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Abstract, World Agroforestry, 2014

Many rural households in developing countries feed their animals on the leaves of trees. In pastoral areas of sub-Saharan Africa, three-quarters of the 10,000 tree and woody species, are used as fodder, supplying up to 50 per cent of livestock feed. This provides a valuable supplement for dairy cows and goats, especially during the dry season. Leaves contain much more protein than the animal's normal diet of grasses and crop residues. As a result, the livestock produces more milk. Feeding livestock high-yielding tree fodder is also a way for farmers to cope with the pressure of smaller land holdings caused by population growth. It is part of a move towards zero grazing, in which animals are kept in a pen or shed at all times and fodder is brought to them.