya había comprado semillas para mi jardín en Ohio cuando surgió la oportunidad de trabajar con ECHO. De manera que a finales de junio comencé a sembrar en mi huerto en el sur de la Florida. Me quedé perplejo cuando un señor de edad me dijo, “Aquí en Florida no cultivamos hortalizas en verano. Simplemente las dejamos crecer como maleza y no las tocamos hasta el otoño." -- ¿Porque alguien haría algo así?

TN #38 Cashew - 1/1/1999

The cashew, Anacardium occidentale, is a resilient and fast-growing evergreen tree that can grow to a height of 20 m (60 ft). It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, which also contains poison ivy and the mango. Native to arid northeastern Brazil, the cashew was taken around the world by the Portuguese and Spanish who planted the trees in their colonies. The English name "cashew" is derived from the Portuguese "cajú" which came from the Tupi Indian "acaju" (Rosengarten, 1984). In Spanish it is known as "marañón" or "anacardo."

Cashew is an important nut crop that provides food, employment and hard currency to many in developing nations. Of all nuts, cashew is second only to the almond in commercial importance (Rosengarten, 1984). India, Mozambique, and Tanzania are the three biggest exporters of cashew nuts today. Although there are large commercial plantings of cashew, wild trees or those owned by small farmers account for 97% of cashew production (Rosengarten, 1984).

The plant produces not only the well-known nut, but also a pseudofruit known as the cashew "apple" and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) which is used for industrial and medicinal purposes.

The cashew tree has other uses as well. It is used for reforestation, in preventing desertification and as a roadside buffer tree. Cashew was planted in India in order to prevent erosion on the coast (Morton, 1960). The wood from the tree is used for carpentry, firewood, and charcoal. The tree exudes a gum called cashawa that can be used in varnishes or in place of gum arabic. Cashew bark is about 9% tannin, which is used in tanning leather.

TN #37 Egusi Recipes - 1/11/1998

From Wikipedia : "Egusi (also known by variations including agusiagushi) is the name for the fat- and protein-rich seeds of certain cucurbitaceous plants (squashmelongourd), which after being dried and ground are used as a major ingredient in West African cuisine. Authorities disagree whether the word is used more properly for the seeds of the colocynth, those of a particular large-seeded variety of the watermelon, or generically for those of any cucurbitaceous plant.  The characteristics and uses of all these seeds are broadly similar."

TN #36 Jicama - 1/10/1998

Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) of the fabaceae or leguminosae family is a short-lived perennial, often grown as an annual leguminous climbing vine, which during short days will flower, produce long, inedible pods, and develop tuberous roots. These are few in number per plant, usually spherical, but often lobed, and weighing several kilos per plant. The flesh of the root is white and crisp, even after cooking, and is covered with a tan skin or cortex, which is easily removed by peeling.

Jicama, (pronounced, HEE-kah-mah) also known as yam bean, originates in Meso-America and is naturalized in agricultural areas throughout the tropics. It is excellent for commercialization where markets exist, a useful home-grown crop for varying the diet, and a novelty vegetable for special uses due to its taste and crisp texture.