豆类是生产种子供人类食用的豆科植物。它们在干燥时收获,然后煮熟,通常需要在烹调液中长时间浸泡。它们富含碳水化合物、B族维生素和蛋白质,在日常饮食中通常可以作为肉类的替代品。豆类的含油量差异很大。许多豆类含有抗营养因子或有毒物质,食用前需要彻底煮熟。在适当的条件下,它们可以储存多年,作为粮食安全的宝贵来源。大多数热带豆类为一年生。


  1. Rice Bean Vigna umbellata

    Vigna umbellata is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial legume, often grown as an annual. Depending on variety, V. umbellata presents as vining, bush, or semi-erect forms, reaching heights of 30-200 cm. Leaves are trifoliate and bright, yellow flowers are produced in groups of 5-20 per raceme, giving way...
  2. Chickpea Cicer arietinum

    Chickpea is a very drought-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing, cool season crop that tolerates heat during fruiting and ripening. It is grown as a cool season annual in a broad belt through the Mediterranean region to the subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Europe, Central, and South America. The...
  3. Cowpea Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata

    Vigna unquiculata is a grain legume that originates in Africa. Attributes such as vine shape (climbing, prostrate, or semi-erect), seed color (shades of white, pink, brown, and black) and seed maturation time (60 to 240 days) vary with variety. Pods appear in V-shaped pairs.
  4. Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

    Phaseolus vulgaris is a vining (indeterminate) or bush-type (pseudo-determinate) herbaceous annual. Vining types are perennial and reach 2-5 m in length. Bush-types are annuals and reach heights of 20-60 cm. Pubescent leaves are trifoliate, present alternately on the stem, and range from green to...
  5. Peanut Arachis hypogaea

    Arachis hypogaea is a globally important legume crop originating in South America. A low-growing, annual plant, depending on variety A. hypogaea can reach lengths of 70 cm. Leaves are opposite, pinnately compound, and leaflets are borne in opposing pairs (4 leaflets per leaf). A. hypogaea leaves...
  6. Wild Mung Bean Vigna vexillata

    Wild mung bean is a perennial, vining, nitrogen-fixing plant with edible beans and tubers. This plant is rarely cultivated but rather pods and tubers are collected from wild plants. It has potential for human food, as well as a green manure or cover crop.
  7. Pigeon Pea Cajanus cajan

    Pigeon pea is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial shrub, growing to 4 m in height, that produces green or dry seed in seasonally dry climates. Pigeon peas are adaptable to many soil types and are used as a dry pea, green vegetable, fodder, fuelwood, green manure or cover crop.
  8. Soybean Glycine max

    Soybean is an annual, nitrogen-fixing, nutritious, bean crop grown mainly as a pulse and for oil used for human consumption and many industrial uses. It is a very day length sensitive crop with varieties developed for many different latitudes. Soybeans are also used a fresh vegetable. Soy sauce,...
  9. Vegetable Soybean Glycine max

    Mao Dou

    Vegetable Soybean cultivation probably originated in northeastern China, a region where wild soybeans exist. These high protein beans are best known as pulses and oilseeds.
  10. Lablab Lablab purpureus

    Lablab purpureus is capable of growing in a wide range of climatic conditions and soil types, depending upon the variety chosen. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics and occurs wild in tropical Africa (including Madagascar) and India. The palatability of lablab surpasses...
  11. Lentil Lens culinaris

    Lentils are a low-growing, nitrogen-fixing, herbaceous annual, and are among the oldest of cultivated crops. Lentils are well adapted to semi-arid growing conditions in the cool season of warm temperate regions. They also tolerate subtropical climates and high elevation tropical environments.
  12. Horse Gram Macrotyloma uniflorum

    Horse gram is a dense, low-growing, nitrogen-fixing, annual crop grown for forage and human consumption. It is usually sown as an intercrop but can also be used as a green manure or cover crop. It will tolerate drought conditions, poor soil, and some salinity.
  13. Tepary Bean Phaseolus acutifolius

    Phaseolus acutifolius is a vining or bushy herbaceous annual reaching lengths of 4 m. Leaves are trifoliate, alternate, and usually pubescent. Flowers are borne in groups of 2-5, butterfly-shaped, and can range in color from white to lilac. Pods are 5-9 cm in length and contain 2-9 seeds each....
  14. Lima Bean Phaseolus lunatus

    Phaseolus lunatus is a vining (indeterminate) or bush-type (pseudo-determinate) legume from Central and South America. Vining types are vigorous, perennial, and reach 2-6 m in length. Bush-type cultivars are annuals and reach heights of 0.25-1 m. Leaves are trifoliate, present alternately on the...
  15. (True Red) Cranberry Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

    The True RedCranberry Bean is deep red in color like a cranberry but the pod is ivory with red flecks. It is a pole bean that blossoms and sets pods over the course of a growing season. Beans from this species serve as a major protein source for humans. Cranberry Bean was first grown in South...
  16. Nuñas Phaseolus vulgaris

    From findings discovered in a cave in Peru, experts say that nuñas may have been available 11,000 years ago. This discovery indicates Nuñas were around well before the Incas, and perhaps before the common bean ('frijol', Spanish). Because of their age, Nuñas have been called "a kind of witness of...
  17. Winged Bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus

    The Winged Bean is a climbing, nitrogen-fixing, short-lived perennial vine, usually grown as an annual. The pods, beans, leaves, tubers, and flowers of this plant are all edible. It thrives in hot, humid areas where other beans are more likely to succumb to plant diseases.
  18. Adzuki Bean Vigna angularis

    Adzuki bean is a bushy or vining, nitrogen-fixing, annual plant that is moderately drought tolerant. This bean grows best in temperate climates or higher altitudes in the tropics. The young pods, fresh seeds and dry beans are used for human consumption.
  19. Marama Bean Tylosema esculentum

    The Marama Bean is a wild plant prized by people living in and around the Kalahari in southern Africa
  20. Black Gram Bean Vigna mungo

    Black gram is an erect, up to 1 m in height, nitrogen-fixing, drought tolerant, annual plant grown for the dry beans. The bean is used whole, split, husked, fermented, sprouted or ground into flour which when combined with rice flour is especially valued for baking. Black gram is also used as a...
  21. Fava Bean Vicia faba

    蚕豆

    Vicia faba is an annual herbaceous plant from the legume family, usually considered to contain three subspecies: V. faba ssp. major (broad bean), V. faba ssp. equina (horse bean), and V. faba ssp. minor (tick bean or pigeon bean). Plants are upright, reaching heights of 1.5-2 m. Leaves of V. faba...
  22. Moth Bean Vigna aconitifolia

    Moth bean is a low-growing, nitrogen-fixing, annual plant that forms a mat on the ground. It is drought tolerant, nutritious and can be eaten fresh or as a dried bean. Moth bean can also be used as a cover crop to suppress weeds and improve soil.
  23. Mung Bean Vigna radiata

    Vigna radiata is an annual, erect or semi-erect legume, reaching heights up to 1.25 m. V. radiata produces 4-30 yellow or green flowers per cluster that become pubescent pods. Leaves are alternate and trifoliate.
  24. Edible Australian Acacias Acacia colei, A. elecantha, A. torulosa, A. tumida

    Most Edible Acacia seed species are from northern semi-arid regions of Australia and range from medium-sized trees to large, multi-stemmed bushes. Several Edible Acacia species have been successfully introduced into African semi-arid regions like Niger and Senegal. Acacia colei is a drought...
  25. Scarlet Runner Bean Phaseolus coccineus

    Phaseolus coccineus is a perennial, vining legume from Central America. Due to its red, showy flowers, P. coccineus is often grown as an ornamental, though nearly all parts of the plant are edible, given the appropriate preparations. A climbing vine, P. coccineus reaches heights of 3-5 m, and...