Notas Técnicas de ECHO son publicaciones que tratan específicamente a un tema importante para aquellos que trabajan en los trópicos y subtrópicos. Nuestro material es escrito por funcionarios de ECHO y escritores ajenos, los cuales tienen experiencia y conocimientos con la técnica. Estos documentos están disponibles de forma gratuita y ¡esperamos que sean valerosos para su biblioteca de recursos en el desarrollo de agricultura!

92 Contenido (Mostrando Ediciones 94 - 85)

TN #94 Parasitic Plants in African Agriculture - 21/3/2019

This Technical Note provides an overview of parasitic plants of agricultural significance in Africa. Parasitic weeds cause drought stress and stunted crops. Affected plants include cereal grains (e.g., sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] and maize [Zea mays]) and grain legumes (e.g., cowpea [Vigna unguiculata]) that farmers rely on for food. Damage to these and other crops is generally heightened by low soil fertility and drought stress, conditions that are faced by many African smallholders. Parasitic weeds can lead to severe yield losses, making them an important constraint to food security in many areas.

TN #93 Vacuum-Sealing Options for Storing Seeds - 7/1/2019

Two broad categories of seeds exist, referred to as recalcitrant and orthodox. The former must be kept moist and planted soon after they are collected; large-seeded fruits such as mango and avocado are typical examples. The second type of seeds are discussed in this document. Orthodox seeds are generally smaller than recalcitrant seeds and represent almost any grain, legume, or vegetable crop. Orthodox seeds can be dried and stored for extended periods of time—often for many years, depending on the crop and storage conditions.

This document presents ways to remove air from seed containers, for the purpose of extending the viability of stored seeds. The technologies presented here are most relevant to community-level seed banks or development practitioners looking for options for storing small volumes of high-value seed for planting. They would not be practical for storing large quantities of grain for human or animal consumption. With the exception of commercial vacuum sealers, the technologies presented are inexpensive, and many can be constructed with local materials.

What's Inside:

  • Bicycle pump vacuum sealer
  • Syringe vacuum pump
  • Brake bleeder vacuum pump
  • Kitchen food sealers and related items

 

TN #92 Bambú para construcción - 17/5/2018

Muchas plantas consideradas invaluables para el pequeño productor ofrecen alimento nutritivo para la familia, forraje para los animales o madera para la construcción. ¡De manera notable, el bambú ofrece todas estas tres ventajas en una sola planta perenne! Esta Nota Técnica se centrará en cómo cosechar, preservar y utilizar el bambú como madera con fines de construcción de la manera más efectiva.

Contenido

  • Introducción
  • Descripción de la planta
  • Cosecha
  • Preservación & Tratamiento post-cosecha
  • Construcción
  • Referencias y recursos

TN #91 Cultivos infrautilizados que darán abundancia a las fincas pequeñas - 9/2/2018

Las dietas tradicionales solían incluir una amplia variedad de ingredientes provenientes de una amplia gama de plantas silvestres y domesticadas. Las cocinas regionales eran determinadas por especies nativas en sus ambientes locales y por plantas adoptadas gradualmente procedentes de lugares distantes. El sistema alimentario global moderno y las presiones del mercado han revertido esta tendencia, de forma que las dietas en la actualidad dependen de un número menguante de cultivos para una creciente cantidad de personas. Esto tiene profundos efectos en la salud y lleva a una dependencia de mercados inestables de productos básicos o commodities. La desnutrición y la seguridad alimentaria constituyen problemas críticos para los ciudadanos más vulnerables de la sociedad. 

Esta Nota Técnica (TN) explorará las singulares plantas que se usan alrededor del mundo para añadir variedad y confiabilidad a las dietas. Algunas especies son silvestres o naturalizadas y pueden encontrarse en bosques, campos abiertos y pantanos. Algunas son variedades antiguas de cultivos ampliamente sembrados que han caído en desuso. Otras son plantas populares en una parte del mundo, pero podrían hacer un importante aporte a las dietas alrededor del mundo. Muchas tienen múltiples usos y beneficios. Una parte esencial de la misión de ECHO es poner a la disponibilidad de comunidades en riesgo semillas o estacas de estas plantas tradicionales. 

Esta TN aborda los cultivos infrautilizados desde la perspectiva del pequeño productor y del cooperante para el desarrollo comunitario. En esta nota no se discutirán políticas nacionales e internacionales ni los esfuerzos internacionales de preservación genética, en cambio, se abordarán las plantas infrautilizadas y el cambio climático desde la perspectiva de la resiliencia a nivel local y de la finca pero no examinará la mitigación global y las implicaciones de la adaptación. En esta TN tampoco se abordan temas relacionados con la ganadería, acuacultura o especies marinas.

TN #90 Low-Budget Research Ideas - 29/9/2017

As an organization that equips people with informational resources to reduce hunger, ECHO values the role of science in validating agricultural practices. Over the years, we have received numerous inquiries from university faculty and students looking for ways to do research that benefits small-scale farmers. Since funds for such projects are often limited, this document focuses on topics that can be researched with minimal cost. 

Many of the ideas presented here can be researched in a small laboratory in a northern climate. Others may require travel to a tropical or subtropical setting, or procurement of plant material from someone working in the appropriate climate. How could you have such an opportunity? One possibility is to see if your institution has special ties to an overseas college or community. Perhaps you know a development worker in another country who faces the problem you are pursuing, and you could arrange to spend some time there. 

What’s Inside:

Introduction

Category 1. Topics: Do These “Solutions” Really Work?

Category 2. Work Out the Details References

TN #89 Mujeres y Agricultura - 6/6/2017

En EDN 134 apareció por primera vez una versión de este material. Las dinámicas de género en relación con la agricultura es un tema importante, y sobre el cual no se había escrito en EDN. En años recientes se ha prestado mucha atención a la disparidad que a menudo existe entre hombres y mujeres cuando se trata de la agricultura y el acceso a los recursos relacionados. Conversé con varios miembros de la red de ECHO (que también han sido pasantes y miembros del personal) para obtener insumos de su parte en base a sus experiencias en una amplia gama de culturas y comunidades. Esta NT también incorpora retroalimentación de otros miembros de nuestra red. ¡Si tiene ideas que compartir después de leerla, hágalo!

TN #88 How to Build a Kerosene Fired 180 Egg Incubator with 12V Air Circulation - 1/1/2003

Although this document will tell you how to build a particular incubator that I have used for several years, the ideas presented here should assist in building an incubator of any capacity. The orientation here is toward solving the problems in building a kerosene fired incubator in general. Furthermore, artificial egg incubation requires three pieces of equipment: the incubator, a hatcher, and a brooder. This document only covers the incubator I use, the bottom part of which could be used as a hatcher but ideally a separate hatcher should be used. Once hatched, the chicks need to be kept warm at 32° C (90° F) for two weeks or more in a brooder. Presumably the reader is already familiar with the brooding phase of chick raising as that is where most folks begin: with day old chicks from a hatchery. Before investing too much time and effort in construction you need to know this incubator requires good carpentry skills, preferably a table saw, and battery powered drill / screw driver. You will have to have access to acetylene welding equipment or someone who can fabricate for you the fuel tank and chimney. There are a number of items that may be hard to get other than from the sources I used in USA cited at the end. Building this incubator takes me a month. Finally, my hatches run 40 – 60%, below the 70 - 80% a good incubator should produce but comparable to my hens’ performance. 

What’s Inside:

  • Introduction
  • Step -by-Step How to Build
  • Incubator Operation
  • Hatching
  • Conclusion
  • Source of Materials

TN #87 Seed Drying Cabinet - 1/1/2002

Seed storage is often a problem in the tropics. However, if seeds can be properly dried, they will remain viable for a longer period of time. The seed drying cabinet described here can help improve the viability of seeds in storage.

What’s Inside:

  • Introduction
  • Description
  • Diagram
  • Observations
     

TN #86 Forage Cutter - 1/1/2002

This simple forage cutter provides a mechanism to chop tough grasses or other forages to make them more palatable and digestible for livestock. This results in more efficient food conversion for animals and reduced wastage. It can also be used to chop materials for compost, silage, vermiculture, etc.

What’s Inside:

  • Introduction
  • Materials
  • Description
     

TN #85 Briquette Presses for Alternate Fuel Use - 1/1/2000

Briquettes made from materials that cost little or no money to obtain, such as old newspaper or unutilized plant waste, can be a cost-effective alternate fuel to charcoal or firewood.  This could alleviate the harsh pressures put on many forests for providing enough fuel energy to meet people’s needs.  At the same time, it could prevent the wastage of materials that still have value, so they will not be ‘thrown away’, discarded as litter, or left to rot. Many different methods and technologies exist for pressing briquettes, each with its own unique advantages and disadvantages.  This document describes the process of making briquettes and two designs for briquette presses.

What’s Inside:

  • Introduction
  • The Briquette Process
  • Bottle Jack Briquette Press
  • Lever Arm Briquette Press