Notas Técnicas de ECHO son publicaciones que tratan específicamente a un tema importante para aquellos que trabajan en los trópicos y subtrópicos. Nuestro material es escrito por funcionarios de ECHO y escritores ajenos, los cuales tienen experiencia y conocimientos con la técnica. Estos documentos están disponibles de forma gratuita y ¡esperamos que sean valerosos para su biblioteca de recursos en el desarrollo de agricultura!

92 Contenido (Mostrando Ediciones 65 - 56) |

TN #65 Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration - 1/1/2010

For many years, conventional Western forestry methods have been applied, and exotic tree species promoted in Sahelian countries in order to combat desertification. Large and small projects were commissioned to curtail the assumed southward movement of the Sahara desert, but few made any lasting impression. 

Little thought was given to the appropriateness of these methods. Indigenous species were generally dismissed as “useless scrub.” In misguided efforts to establish forests, many projects even cleared the “useless scrub” to make way for exotics. Often exotic species were simply planted in fields containing living and sprouting stumps of indigenous vegetation, the presence of which was barely acknowledged, let alone seen as important. 

This was an enormous oversight. In fact, these living stumps constitute a vast “underground forest,” just waiting for a little encouragement to grow and provide multiple benefits at little or no cost. These live stumps may produce between 10 and 50 stems each. During the process of traditional land preparation, farmers treated these stems as weeds, slashing and burning them before sowing their food crops. Under this management system, the stems rarely grow beyond 1.5 m tall before being slashed again. The net result is a barren landscape for much of the year with few mature trees remaining. To the casual observer, the land appears to be turning into desert and most would conclude that tree planting is required to restore it.  

Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) is the systematic regeneration of this “underground forest.”  Tentative steps to introduce FMNR began in 1983, in the Maradi Region of Niger. Twenty-seven years later, the results have been amazing, with FMNR being practiced in one form or another across Niger and beyond. 

What’s Inside:

  • Background
  • FMNR: What It Is and How 
  • It Evolved
  • Steps in FMNR
  • Benefits of FMNR
  • Possible Constraints in 
  • Adopting FMNR
  • Reasons for the Successful Spread of FMNR in Niger

Cite this article as:

Rinaudo, T. 2010. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). ECHO Technical Note no. 65.

TN #64 Fish Farming: Basics of Raising Tilapia & Implementing Aquaculture Projects - 1/7/2010

Fish farming can generate high interest and excitement. It has great potential to produce high quality protein in relatively short time periods and in small areas. Fish farming is one way that resource poor farmers throughout the world can provide protein that is often lacking in the family diet and too expensive to purchase.

This technical note is about raising tilapia in earthen ponds because tilapia are the second most commonly raised fish in the world and are appropriate for resource poor farmers in tropical areas.

This technical note is also aimed at people working in rural areas with resource poor farmers in low income areas. Hopefully this information can assist in planning and establishing fish farming projects.

The basics of fish farming are presented here with recommendations and advice in establishing projects. Several case studies, stories, and examples from Africa are used as illustrations. References are given for more detailed information. There are many good “how to” manuals written on fish farming that can be accessed as additional resources.

Cite this article as:

Murnyak, D. 2010. Fish Farming: Basics of Raising Tilapia & Implementing Aquaculture Projects. ECHO Technical Note no. 64.

TN #63 Almacenamiento de semillas - 1/6/2010

Las semillas naturalmente tienen lugar en cualquier emprendimiento de desarrollo de agricultura. Las semillas de la mayoría de los cultivos son pequeñas, y por lo tanto se transportan fácilmente y sobre más distancia que otros cortes vegetales. Para el agricultor, las semillas representan la promesa de una provisión continuada de comida.

Como con cualquier “herramienta” de desarrollo, las semillas se pueden manejar mal. Por ejemplo, distribuir semillas que se han almacenado mal y que germinan mal podría presentar al agricultor el riesgo de fallar con los cultivos. Esta sección, entonces, se incluye como guía de manejo y utilización de semillas en el trabajo de desarrollo.

Por lo tanto, esta nota técnica se ha preparado para ayudar a asegurar el mejor manejo y uso de las semillas en el trabajo para el desarrollo. Responderá preguntas sobre el la reproducción de semillas, su almacenamiento, pruebas de germinación de las semillas y publicaciones útiles.

Cita este artículo como:

Motis, T. 2010. Almacenamiento de semillas . ECHO Nota Técnica no. 63.

TN #62 Treadle Grindstone - 1/1/2010

This treadle grindstone can spin a 6” abrasive wheel (of the type used on electric tool grinders) at up to 3000 rpm by means of a single treadle operated by the person using the grinder. Although rotational speed is similar to electric grinders, power is lower therefore short or light grinding passes must be taken. This tool may be a good addition to a shop where electricity is not available. 

What’s Inside:

  • Operating the Grinder
  • Maintenance
  • Disassembly
  • Drive Rope
  • Direction of Rotation
  • Improving the Grindstone
  • Grinding Wheel Speed
  • Dimensioned Drawings

Cite this article as:

Longenecker, J. 2010. Treadle Grindstone. ECHO Technical Note no. 62.

TN #61 PVC Water Pumps - 1/1/2010

The purpose of this document is to show several water pump designs constructed from PVC pipe, explain how to manufacture them, and discuss pump performance and how to improve on these designs. 

What’s Inside:

  • Pump Design
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Pump Performance
  • Appendix

Cite this article as:

Longenecker, J. 2010. PVC Water Pumps. ECHO Technical Note no. 61.

TN #60 The Farmer Managed Agro-forestry Farming System (FMAFS) - 1/1/2010

Farming communities in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa are becoming particularly vulnerable and face enormous challenges for their survival. Climate change, diminishing and unreliable rainfall, traditional mono culture cropping farming practices, high population growth, frequent famines and high de-forestation rates have led to severe environmental degradation and impoverished soils. This has resulted in poor crop yields, high malnutrition rates and extreme poverty.

In this article, I would like to present an integrated farming system developed in the Maradi region of Niger, which has a semi-arid environment with 450 mm annual rainfall and a growing season from June to September. This farming system is showing promise for overcoming the main limitations to farming in the semi-arid tropics, and has potential for replication in other semi-arid regions of the World.


Cite this article as:

Cunningham, P. 2010. Farmer Managed Agro-forestry Farming System (FMAFS). ECHO Technical Note no. 60.

TN #59 Vegetables for SW Florida in the Summer Months - 1/1/2009

Within a couple days after Bonnie and I arrived in Florida in June 1981 to assume my new role as founding CEO of ECHO, I began digging a garden. For an avid gardener used to the long winters “up north” this was an exciting adventure.  I was going to grow flowers and vegetables year-round in the Garden of Eden itself - at least something very close to it. Or so I thought...

SW Florida’s hot, humid summers have a lot in common with rainforest conditions, minus the shade of tall trees and of course with less total rainfall and not quite as high humidity.  So it is not surprising that some of the standard vegetables in ECHO’s summer gardens originated in tropical rainforests and hot, humid lowlands.  Other important vegetables have originated in countries where there are perhaps six months without rain and six months that are like our summers. I have chosen vegetables for this document that I believe have a reasonably good chance of producing in the summer, but sometimes they still disappoint you.

What’s Inside:


A Look at Perennial Vegetables

ECHO’s Guide to Summer Garden Vegetables

Edible Leaves and Shoots

Fruiting Vegetables

Tubers and Corms



Cite this article as:

Price, M.L. 2009. Vegetables for SW Florida in the Summer Months. ECHO Technical Note no. 59.

TN #58 Producción de conejos en zonas Tropicales - 1/3/2009

Los conejos son animales para gente que le gusta comer carne y desean producirla con rapidez. Se reproducen rápidamente, hasta 8 crías cada tres meses. Un conejo joven puede pesar 4 libras en tres meses, más que un pollo de engorde. Los conejos son fáciles de criar tanto en zonas rurales como urbanas. No ocupan mucho espacio. La carne de conejo es muy popular en Europa, China y las Américas. A todo el críe conejos nunca le faltará la carne en su mesa y descubrirá otros beneficios. ¿Has considerado alguna vez criar conejos?


¿Por qué criar conejos?

No todo mundo puede criar conejos

Alimentación de conejos

Jaulas de conejos

Reproducción de conejos

Enfermedades de conejos Destace de conejos

Manejo de conejos

Cita este artículo como:

Niles, W. 2009. Producción de conejos en zonas Tropicales. ECHO Nota Técnica no. 58.

TN #57 Fertilidad de Suelos - 20/1/2009

Todas las plantas necesitan de ciertos elementos minerales para el crecimiento y desarrollo adecuado, y mantenimiento. La estructura básica de todos los organismos es construido de carbono (C), oxigeno (O) e hidrogeno (H). Las plantas obtienen estos elementos del agua (H2O) en el suelo y del dióxido de carbono (CO2) en el aire, entonces no requieren ninguna inversión más que asegurar suministro adecuado de agua para cumplir estas necesidades. Convertir el H2O y CO2 en componentes básicos orgánicos es, sin embargo, un proceso complejo que requiere ayuda de por lo menos 13 elementos adicionales.

Tres elementos, nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P), y potasio (K), son requeridos en cantidades relativamente altas y se refieren como nutrientes primarios o macronutrientes. N es un componente importante de todas proteínas, y es integral para la estructura de una planta. P es un componente menor de proteínas, pero es integral para los moléculas que controlan el fluyo de energía dentro de la planta y es un componente del material genético. El papel de K parece ser mantener la concentración correcta de sal en la savia. N, P, y K, en proporciones variables, son los elementos principales de todos los fertilizantes químicos. Dependiendo del origen del fertilizante, sus cantidades se pueden expresar como N, P2O5, y K2O.


Cita este artículo como:

Harter, R.D. 2009. . ECHO Nota Técnica no. 57.

TN #56 La Espinaca de Lagos - 1/1/2007

En un mundo donde el hambre y la pobreza son temas que afectan a un gran porcentaje de la población, la tecnología y la educación son deficientes y los recursos agrícolas a menudo son escasos, un productor se siente agradecido por los cultivos de bajo mantenimiento que cosechará con un mínimo insumo de esfuerzos y recursos. La espinaca de Lagos (Celosia argentea) es uno de esos cultivos. Una hortaliza de hojas poco conocida y subexplotada, C. argentea es un cultivo que es fácil de sembrar, crece en la mayoría de los climas y suelos, soporta la sequía y el calor, y presenta pocos problemas relacionados con plagas y enfermedades, es fácil de preparar, altamente nutritiva, sabe bien, y produce grandes cantidades de semillas. ¡Uno no puede menos que preguntarse por qué una planta así es tan poco conocida!

Cita este artículo como:

Yarger, L. 2007. La Espinaca de Lagos. ECHO Nota Técnica no. 56.