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In simplest language, agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land. The crops can be grown together at the same time, can be grown in rotation, or can even be grown in separate plots when materials from one are used to benefit another. However, this simple definition fails to take into account the integrated concepts associated with agroforestry that make this system of land management possibly the most self-sustaining and ecologically sound of any agricultural system. Thus, a second definition of agroforestry would be the integration of trees, plants, and animals in conservative, long-term, productive systems.

Agroforestry can be considered more as an approach than as a single, finished technology. Although several finished systems have been devised and tested, such technology may require adjustment for particular situations. The flexibility of the agroforestry approach is one of its advantages.

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  1. Agroforestry is the practice of combining the management of annual crops and/or animals with trees. Agroforestry systems, largely composed of perennial crops, offer the resilience needed to address extreme climatic issues such as drought and torrential rain, along with social and economic factors...
  2. Key Resource 1992-01-20 In simplest language, agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land. The crops can be grown together at the same time, can be grown in rotation, or can even be grown in separate plots when materials from one are used to benefit another....
  3. Key Resource 2011-01-01 Lack of food security is one of the biggest challenges that Central Africans face each day as they toil in their gardens, trying to produce enough food to simply feed their families and afford other expenses in life such as health care or schooling for their children. Main factors limiting...
  4. 2010-01-01 Farming communities in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa are becoming particularly vulnerable and face enormous challenges for their survival. Climate change, diminishing and unreliable rainfall, traditional mono culture cropping farming practices, high population growth, frequent famines...
  5. Key Resource 2010-01-01 For many years, conventional Western forestry methods have been applied, and exotic tree species promoted in Sahelian countries in order to combat desertification. Large and small projects were commissioned to curtail the assumed southward movement of the Sahara desert, but few made any lasting...
  6. Key Resource 2011-01-20 Over the past 30 plus years that we have been working with small-scale farmers in Central Africa, we have enjoyed the wonderful lushness of its forests, savannahs, and rivers. In addition, we have been privileged to get to know some of the many people groups, with their different cultures and...
  7. Agroforestry is the agricultural practice of combining the management of annual crops and/or animals with trees. Agroforestry systems, largely composed of perennial crops, offer the resilience needed to address extreme climatic issues such as drought and torrential rain, along with social and...
  8. Silvopasture systems combine trees, livestock (ruminants like cattle, sheep and goats) and grazing. Ranchers and pastoralists plant trees or manage the land for spontaneous tree growth. The trees provide shade, timber and food for livestock.In most silvopasture systems, the carbon captured in...
  9. This group page exists so that individuals involved in Agroforestry around the world can connect. We encourage you to share the challenges you face in yourendeavors, discuss lessons and techniques learned through your experiences, and share your story!
  10. 1998-12-19 Certain seeds have been shown to respond to smoke before they will germinate, even when there is no fire.
  11. 2015-10-06
  12. 2004-07-01 Agroforestry: In its simplest definition (as quoted by ECHO's Technical Note "Agroforestry Principles"), "agroforestry is the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land." It should be viewed more as a creative process than as a set technique because it is...
  13. 1994-10-19 Information about nematodes affecting agroforestry trees. Nematodes are tiny “wire worms” that abound in the soil. The root-knot nematode,Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most infamous, both for its devastating effect on crops and the ease with which its presence can be identified. The...
  14. 1994-04-19 See List. Research is currently in progress on another, novel, approach to control of subterranean termites [whichrely on fungi to make suitable food from decaying vegetation carried into the colony]. This approach is to apply fungicides to deprive them of their major food source by controlling...
  15. 2014-11-18 Climate change will have its worst effects on the world’s poorest people. Perennial crops and agroforestry systems can help reduce the effects of climate change by sequestering carbon, while also helping to address social and environmental challenges through restoration of degraded land,...
  16. 2016-11-15 Resilience refers to the capacity for ecological systems to persist and absorb changes. Climate-change resilience encompasses a dual function, to absorb shock as well as to self-renew to cope with new circumstances. Agroforestry offers both mitigation and adaptation strategies for enhancing...
  17. The research of the World Agroforestry Centre works towards more productive, diversified, integrated and intensified trees and agroforestry systems that provide livelihood and environmental benefits, including: Enriching the asset base of poor households through farm-grown trees. Maximizing the...
  18. Vi Agroforestry (Vi-skogen) is a Swedish development cooperation organisation, fighting poverty and improving the environment through tree planting. We do this together with small-holder farming families and farmers’ organisations in the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. The foundation of Vi...
  19. Abstract - International Journal of Botany, 2010 Vegetative propagation techniques are increasingly being applied to the domestication of tropical tree species as a means of producing planting stock and capturing genetic variation. However, the level of knowledge of cost-effective for vegetative...
  20. Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case...
  21. For probably as long as people have lived in Africa, they have eaten culturally and traditionally important indigenous fruits such as baobab, desert date, black plum, and tamarind. Farmers have been able to enjoy the fruit of these plentiful wild trees without developing any knowledge of how to...
  22. Abstract - Botanical Journal of Scotland Three apparently disparate topics are brought together to focus on ways in which science and even technology have often been insulated from pressing human needs. A notable example is the 20th Century's down-grading of the value of tropical trees in...
  23. 1997-11-19 One of the immediate problems directly affecting agricultural output and quality of life in Niger is the severe deforestation which has occurred, particularly since the 1960’s. Simply planting more trees does not solve the problems. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration is a practice that protects...
  24. This directory is intended to: contribute to the informed use of tree germplasm, which is an essential component of sustainable forestry and agroforestry practices, and promote wider use of quality germplasm. Quality has both a genetic and a physiological component, and both are described in the...
  25. 2017-02-09 Resilience refers to the capacity for ecological systems to persist and absorb changes. Climate-change resilience encompasses a dual function, to absorb shock as well as to self-renew to cope with new circumstances. Agroforestry offers both mitigation and adaptation strategies for enhancing...
  26. 2008-04-20 The technique described in this article is very practical and applicable in certain situations. For example, it is becoming very useful for us here in Gamboula, Central African Republic (CAR), to produce planting material to distribute to our agroforestry cooperatives. It would also be helpful as...
  27. Focali (Forest, Climate, and Livelihood research network) is a Swedish research network focusing on forest / bio-energy, climate change and poverty issues. Several Swedish universities and institutions are represented in the network. The purpose is to contribute to the provision of relevant...
  28. Works to improve the well-being of humanity through scientific research and postgraduate education applied to the development, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. CATIE, 7170, Turrialba, Costa Rica. What is CATIE The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center...
  29. Tropical forestry and agroforestry are both highly interdisciplinary, spanning both biological and social sciences. Understanding the impacts of varied uses on tropical forests is critical to the development of management plans and policies that can sustain both the systems and the people that...
  30. Who we Are ASB is the only global partnership devoted entirely to research on the tropical forest margins. ASB is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutes, universities, non-governmental organizations, community and farmers’ groups working to...
  31. A free email agroforestry journalforpractitioners, extension agents,researchers, professionals, students, and enthusiasts. One edition is sent each month focusing on a concept related to designing, developing, and learning more about trees and agroforestry systems. Focuses on trees and their...
  32. Android This easy-to-use App shows you data on the distribution of indigenous tree species in different natural vegetation types, combined with information on the products and services that the tree species can provide. It arms you – local community members, government agencies, private sector...
  33. World Agroforestry Centre This toolkit has been developed to provide information on sustainable production of seeds and seedlings of agroforestry species. The prime objective of the toolkit is to provide information and examples of how the quality of seeds and seedlings can be maintained from...
  34. Android The Agroforestree Database is a species reference and selection guide for agroforestry trees. Agroforestry trees are those that are deliberately grown or kept in integrated land-use systems and are often managed for more than one output. This database provides information on the...
  35. Android Regreening Africa App is a mobile-based android application that helps users to collect information on how farmers are managing and protecting trees on their farms. This application was developed under the Regreening Africa project, a project that targets to reverse land degradation in...
  36. AccessAgriculture Training Video In semi-arid West Africa, farmers and herders explain why and how trees and livestock play a crucial role in obtaining a productive soil and crop. In Niger and Ghana this is one of the strategies of integrated striga and soil fertility management that has a...
  37. Trees for Life Journal(ISSN: 1559-1891) is an open-access journal of traditional knowledge and scientific studies of beneficial trees and plants published online by Trees for Life, a nonprofit organization. Vision: People around the world sharing traditional knowledge and scientific studies of...
  38. For those of you working to rebuild agriculture in hurricane-ravaged Caribbean and Central American communities, we’ve assembled somefree agroforestry training materialsthat will immensely benefit you: How to plant windbreaks to stop and slow heavy winds How to build contours to stop erosion How...
  39. Abstract,Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability2014 Fodder trees are important feed sources for livestock in a wide range offarming systemsin Africa. Researchers, extension services and farmers have developed and promoted fodder tree practices in many different countries and contexts....
  40. Abstract, World Agroforestry, 2014 Many rural households in developing countries feed their animals on the leaves of trees. In pastoral areas of sub-Saharan Africa, three-quarters of the 10,000 tree and woody species, are used as fodder, supplying up to 50 per cent of livestock feed. This...
  41. Abstract Agroforestry Systems, 2017 The distribution and composition of the tree component inside cocoa agroforests plays an important role in the economic and ecological services offered by these plantations. The presence of these plant components appears to be influenced by several factors...
  42. ScienceDaily, 2018 Penn State An agricultural system that combines trees with crops and livestock on the same plot of land, agroforestry is especially popular in developing countries because it allows small shareholder farmers -- who have little land available to them -- to maximize their...
  43. TheAfrican Crop Science Journal,a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, information science,...
  44. This set of training materials enables teachers and trainers to cover forest genetic resources issues in their courses and increase understanding of how to manage diverse and complex forest and other tree based ecosystems sustainably. The training guide covers practical issues that practitioners...
  45. 2011-08-18 Evergreen Agriculture - the combination of trees in farming systems (agroforestry) with the principles of conservation farming. Dennis Garrity, Director General, World Agroforestry Centre, gives more insight on Evergreen Agriculture
  46. APFORGEN, established in 2003, works to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of tree species and their genetic diversity in Asia and the Pacific. APFORGEN is the only network in Asia and the Pacific that specifically focuses on the conservation and sustainable use of the genetic diversity...
  47. The Latin American Forest Genetic Resources Network (LAFORGEN) contributes to developing effective mechanisms for the conservation and sustainable use of Forest Genetic Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean. Forest genetic resources are essential for communities who rely on timber and...
  48. The sub-Saharan African Forest Genetic Resources (SAFORGEN) Programme covers three broad sub-regions in sub-Saharan Africa: West and Central Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. SAFORGEN seeks to enable people and institutions in sub-Saharan Africa to conserve and use existing forest...
  49. The CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) is the world's largest research for development program to enhance the role of forests, trees and agroforestry in sustainable development and food security and to address climate change. CIFOR leads FTA in partnership with...
  50. Abstract, Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2015 April Inventorying field mapped plots can be difficult in tropical forest because visibility and access are limited due to high density of woody plants. Additionally, steep slopes and frequent presence of fog further complicate field measurements...
  51. Thousands of people around the world use GFW every day to monitor and manage forests, stop illegal deforestation and fires, call out unsustainable activities, defend their land and resources, sustainably source commodities, and conduct research at the forefront of conservation.
  52. As long ago as the 1978 World Forestry congress the notion of the importance of 'Forests for People' has been a part of the formal discourse of foresters, even if many did little more than pay lip-service to the idea. While few have been prepared to go as far as Jack Westoby, who clearly...
  53. Eric Toensmeier is a lecturer at Yale University and a senior researcher with the climate change-focused nonprofit Project Drawdown. He is the author of “The Carbon Farming Solution.” Silvopasture systems combine trees, livestock (ruminants like cattle, sheep and goats) and grazing. Ranchers and...
  54. Abstract, Science Advances, 2019 March Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during...
  55. Planting trees provides families with more than just food. It provides income, empowerment, unity, leadership, education and even saves lives. When we can teach people to value themselves and their environment, they see amazing improvements in their standard of living. We can help families escape...
  56. Land-restoration challenges have been presented in the past, great solutions proposed, and targets set at local, regional, national and global levels, however, vast areas of agricultural land remain degraded on the African continent, often well beyond the global average of 20 percent. Sad but...
  57. Abstract, New Phytologist, 2018 Dec Forest ecosystem methane (CH4) research has focused on soils, but trees are also important sources and sinks in forest CH4 budgets. Living and dead trees transport and emit CH4 produced in soils; living trees and dead wood emit CH4 produced inside trees by...
  58. Abstract,Forest Policy and Economics, 2018 Trees that produce oilseeds have the potential to improve rural livelihoods through the production ofvegetable oilfor energy and other purposes, as well as valuable co-products, such as animal feed andorganic fertilizers. In Kenya,Croton megalocarpus...
  59. TTFF plants fruit trees in Haiti, Jamaica, Antigua, The Bahamas, Barbados, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Suriname, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, Pakistan, and soon Dominica, U.S. Virgin Islands and Tanzania. Breadfruit trees, mango trees, many others. Our vision is seeing self-sustaining...
  60. 2018-11-14 How do we move from knowledge to practice? Theories from sociology point to the importance of strong relational ties for transferring information. This presentation provides a case study on the relationship between the World Agroforestry Center and Vi Agroforestry in western Kenya. Based on...
  61. Success stories from Niger, China and Ethiopia have proven that it takes less than 20 years to turn deforested and depleted soil back to green and fertile land, giving its people a future again. Ensuring farmers ownership of trees and land is crucial. Cooperation, knowledge and a long-term vision...
  62. Community forestry is now widely acknowledged as a powerful solution for many of the challenges facing local people and wider society in: Improving rural livelihoods Enhancing community governance and empowerment Transforming forest-related conflict Protecting and enhancing the environment...
  63. 2001-05-20 For a long time, coconut farmers were able to live with the fate of declining harvests and incomes. In view of the current prices, this is no longer possible. It needs changes. The best option coconut farmers have to improve their livelihood is to diversify their farms. Fortunately, common...
  64. Abstract, Plant roots can grow anywhere-in the soil, on the surface of the soil, in the water, and even in the air. Except for the first formed roots that respond positively to gravity, most roots do not grow toward anything or in any particular direction. Root growth is essentially opportunistic...
  65. Abstract, Researchgate, 2014 December In book: Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture, Chapter: 11, Publisher: Taylor and Francis, Editors: Rattan Lal, B.A. Stewart, pp.237-276
  66. Abstract,Sustainable Agriculture–Beyond Organic Farming, 2016 Agriculture faces the unprecedented task of feeding a world population of 9 billion people by 2050 while simultaneously avoiding harmful environmental and social effects. One effort to meet this challenge has been organic farming, with...
  67. Slides from Shibu Jose, author of Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview
  68. Abstract,Journal of Environmental Quality, 2011 Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades—albeit modest—have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early...
  69. 1996-01-01 The first part of the book covers 9 wood species, 4 fruit species and 4 recent exotics, giving information for each species on importance, taxonomy and botanical features, distribution and ecology, tree characteristics, utilization, propagation, biomass studies, growth performance and tree...
  70. i-Tree is a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed software suite from the USDA Forest Service that provides urban and rural forestry analysis and benefits assessment tools. The i-Tree tools can help strengthen forest management and advocacy efforts by quantifying forest structure and the environmental...