Notas Técnicas de ECHO son publicaciones que tratan específicamente a un tema importante para aquellos que trabajan en los trópicos y subtrópicos. Nuestro material es escrito por funcionarios de ECHO y escritores ajenos, los cuales tienen experiencia y conocimientos con la técnica. Estos documentos están disponibles de forma gratuita y ¡esperamos que sean valerosos para su biblioteca de recursos en el desarrollo de agricultura!

93 Contenido (Mostrando Ediciones 13 - 4) |

TN #13 Strawberries : A Potential Cash Crop in the Tropics - 1/8/1985

Several scientists and one grower were contacted by telephone and asked about the potential of strawberries for the tropics. Their conversations are summarized.


The potential of strawberries (Frageria americana) as a source of income for the small farmer has been clearly demonstrated at the Baptist mission in Haiti. They have never sold for less than $1 per pint and they say the wealthier people drive up from the city to buy them.


The major limitation is that fresh, disease-free plants must be purchased at least every second year from the United States. This requires a capital investment on the part of the farmer and some risk that the plants may be dead upon arrival due to transportation foulups. A limiting geographical factor is that elevations which provide some relief from the heat are usually required.

TN #12 El Árbol de Marango - 1/6/1985

El árbol de marango, Moringa oleifera, probablemente ha sido la planta más popular de cultivos tropicales subutilizados del banco de semillas de ECHO. El árbol es nativo de la India pero ha sido sembrado en todo el mundo y se ha naturalizado en muchas localidades. El marango es conocido con muchos nombres. En Filipinas, donde las hojas del marango se cocinan y se les dan a los bebés, es llamado “el mejor amigo de la madre” y "malunggay." Otros nombres para él incluyen el árbol “benzolive” (Haití), árbol “horseradish” (rábano picante, en Florida), Nébéday (Senegal) y árbol “drumstick” (India). (N. de la Traductora: en español es conocido también como: árbol del ben, Ángela, árbol de las perlas, á. de los espárragos, behen, ben, chino borrego, hoja de sen, jacinto, jazmín francés, marango, marengo, Maringa, palo de abeja, p. de aceite. P. geringa, p. blanco, p. de España, p. francés, perla, picante blanco, teberinto).

Existen unas 13 especies de árboles de marango en la familia Moringaceae. Son nativos de la India, el Mar Rojo y/o partes de África incluyendo Madagascar. De estas especies, Moringa oleifera es la más ampliamente conocida. En este documento, el término ‘marango’ se refiere a M. oleifera. Todas las otras especies son mencionadas por su nombre científico en latín.

TN #11 Control of Weeds, Insects and Diseases - 1/4/1985

On the small farm, or in the home garden, techniques suitable for the production of food might be quite different from those used in large-scale production systems. The use of machinery, for example, might be impossible or uneconomical, or special small-scale equipment might be needed. The wide variety of crops produced implies that the production schedule will be complex. Chemical treatments designed for one crop are liable to interfere with another. Furthermore, the farmer or gardener often will not have the same depth of experience as the large scale commercial farmer, and in the interest of safety may wish to avoid certain substances or machinery. In addition, small scale production may not be plagued with the problems common to large scale production or the farmers may choose to accept a certain reduction in yield or price or a decrease in attractiveness in order to avoid pesticides.

TN #10 Estiércol Verde Manure Crops - 1/1/1985

Cultivos de estiércol verde son plantas que [muchas veces en Norteamérica] se cultivan para incorporar en la tierra para aumentar la fertilidad del suelo. Los estiércoles verdes leguminosos (por ej., aquellos que pueden funcionar como fertilizantes de nitrógeno con la conversión de nitrógeno atmosférico) pueden ofrecer a los agricultores de pequeña escala en el mundo en desarrollo un número tremendo de ventajas.

Alrededor de 30% de todos los aumentos en cosecha logrados por agricultores de pequeña escala en el mundo en desarrollo durante las últimas tres décadas se ha logrado a través del uso de fertilizantes químicos. Mientras suben los precios de petróleo, los precios de fertilizantes químicos podrían fácilmente resultar demasiado caros para el uso con granos básicos tradicionales. Casi de la noche al día, la producción de granos básicos en el mundo en desarrollo podría caer. El uso amplio de cultivos de estiércoles verdes podría contrarrestar mucho de este impacto.

En Esta Nota:

  • Comparación con el Compost

  • Sistemas de Cultivación

  • Algunas Especies de Plantas Adecuadas para Estiércol Verde
     

TN #9 Multi-Purpose Trees for Honey Production - 1/9/1984

Next to food, firewood is the most scarce item in developing countries. More than one third of the world is dependent upon firewood to supply their energy needs and ninety percent of the people in the poorest countries depend upon it as their chief source of fuel.


What better way is there to solve the firewood problem than by planting fast growing trees that will not only produce firewood but also food and fodder? Some of the most suitable trees for this purpose are also valuable honey producing trees that have nitrogen fixing properties which will support grasses.

TN #8 Beehive Designs for the Tropics - 1/8/1984

Several types of hives and their construction will be described but it must always be kept in mind that availability of materials is of extreme importance. There are places where lumber is readily available at reasonable prices and, certainly, if it is termite-proof or termite-proofed it is the best and easiest material to work with. However, there are other areas where timber is very short in supply or extremely expensive and other methods of hive construction must be considered although the same principles could be adapted as those described for lumber.

TN #7 Chicken Manure Tea : Research Report - 1/7/1984

One aspect of ECHO's ministry is behind the scenes for most of our readers. We help college professors and students in the sciences identify research projects that would be of benefit to the small Third World farmer. Several ideas that could be done at an undergraduate level are written up in what we call Academic Opportunity Sheets. Nathan Duddles, while an undergraduate at California Polytechnic University, did an outstanding job on one of these projects, evaluating the suitability of chicken manure tea as a fertilizer. I believe the quality of his work is at a Masters level.

TN #6 Cucurbit Seed as Possible Oil & Protein Sources - 1/6/1984

The uses of cucurbit seeds as sources of oils and proteins have been reviewed by Jacks, et al. (1972). After the hull is removed, cucurbit seeds contain about 50 percent oil and up to 35 percent proteins. Most of their oil is made up of non-saturated fatty acids, thus of high nutritional values. Conjugated fatty acids among some cucurbit oils make them highly useful as drying oils. [I.e. they combine readily with oxygen to form an elastic,
waterproof film. Ed.] The proteins, on the other hand, are principally of the globulin type, and are deficient in lysine but also in sulfur-bearing amino acid. Protein efficiency ratios of about 30 to 70 (that of powdered skim milk is 80) have been measured. The PER improves with addition of lysine.

TN #5 Neem - 20/4/1984

Esta nota técnica fue publicada a inicios de la década de los 80’ cuando existían relativamente pocas fuentes de información sobre el árbol o semillas de neem.  En años recientes ha habido muchos avances en cada una de estas áreas.  La información contenida en esta nota técnica todavía sigue siendo muy valiosa. Una buena fuente de información adicional es la publicación de la National Academy of Sciences, Neem: A tree for Solving Global Problems.

TN #4 Leucaena - 19/1/1984

Leucaena leucocephala ("koa haole"-Hawaii; ipil ipil - Phillipines) is a fast-growing, leguminous tree that can be used for reforestation, for firewood, and as a forage crop that can equal alfalfa in nutritional value. There are three basic types of leucaena trees: Hawaiian, Salvador, and Peru. There are also crosses between these. You need to choose the type that best fills your needs. The Hawaiian type is short and bushy. Because its yield of wood and foliage is low compared to the other two types, this would probably be a poor choice. The Salvador type (Hawaiian giant) is tall and tree-like. The trees can grow 60 ft. in height in five years. The best varieties of this type are K8 (Mexico), K28, K67 and K72. K67 is the best variety for projects that need to produce large quantities of seed. The Peru type is tall with extensive branching. The trees are good for forage. Good varieties are K6 and K62. An excellent forage-type leucaena is the Cunningham (K500) which was developed in Australia. It is a cross between the Salvador and Peru types.