Insects and other pests can be a serious constraint to food production, especially where resources for pest management are scarce. For example, in EDN 133, we responded to a question about problems with tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) in Nigeria. Heavy infestations of this pest alone can reduce yields by 80 to 100% (Gebremariam 2015). The following  resources continue an effort to strengthen our informational resources on pest monitoring and management.



  1. 22-03-2017 Seed conservation under tropical climates is a great challenge when usual storage technology is lacking. Seed pests and the loss of seed viability are among the main risks faced by farmers and seed banks. ScientistsLawrence et. al.recently found that vacuum sealing significantly reduces stored...
  2. 18-10-2016 Cory Thede, working on the north coast of Haiti, sent a note about a local chaya plant with a lower branch that mutated to a wild stinging type. He commented, “After I backed up against it, it gave me an itchy rash on my arm for about a week. The upper branch is regular and almost spineless.” He...
  3. 19-12-1991 The following are abstracted from an article in the magazine Baobab, #5, 1990. They in turn learned it from "The Farming World" of BBC World Service. First a review. You have read in previous issues of EDN and probably elsewhere about this tree's use in insect control. There are many active...
  4. 20-10-2001 InEDNissue 68, we published an article on treating bednets with insecticide for the prevention of malaria. This is a technique which is currently being widely promoted throughout the developing world. It seems very effective when compared to other low-cost methods of malaria prevention. Since...
  5. 20-07-2003 An article in the March 1998 issue of The IPM Practitioner featured the use of borates to protect wood against termites, wood-boring beetles, carpenter ants and decay fungi.
  6. 19-02-1998 Kerosene Emulsifiable Concentrate is an insecticide (at times it acts as a fungicide) which has a very wide spectrum as far as dealing with various insects is concerned.
  7. 17-07-2017 Insects and other pests can be a serious constraint to food production, especially where resources for pest management are scarce. For example, in EDN 133, we responded to a question about problems with tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) in Nigeria. Heavy infestations of this pest alone can reduce...
  8. 14-12-2016 Insect pests can cause substantial crop losses or even complete crop failure. An insect monitoring strategy helps farmers make informed, timely pest-management decisions. Scouting is an important part of any monitoring approach, but it is probably not practical to walk through fields or gardens...
  9. 20-01-2005 Report on experience using Tithonia diversifolia as a termite repellent for protecting fruit trees in Central African Republic.
  10. 19-06-1992 The U. S. Department of Agriculture is recommending that home gardeners use a cooking oil spray to control aphids, white flies and spider mites.Researchers claim that the oil spray is only about one-third as costly as commercial pesticides with equivalent effectiveness. Recipe for an oil and soap...
  11. 20-06-2011 Vermicompost contains significant numbers of biological organisms capable of suppressing plant diseases on leaf surfaces. This study, done at ECHO in southwest Florida during the spring of 2011, was conducted to evaluate the potential of foliar-applied vermicompost teas for plant disease...
  12. 01-11-2017 Insect pests can result in substantial losses of stored seed. In West Africa, cowpea bruchids (Callasobruchus maculatus) caused up to 100 percent damage of cowpea seeds stored for a few months (Sallam 1999). Primary pests are those that, in larval stage, feed within intact kernels. Others, such...
  13. 20-07-2003 In addition to controlling termites, boric acid can be used to control cockroaches and ants.
  14. 19-04-1994 See List. Research is currently in progress on another, novel, approach to control of subterranean termites [whichrely on fungi to make suitable food from decaying vegetation carried into the colony]. This approach is to apply fungicides to deprive them of their major food source by controlling...
  15. 19-11-1997 Preliminary research done by the USDAsuggests that the smoke of grapefruit leaves may help control varroa mites, which parasitize bees.
  16. 20-06-2000 Mosquito nets are effective in protecting people sleeping under them as long as the nets have no holes and people are not sleeping up against them. However, a mosquito will continue searching until it finds a way in or finds part of the body that is against the net where it can bite through....
  17. 19-03-1999 Horn flies have been controlled with insecticides in the U.S. since the early 1950s. An alternative, mechanical means of control (horn fly trap) was developed prior to World War II, but this never made its way into mainstream agriculture because of the growing use of pesticides following the war....
  18. 19-10-1993 Iron sulfate can be used to control slugs. Recent laboratory trials in England support the notion that iron sulfate is rapidly absorbed and is highly toxic to slugs.
  19. 15-06-2015 “ปีนีนาในเขือนปาสักฯแหงจนเหนซากของวัด ตนไม สิงปลูกสราง มันเหนหมด นามันแหง วิกฤติจริงๆ แตถาเกิดวาอีกสักครึงเดือนฝนไมตก เราจะวิกฤติหนักกวานีอีก เพราะนาดิบไมมี ทาประปาไมได ทานาดืมไมได นาเปนสิงสาคัญ ทังนากิน นาใช เอามาบริโภค เรารณรงค 9 วันเรืองเดียวคือเรืองนา เพราะบางทีไมมีนาอาบ ไมมีนาหุงตมกันเลย...
  20. 19-10-1996 Grasshoppers and locusts cause extensive damage to a wide variety of crops and can be persistent in gardens year after year. Several ideas for their control are presented.
  21. 20-10-2001 Varroa mites (two strains of Varroa destructor), which parasitize the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) over much of the world, can seriously weaken and even kill honey bee colonies. Some possibilities for control are discussed.
  22. 19-10-1993 ECHO's name symbolizes ideas, information and seeds "echoing" back and forth between ourselves and our overseas network. We owe much of our effectiveness to you. There are many examples in this issue. The most difficult editing decision is always which material to delay. We have enough material...
  23. 15-06-2015 This article is from ECHO Asia Note #24 Increased awareness of the potential of neem tree by creating awareness of its potential would go a long way in promoting its acceptance for pest management and improvement of plant health, animal health, human health, and environmental health.
  24. ทรัพยากรหลัก 01-05-1984 Suggests techniques for preventing diseases and pest damage, describes the problems that can develop with each kind of fruit and vegetable, and describes specific remedies. 2 Copies
  25. Naturally occurring insecticidal compounds can be extracted from neem seeds and sprayed onto crops to prevent pest insect damage. This 2 minute and 33 second animation explains how to sort neem fruits, dry them, remove their outer shells, sort the seeds, grind them, mix the powder in water,...
  26. 19-04-1994 “In Keralea (southern India) fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis and D. cucurbitae) incidence is severe in mango trees. P. Reghunath and M. Indira describe a low-cost technology to combat this insect pest.”
  27. 20-01-2005 Insect habitat is Fundamental #9. Insects populate and bring stability to your system if you allow the predators and beneficial species a place to live. Plant insect habitat for beneficial species and bait crops for the bad guys. Many pest problems can be minimized with habitat that promotes...
  28. 19-07-1999 The diamondback caterpillar,Plutella xylostella, (larva of amoth) is a very serious pest of cabbage and other crops. When highly fertilized collard greens (B. oleracea, Acephala Group), a related vegetable, are planted completely around a field, moths lay their eggs on the collards rather than on...
  29. 20-01-2005 With all the instant gratification available to the consumer these days, nature seems to take a long time. Stabilizing your soil, pasture and livestock areas don’t happen over night. Nevertheless, Microbial Management with foliar sprays and fertilizers can help in the transition.
  30. 26-09-2017
  31. 28-01-2015 An overview of the workshop topics including integrated pest management, natural herbicides, Beuveria, Trichoderma, etc. Translated from Thai to English.
  32. 28-01-2015 An overview of various microbial pesticide options and how they are used.
  33. 02-02-2016 In this talk, Kittichai gives an overview of integrated pest management (IPM) and one IPM technique, the use of fungi beuveria as a natural insecticide. Kittichai shares how beuveria can be replicated and used in community development projects
  34. Agronomy for Sustainable Development Brian Lawrence, Abram Bicksler, Kimberly Duncan Abstract : Prevention of pests while maintaining viable seed during storage is often challenging for smallholder farmers in the tropics and subtropics. Investment in costly technologies or storage equipment is...
  35. Reviewed by Kristin Davis In EDN 64-5 we reviewed a report from Lowell Fuglie of the Church World Service in Senegal on his successful project with Moringa oleifera. He has published another book with CTA (Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU) on natural crop protection...
  36. ทรัพยากรหลัก 01-01-1988 This book is designed as a textbook but can also be used by field workers as a handbook for identitfication of crop pests and diseases. Pests and diseases are listed under each of forty major crops.
  37. ทรัพยากรหลัก 24-07-1992 Part of a series, this book is written principally for extension staff and other agricultural development officers, teachers and trainers who act in a similar capacity. Each book provides the background, information and knowledge necessary for a basic understanding of an aspect of agriculture,...
  38. ทรัพยากรหลัก 01-01-1995 This book is a must reading for all farmers and gardeners in southern Africa region- small scale, large-scale, commercial and subsistance farmers alike. This book aims to return us to a new co-operation with nature by offering a number of tried and tested methods to establish a long-term healthy...
  39. 01-07-2012 “Push-pull” is an intercropping strategy that protects maize and other grain crops against maize stemborer insect larvae (Chilo partellus) and a parasitic weed called striga (Striga hermonthica). In eastern and southern Africa, these pests have caused huge losses in maize and sorghum yields....
  40. Customers worldwide are increasingly demanding agricultural produce free of pesticide residues and demand for biological pest control methods, including the sterile insect technique (SIT), is rapidly increasing. The environment-friendly SIT pest control method involves the mass rearing of the...
  41. This key will to help you identify different insect orders. We are using many examples of insects found in Michigan, but the key will work anywhere. How the Key Works This is a dichotomous key, which means that at each step, you will have two choices. Juststart the keyand answer the simple...
  42. Tomato is a valuable crop in Eastern Africa, but the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) can cause large crop losses if it is not controlled. In this video produced by the World Vegetable Center for the VINESA project, researcherSamail Njauexplains how to identify whitefly, use pest management methods such...
  43. AccessAgriculture Training Video A traditional Central American practice is to bend over the maize stalk to help dry the maize and to protect it from disease and pest damage. If you do this at just the right time, you will harvest more. Maize grains keep growing until a black spot appears at the...
  44. AccessAgriculture Training Video Learn how to spot banana weevils, how to keep them out of new banana fields and how to trap them. English French Tamil
  45. AccessAgriculture Training Video Grasshoppers and snails can be a serious problem for any vegetable seedbed as they chew the tender stems of seedlings. Caterpillars can also cause damage, but more so on tomato and cabbage than on chilli.To protect their young crops many farmers use pesticides....
  46. AccessAgriculture Training Video Nematodes are dreadful worms that live in the soil and in the roots of many different crops and weeds. Nematodes are easier to prevent than to control. The secret is to: grow healthy seedlings; destroy all sources of nematodes in and near your vegetable field;...
  47. The fall armyworm is a heavy feeder that quickly destroys the maize crop. It can destroy an entire crop if it is not controlled on time. It can spread fast, and can fly over 30 kilometres in one night assisted by the wind. The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) derives the name from its’...
  48. The Journal of Nematology is the official publication of the Society of Nematologists (SON) and publishes original papers on all aspects of basic, applied, descriptive, theoretical or experimental nematology. Other categories of papers include invited reviews, abstracts of papers presented at...
  49. When choosing a control strategy, an understanding of the behavior and ecology of the pest species is helpful. Past techniques which have ignored these facets of a species' biology often have failed. In addition, an understanding of the pest population as a dynamic, constantly changing group of...
  50. This book includes a discussion of bio-control agents, a gallery of bugs, and products that can be used as part of a bio-control plan.
  51. Weeds have always been expensive pests; estimates for total weed losses in the US are always in the billions of dollars. With the modern developments and the increasing prices of land, these costs are ever climbing. This makes the low cost weed control methods of today very attractive to farmers,...
  52. it is hoped that one of the important functions of this book will be to promote interest in, and some understanding of, the fundamental actions of herbicides and to point out the need for basic studies in plant physiology and biochemistry as an obligate step in the design of herbicides with newer...
  53. Suggestions for protecting plants presented on the following pages cover a wide range. Undoubtedly you will find some of the methods more useful than others. The tricks that deter one gardener's predators may not faze the animals that are ruining your crop.
  54. The conference was organized to focus attention on the campaign roles and responsibilities of international and national agencies which took part at the outset. To highlight the importance of the problem, the farmers themselves gave accounts of how they have lost entire maize crops to downy...
  55. In this book you can learn about means of eliminating or drastically decreasing insect pests by 'biological control," that is, through the introduction of their natural enemies--other insects which act as parasites or predators and, in sufficient numbers, will destroy the enemy--or, by the...
  56. Part of the NOFA Guides. Includes information on: Basic concepts of pest control (host susceptibility, soil health, genetic resistance, ecosystem factors) Practical approaches (crop cultural practices, rescue treatments, special section on mammals and birds, food safety) Farm design for pest...
  57. These papers summarized research efforts, described programs, identified problems with extension of rodent control technology, and outlined some new work, such as biological control, that may lead to more effective ways to reduce rice losses and the impact of rodents on community well-being.
  58. A complete garden reference on controlling insects and plant diseases without pesticides. Over 800 garden problems corrected, scores of garden plants considered, and many identifying drawings and helpful photographs. 2 Copies
  59. 01-01-1968 This booklet describes three species of rat, their habits, and how best to control them in the home, warehouse, and among cultivated crops. SPC Handbook no. 1 40 pages, illustrated, photos
  60. This book provides a comprehensive review of rodent pests and their control.
  61. This is a pictorial field guide containing information on the major insect pests causing damage to onion, garlic, shallot, chives, tomato, chili pepper, mungbean, soybean, sweet potato, and various crucifer crops in the Asian tropical and subtropical regions. It is specifically designed for...
  62. 01-01-1978 This volume is intended as a reference for those who investigate chemicals as plant disease and nematode control agents, students, technical personnel, government officials, and others who may be interested in the procedures used to test new chemicals.
  63. This book explains pesticides to the layment--to give an appreciation for the present state of this segment of chemical art and science. The entries are not restricted to a bare definition: some information about most of the pesticides named is given, so as to convey something of their...
  64. 27-01-2020 This article summarizes several methods with which I have experimented to control various types of weevils in stored seed. Seed containers can range in size from small jars to barrels/drums, but must be airtight for these techniques to work. The techniques are relevant for seeds being stored for...
  65. Uninvited guests at your summer cookout can be real pests. So get rid of your annoying insect visitors with a DIY bug trap. But bear in mind that not all the traps you find on the Internet work. Connelly and Ty Ashcraft, an exterminator at Holistic Pet Solutions in Charlotte, North Carolina,...
  66. Peggy Bradley This is class 7 in the Micro-garden Training and concerns controlling pests with natural means.
  67. Insects/Pests Ectoparasite control can be one of the most expensive and time consuming parts of being a livestock farmer. It is important to raise healthy animals for food and supplies. When working hard to prevent and fight ectoparasites from harming livestock, many factors need to be...
  68. Session:There exists a perfect synergy between research and community perceptions and expectations in agro-ecology. Farmer involvement provides evidence-based research questions and fosters in-depth research and constructive findings for the society. The presentation shares strategies for farmer...
  69. Mike Salomons, Canadian Foodgrains Bank Agriculture & Livelihoods Technical Advisor Over 1,000 different species of termites can be found across the continent of Africa! Termites are the longest living insects in the world, with some queens living as long as 50 years. The termite queen, king,...
  70. The Central American rust epidemic uncovered dire inefficiencies in disease monitoring and farm-level resources for coping with disease. World Coffee Research is focusing on applied research around plant genetics and farm management, including the need to provide farmers with better guidance on...
  71. Insect management presents a challenge to organic farmers. Insects are highly mobile and well adapted to farm production systems and pest control tactics. On organic farms, where the focus is on managing insects rather than eliminating them, success depends on learning about three kinds of...
  72. icipe'smission is to help alleviate poverty, ensure food security and improve the overall health status of peoples of the tropics, by developing and extending management tools and strategies for harmful and useful arthropods, while preserving the natural resource base through research and...
  73. 13-02-2019 Session: There exists a perfect synergy between research and community perceptions and expectations in agro-ecology. Farmer involvement provides evidence-based research questions and fosters in-depth research and constructive findings for the society. The presentation shares strategies for farmer...
  74. AccessAgriculture Training Video In this video, we will learn about a solution that boosts the crop’s growth, and at the same time protects the crop from pests and diseases. Soil contains many kinds of living things, including microbes that enrich the soil, and protect plants from diseases....
  75. On the face of it, a leafcutter ant’s nest is a perfect picture of harmonious relationships. Worker ants go out to forage for fresh leaf material that they use togrow a fungus(Leucoagaricus gonglyophorous). In return for a mulchy compost of fresh leaves, the fungus breaks down the plant material...
  76. 19-10-1994 ECHO was contacted with a vivid description of problems of leaf-cutter ants in Guyana. The farmers even tried building water filled moats around plants but the ants built leaf bridges and crossed right over. Jack bean and Sesame may help control leaf-cutter ants.
  77. At Pesticide Action Network (PAN) North America, we work to create a just, thriving food system. For too long, pesticide and biotech corporations have dictated how we grow food, placing the health and economic burdens of pesticide use on farmers, farmworkers and rural communities. PAN works with...
  78. The Legume pod borer,Maruca vitrata, causes significant damage to cowpeas in West Africa. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is considered the most important food grain legume in the dry savannas of tropical Africa, where it is grown on more than 12.8 million hectares of land. The pod borer is a serious...
  79. 08-02-2018 Speaker Bio: Marites A. Alimurung is from La Trinidad, Benguet. She is one of the researchers at Baguio National Crop Research Development and Production Support Center (BNCRDPSC) at the Bureau of Plant Industry of the Department of Agriculture, Philippines. She is currently involved in organic...
  80. Pest snails and slugs damage plant seeds, seedlings, underground tubers, leaves and fruit. Damage to seedlings often results in the death of the plant, which means major production losses. This web article looks at methods of lessening snail and slug damage usingcultural, chemical andbiological...
  81. AccessAgriculture Training Video This video examines ways of reducing worm and fluke infestation in African livestock. There is advice on how to break the worm cycle and treat animals with reliable drugs.
  82. The PestSmart Diagnostics package focuses specifically on the skills and methodologies required for field-based diagnosis. It helps plant health practitioners and students to develop and improve their ability to recognise symptoms, relate them to causes, and to identify what is causing the...
  83. 01-01-1994 The environment impact of DDT used in ground-spraying operations to eradicate tsetse flies from north western Zimbabwe was assessed in field studies between 1987-1991 and reported in this publication. The effects are reversible, probably within 10-20 years, and are less serious than those caused...
  84. Android iOS Wherever you are, browse your library of clear, practical and safe advice for tackling crop problems. Download factsheets for your country* and use them anytime, on or offline. Plantwise is a global programme, led by CABI, to increase food security and improve rural livelihoods by...
  85. Abstract,Malaria Journal, 2008 Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval...
  86. We are focused on providing the best user experience we can, helping you to discover answers to your inquiries quickly, effectively and precisely. We have a range of content on the Plantwise Knowledge Bank, including, posters, leaflets, video factsheets, etc. For ease of use, we have categorised...
  87. We are focused on providing the best user experience we can, helping you to discover answers to your inquiries quickly, effectively and precisely. We have a range of content on thePlantwise Knowledge Bank, including, posters, leaflets, video factsheets, etc. For ease of use, we have categorised...
  88. 01-01-2009 With growing consumer awareness about the dangers of garden chemicals, turn toThe Organic Gardener's Handbook of Natural Pest and Disease Control (by Fern Bradley) as the most reliable and comprehensive guide on the garden shelf. Rodale has been the category leader in organic methods for decades,...
  89. T. absolutais a pest of great economic importance in a number of countries. Its primary host is tomato, although potato, aubergine, common bean, and various wild solanaceous plants are also suitable hosts.T. absolutais characterized by high reproduction potential. Each female may lay up to 300...
  90. 01-01-1976 This book and its companion volume on diseases are reference manuals that cover the major biotic pests and environmental problems associated with woody ornamental plants. This volume covers arthropod pests, providing essential information about most of the more common and important insects,...
  91. 01-01-2002 This practical reference provides professional growers with the tools necessary to make in-the-field identifications of tropical foliage disorders. Listing more than 70 varieties of foliage plants, this guide covers a broad range of disorders, including pest damage, disease, phytotoxicity, and...
  92. Abstract, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2019 Homemade botanical insecticides are widely used by subsistence and transitional farmers in low-income countries. Their use is often driven by the limited availability or cost of commercial pesticides. Homemade botanical insecticides are often...
  93. This book contains profiles of insects and diseases that have appeared in the pages of Florida Grower over the past 12 years. 3 Copies
  94. Abstract, Frontiers in Plant Science, 2018 In the fight against arthropod crop pests using plant secondary metabolites, most research has focussed on the identification of bioactive molecules. Several hundred candidate plant species and compounds are now known to have pesticidal properties...
  95. Abstract, Applied Entomology and Zoology, 2019 Intensive agriculture, which is associated with heavy inputs of synthetic insecticides, has serious ecological impacts, leading to loss of vital ecosystem services including insect-mediated pest suppression. In recent years, efforts have been made...
  96. Abstract,Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 2018 Stem borers have been reported as the most injurious insect pests of rice among the insects that attack rice crop globally. Management of stem borers has been relied on the use of synthetic insecticides but has been...
  97. This book deals with insects and other pests of sweet potato, in the context of a pest management perspective. The major pests of sweet potato are surveyed and the available knowledge about the pests is analysed. The book contains an impressive global perspective. The authors point to the lack of...
  98. Biological control of the cassava mealybug involved the classical approach, from foreignexploration, biological studies, mass rearing, and release to monitoring and impact studies. The special attention given to quanfity observations on all trophic levels in a holistic approach transformed the...
  99. The manual contains chapters on the control of weeds, diseases, nematodes, insects and mites and on storage of onion.
  100. Does unsafe food threaten public health in your country? Is the food you eat at risk of contamination? Or, perhaps, has your shipment of agricultural goods been held at the port of entry because of a potential cargo pest infestation? The sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) plant health distance...
  101. This field guide is envisaged as a quick reference for horticultural extension workers and for teachers of agriculture, and researchers, particularly in developing countries. The publication containas a vivid presentation of pepper diseases and it is our hope that it becomes a useful guide for...
  102. This manual discusses the biology, economic status, and management of insects, diseases, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrates important to crop production in California. Photographs and other illustrations are intended to help the reader identify important pests and their damage, an essential first...
  103. This handbook summarizes information on tomato diseases in the United States and is based on extensive research findings and grower experience.
  104. This book reveals the vast array of troubles which can affect the vegetable plot. Some of them are pests and diseases, but not all--split tomatoes, blown sprouts and bolted onions do not appear in the pest charts but they are nevertheless important vegetable troubles. The purpose of the guide is...
  105. This book is designed for all of those who want to know how to keep plants, grounds, and plantings free of diseases and pests.
  106. The author discusses bugs you can love, the soil builders, the pollinators and the predators.
  107. Beginning and expert gardeners will learn how to identify and control weeds using earth-safe methods.
  108. Abstract,Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology, 2019 Lectins, noncatalytic sugar-binding proteins of nonimmune origin, are widely distributed in the most common foods and feeds in varying amounts. Since many lectins, such as legume lectins, are relatively stable against heat...
  109. 01-01-1977 The book explains a step-by-step approach, starting with preventive measures and working up to the more powerful remedies; from soil health, resistant varieties and companion planting, to traps, repellents and bug poisons.
  110. Plants and animals produce many agents which can control life processes in insects or in other plants. Among them are attractants in insects, repellants in arthropods, insecticides in pyrethrum, in turnips, and in cruciferous crops, insect toxicants in crystalliferous bacteria, biologically...
  111. Small holder farmers and practitioners from Tanzania share agroecology best practices to control pests and diseases. English Subtitles
  112. 19-03-1995 A technique to control Colorado Potato Beetles. The Colorado potato beetle has become resistant to many pesticides. An innovative technique developed by AgCanada and researched by Cornell is the use of “trench traps” to catch the beetles as they walk out of fields in search of new food sources or...
  113. Available on: iOS Android When crop pests and diseases occur farmers want immediate solutions. Time is of the essence. If they have to go searching for information which takes days to find, it might already be too late. They need to know what the problem is, what's caused it, and what to do...
  114. 01-04-1985 On the small farm, or in the home garden, techniques suitable for the production of food might be quite different from those used in large-scale production systems. The use of machinery, for example, might be impossible or uneconomical, or special small-scale equipment might be needed. The wide...
  115. To grow a highly productive garden it is important to have an insect management program. This should include frequent surveys of the garden to detect problems at an early stage. For the survey to be effective, however, the homeowner must know where to look for insects and be able to identify...
  116. 01-08-2013 Prakrit Khamduangdao was looking for an alternative to agricultural chemicals to control pests in his vegetable farm. However, he was not completely satisfied with various botanical pest control measures being promoted in northern Thailand. He reports that even though certain natural insect...
  117. 20-04-2020 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Intended Learning Outcomes – Participants will be able...
  118. 20-04-2020 The source documents (.docx and .pub)of these materials are available in the author's dropbox. The source documents are updated periodically so check here for the most current formats. We encourage you to adapt the source for your purposes. Learning Outcomes – Participants will be able to: 1....