Notas Técnicas de ECHO son publicaciones que tratan específicamente a un tema importante para aquellos que trabajan en los trópicos y subtrópicos. Nuestro material es escrito por funcionarios de ECHO y escritores ajenos, los cuales tienen experiencia y conocimientos con la técnica. Estos documentos están disponibles de forma gratuita y ¡esperamos que sean valerosos para su biblioteca de recursos en el desarrollo de agricultura!

93 Contenido (Mostrando Ediciones 55 - 46) |

TN #55 Nivel A - 1/1/2006

El Nivel A es una herramienta sencilla pero exacta para medir y construir curvas de nivel en una ladera o pendiente. Es útil para el establecimiento básico de sistemas agrícolas en laderas, tales como los sistemas S.A.L.T. (Tecnología de Pendientes en Tierras Agrícolas), así como también para marcar las curvas de nivel y las zanjas de drenaje. Las curvas de nivel en tierras en pendiente reducen la erosión del suelo, aumentan la filtración del agua, protegen las pendientes y ayudan a recuperar las laderas degradadas. Su fabricación es de bajo costo ya que se elabora con materiales locales.

El Nivel A también puede utilizarse para determinar la pendiente porcentual de una ladera y para medir curvas de nivel y zanjas de curvas de nivel de una ladera en particular. Este documento proporciona las instrucciones básicas para construir y utilizar un Nivel A.

TN #54 Preparing for Agricultural Missions - 1/4/2006

There are two parts to this document; part 1 provides a brief description of the things a college student should consider as he/she chooses opportunities for learning and part 2 lists organizations that provide some practical training. The second section will be most useful for individuals applying to or who have been accepted by a mission and are preparing for service, and for missionaries that have limited knowledge of agriculture, health care, and appropriate technology yet realize their ministry has some level of involvement in one or more of these areas.

TN #53 Chaya - 1/1/2006

El Dr. Martin Price, cofundador de ECHO y antiguo jefe del Departamento de Recursos Agrícolas de ECHO, afirma, “Yo consideraría la chaya como una de las cinco plantas alimenticias más importantes subutilizadas que ECHO distribuye. Le doy esta clasificación por su habilidad de prosperar en regiones áridas y lluviosas, su poca necesidad de cuidados especiales o fertilidad extra, su falta de plagas de insectos enfermedades y pestes, su alta producción por pie cuadrado, y el valor nutricional excepcional de sus hojas cocidas.”

Frank Martin, Ruth Ruberté, y Laura Meitzner Yoder están de acuerdo. En su libro, Edible Leaves of the Tropics (Hojas Comestibles de los Trópicos), escribieron, “Como fuente de comida de alta calidad durante todo el año en un rango amplio de condiciones, es una de las plantas de hojas comestibles más importantes de los trópicos”.

En un artículo de Economic Botany (Botánica Económica) 56(4), “The Ethnobotany of Chaya (La Etnobotánica de la Chaya),” Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra y Álvaro Molina-Cruz escribieron, “Su valor nutricional alto, facilidad de propagación, productividad, tolerancia a pobres condiciones para el crecimiento, y resistencia a plagas y enfermedades hacen que la chaya sea un cultivo potencial de mucho valor que podría beneficiar a la gente de muchas regiones diferentes”.

TN #52 Moringa Water Treatment - 1/3/2005

In addition to food, shelter and clothing, water is one of our basic human needs and lack of potable water is a major cause of death and disease in our world. The purpose of this document is to provide information on household water treatment using seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree.

Using natural materials to clarify water is a technique that has been practiced for centuries and of all the materials that have been used, seeds of the Moringa have been found to be one of the most effective.

TN #51 Polvo de Hoja de Marango - 20/1/2005

Las hojas del árbol de Moringa oleifera son muy nutritivas. Pueden consumirse frescas, cocinadas o secas. Debido a que las hojas secas del marango retienen su contenido de nutrientes, es posible convertirlas en polvo. Cuando existe una abundancia de hojas, este polvo se puede elaborar y almacenar fácilmente. El polvo de hoja de marango es un excelente suplemento nutricional y puede agregarse a cualquier platillo.

TN #50 Statistical Analysis of Simple Agricultural Experiments - 1/4/2003

Use of a new crop variety or production technique may dramatically increase food production in a given area. Alternatively, an innovation successful in North America may utterly fail in the tropics. The goal of “adaptive research” is to evaluate a particular innovation for its usefulness
under local conditions. This technical note is written for those who want to improve the quality of their experiments but who have little or no background in statistics. It supplements the 81st issue of ECHO Development Notes with step-by-step instructions on how to manually calculate
statistics for the most commonly used experimental designs. A little persistence, very basic math skills, and perhaps a calculator are all you need to do the calculations. If you have a computer equipped with statistical software, doing a set of calculations by hand or with a calculator will
help you to understand how to use the software and interpret the output. Examples are given for experiments in which only one factor (e.g. crop variety) is tested. A limited amount of statistical terminology is woven into the text for the benefit of those interested in further study.

TN #49 Rope Maker - 1/1/2003

Rope can be made from cord or string or even discarded plastic bags using a simple spindle to twist the materials together. 

TN #48 Acid Soils of the Tropics - 1/1/2002

Acidification of soil is a natural process with major ramifications on plant growth. As soils become more acid, particularly when the pH drops below 4.5, it becomes increasingly difficult to produce food crops. As soil pH declines, the supply of most plant nutrients decreases while aluminum and a few micronutrients become more soluble and toxic to plants. These problems are particularly acute in humid tropical regions that have been highly weathered. According to Sanchez and Logan (1992), for example, one third of the tropics, or 1.7 billion hectares, is acid enough for soluble aluminum to be toxic for most crop plants. We will look at some of the causes of acidification and list some of the expected results of both acidification and the practice of liming for acid neutralization.

What’s Inside:

  • What Causes Soil to Become Acid?
  • Soil pH and Aluminum
  • Effects of Acidification
  • Solution to the Problem
  • What Happens When Soil is Limed
  • Dangers of Over-Liming the Soil

TN #47 Composting Toilets - 1/1/2002

A composting toilet is any system that converts human waste into compost through the natural breakdown of organic matter. The photo above shows a composting toilet from the late 1800’s. Composting toilets provide a sanitary method to recycle human waste while conserving water and protecting the environment. In addition, they produce a valuable fertilizer. Composting toilets can be divided into batch systems and continuous use systems. The models covered here are batch systems. 

TN #46 Papaya Leaf Tea as a Malaria Prophylactic? - 1/1/2002

ECHO does NOT recommend that anyone stop taking their antimalarial medicine in order to try this treatment. The only evidence for the effectiveness of papaya leaf tea in the prevention of malaria is anecdotal. No studies have been done to scientifically demonstrate its effectiveness.

Does papaya leaf tea prevent malaria? In ECHO Development Notes Issue 69 (September 2000), we asked if any of those in our network had heard of the use of papaya leaf tea for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. We were prompted by a question from two development workers in Indonesia who wrote to ECHO inquiring whether papaya leaves contained quinine. They wondered because tea from the leaves is widely used there in the belief that it prevents malaria. Dr. Rolf Myhrman at Judson College analyzed the bitter leaves for quinine, but found none. That does not, of course, rule out the possibility that some other chemical in the leaves may be effective.