Seeds naturally have a place in almost any endeavor having to do with agricultural development. Seeds of most food plants are small and, as such, are more easily transported and can be shipped longer distances than vegetative cuttings. For the farmer, seeds represent the promise of a continued supply of food.

As with any development “tool,” however, seeds can be misused. For instance, distributing improperly stored seeds that germinate poorly could expose farmers to risk of crop failure.

This collection is a sub-set of the collection Seed Production and Storage which contains additional resources concerning seeds.  Please feel free to inform us of additional helpful links for either collection.



  1. 关键资源 2000-01-21 ECHO is frequently asked, by groups or individuals from North America, to suggest vegetable seeds to take with them on short trips overseas. Often the group is a “work team” that is being sent by a church. Someone with the group they are going to visit has asked them to bring vegetable seeds. Or...
  2. 2020-03-13 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 41. With a new decade upon us, the ECHO Asia team is pleased to highlight the next chapter in its engagement with the Asia regional network. Many of you are well aware of the goings on of ECHO Asia, but for some it may come as news that we have launched a new...
  3. 关键资源 2016-03-01 This article is from ECHO Asia Note #27 种子储存的原则 当要建一个“冷藏室”或“种子储藏室”来达到保持种子活性的目的时,最先要考虑的种子储存的最佳条件。在ECHO 亚洲期刊14(ECHO Asia Note 14)(2012 年6 月),我们分享了真空密封和冷藏的对比结果,并强调对于种子储存湿度和温度控制的重要性。我们发现湿度控制(真空密封)比温度控制(冷藏)更有效地保存种子活性。在这个ECHO 亚洲的实验中,热带种子最佳的储存方式是干燥后(为了保持较低的种子湿度)立刻真空密封,然后把种子储存在较低的温度之下。要设计一个最适宜种子储存的冷藏室,...
  4. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 36. 作为一个致力于为人们提供农业资源和技术的机构,我们的重心常常会放在种子上。我们一次又一次地见证了自由授粉的种子价值被挖掘,土生适应性强和未充分利用的有价值的植物被发现,以及低成本种子储存技术的研究创新。这些特点构成了 ECHO 能力的基础,让地球上的其他人也有能力改善食物和农业系统。 我们种子银行的运营历史很长,一开始是在佛罗里达,现在到了亚洲和非洲,ECHO 尽全力不断地将种子给到最需要的人手中。2009 年,亚洲区域影响中心和种子银行建立,...
  5. 关键资源 2002-01-01 Seed storage is often a problem in the tropics. However, if seeds can be properly dried, they will remain viable for a longer period of time. The seed drying cabinet described here can help improve the viability of seeds in storage. What's Inside: Introduction Description Diagram Observations ...
  6. 关键资源 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. 简介和背景 保存自己的种子是一种成本效益高的方法,以此可以获得作物种子供未来种植,并有助于维持地球上的植物生物多样性。 无论您是种植自己保存的种子,将它们送给朋友和邻居,还是通过您的组织分发,有效收获、清洁、准备、干燥和储存种子的能力对于帮助维持种子的萌发和存活力都很重要。本文将重点介绍将种子干燥到适当含水量的重要性,并将提供我们在”亚洲回音”影响中心种子库建造和使用的两种低成本种子干燥机的详情。
  7. 关键资源
    1998-01-01 The first section of this note focuses in on a new technology, called the ‘technology protection system’ by its developers and ‘terminator technology’ by its opponents. This technology illustrates the potential for patents to impact society at the fundamental level of food production. The...
  8. 关键资源
    2019-01-07 Two broad categories of seeds exist, referred to as recalcitrant and orthodox. The former must be kept moist and planted soon after they are collected; large-seeded fruits such as mango and avocado are typical examples. The second type of seeds are discussed in this document. Orthodox seeds are...
  9. 关键资源 Introduction Given the proper facilities necessary to store seeds long-term, whereby low temperature and low humidity are kept stable over time, it is very possible to store most orthodox seeds for several years at a time in the tropics (Harrington, 1972). Unfortunately, implementation and...
  10. 2019-01-20 Given the proper facilities necessary to store seeds long-term, whereby low temperature and low humidity are kept stable over time, it is very possible to store most orthodox seeds for several years at a time in the tropics (Harrington, 1972). Unfortunately, implementation and maintenance of the...
  11. 关键资源 This document presents key steps the ECHO Asia staffused to build an Earth Bag Seed Storage House on the new ECHO Asia Small Farm Resource Center in Thailand.
  12. 关键资源 2016-03-22 Yearly production of grains, pulses, and vegetables depends on a reliable supply of quality seed. This is true for the farmer growing a crop to feed their family as well as for the agricultural worker evaluating and growing out seeds of a new crop species or variety that could improve lives. In...
  13. 2012-07-01 Introduction Storing seeds in the tropics can often be difficult; with high temperatures and humid conditions, seeds lose their ability to germinate quickly. Many techniques for seed storage exist, from the high-tech standards of gene banks to simple methods used by villagers for saving their own...
  14. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only Community seed banks are informal institutions, run and managed by farmers or local and village governments whose primary function is to store seeds for domestic use. These banks are located in many parts of the world and have existed for many years with the aim of preserving,...
  15. A community seed bank can compare favourably with its High-Tech cousin.
  16. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #28 对于热带地区的农民和研究人员,种子储存是非常令人沮丧的。在蒙多基里省,从收获到新的种植季 节期间农民基本不能把种子保存超过 6 个月。种子储存的时间如果长于 6 个月,就会在湿季从潮湿的空气 中吸收很多湿气失去活性,或者遭受病虫害使种子繁殖性和外形遭到破坏。在我们的研究中心,我们已经 建立了一个很多有用的种子品种的存货清单,不需要每一年都种出每个品种。但是,与农民类似,我们的 种子经常很快就失去了活性或者在储存中被害虫破坏。 冷藏和冷冻是众所周知的大多数传统种子延长种子寿命的方法,(参见 ECHO 亚洲期刊...
  17. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #8 Editor: Abram serves as a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow andInstructor with the International Sustainable DevelopmentStudies Institute in Chiang Mai. He also assists the ECHO AsiaRegional Office as a technical advisor. Introduction and Background Saving your...
  18. 2021-05-20 This article by ECHO Asia Staff membersPatrick Trail, Yuwadee Danmalidoi, and Boonsong Thansrithong, appeared in ARI's'Eudoo' Journal of Rural Future Study(May, 2021) A number of motivations exist for saving seed at the community level, including crop biodiversity preservation, food sovereignty...
  19. 关键资源 2019-02-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37. 在亚热带和热带种子储存是一项挑战。如果没有干燥和冷环境,种子的质量可能会急剧恶化。储藏时的高温高湿会加速种子的新陈代谢并且促使食种虫增殖(Lale and Vidal, 2003; Upadhyay and Ahmad, 2011)。冰箱、除湿机和杀虫剂等技术能防止这些毁坏种子的情况发生,但是热带地区的小型农户不一定能利用这些技术。很多当地传统方式被用于防止虫害。一些处理剂通常在种子储存前添加到种子中,为了毒杀害虫,或者破坏和阻止昆虫在种子周围移动。一些处理剂能非常有效地减少害虫生长,...
  20. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #11 Editor: Abram serves as the Coordinator of SustainabilityResearch and as an Instructor with the InternationalSustainable Development Studies Institute in Chiang Mai. He also assists the ECHO Asia Impact Center as a technicaladvisor. Introduction and...
  21. 2019-11-20 Swahili Only
  22. 关键资源 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 31. 简介和背景 保存自己的种子是一种成本效益高的方法,以此可以获得作物种子供未来种植,并有助于维持地球上的植物生物多样性。 无论您是种植自己保存的种子,将它们送给朋友和邻居,还是通过您的组织分发,有效收获、清洁、准备、干燥和储存种子的能力对于帮助维持种子的萌发和存活力都很重要。本文将重点介绍将种子干燥到适当含水量的重要性,并将提供我们在”亚洲回音”影响中心种子库建造和使用的两种低成本种子干燥机的详情。
  23. 2005-01-20 Farmers everywhere plant seeds with the expectation that they will germinate, grow and produce a crop that can be harvested. In some cases, the seeds that are planted germinate as hoped. In other cases, seed germination percentage is quite poor. This article will address some aspects about seeds...
  24. 2015-01-20 Storing seeds in the tropics can often be difficult; with high temperatures and humid conditions, seeds lose their ability to germinate quickly. Many techniques for seed storage exist, from the high-tech standards of gene banks to simple methods used by villagers for saving their own seeds. All...
  25. ECHO Asia, in collaboration with Ntuk Nti small farm resource center and International Cooperation Cambodia (ICC), has just finished a 1-year research project (funded by the Presbyterian Hunger Program- USA) to identify key indigenous vegetable crop species in NE Cambodia and strengthen the seed...
  26. A how-to video describing how to build a low-cost seed germination chamber using local materials in Asia. This research was made possible by a generous gift from Hort CRSP and USAID.
  27. 2019-10-01 Seed saving is an important pratice for small-scale farmers. Each crop is unique, and therefore each seed needs to be cleaned in a different way. In this workshop, Khun Wah will share her years of experience cleaning and saving seed of underutilized edible crop varieties that are important to SE...
  28. This group pageexists so that individuals involved in Creating Seed Banksaround the world can connect. We encourage you to share the challenges you face in your endeavors, discuss lessons and techniques learned through your experiences, and share your story!
  29. This audio slideshow reveals how the ECHO Asia Seedbanksaves and distributes underutilised seeds for free.
  30. 2017-05-22 Seed availability for small-scale farmers can be unpredictable and unreliable. Commercial products are often out of reach financially or geographically and can lead to loss of biodiversity. ECHO's seed banks provide sample packets of seeds to evaluate for potential crop production in challenging...
  31. 2017-03-22 Seed conservation under tropical climates is a great challenge when usual storage technology is lacking. Seed pests and the loss of seed viability are among the main risks faced by farmers and seed banks. ScientistsLawrence et. al.recently found that vacuum sealing significantly reduces stored...
  32. 2015-10-06 Speaker Bio:Bhuwon Sthapit is the Senior Scientist at Bioversity International. He earned a Ph.D. in Plant Breeding from the University of Wales, UK, and is a pioneer in participatory crop improvement methods. He has over 30 years of experience in implementing biodiversity related projects in...
  33. The GRIN-Global project's mission is to provide a scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information Network(GRIN)suitable for use by any interested genebank in the world. The GRIN-Global database platform has been and is being implemented at various genebanks around the world. For more...
  34. Seeds conserved in genebanks are a vital and irreplaceable resource for safeguarding future agricultural options. The capacity of genebank staff to apply good standards for seed handling is hence of critical importance. This is the standard reference for genebank work and one of the few sources...
  35. Vacuum-sealing seeds is highly effective, but the technology to do it is often out of the reach of small-scale farmers. This one dollar solution can help small-scale farmers store seeds more reliably, improving seed viability and reducing loss. This research was done in Cambodia as part of "Seeds...
  36. 2016-09-26 Mike McMahon of the Charis Teaching Farm, recently contacted us about an experiment to try to adapt the CO2 seed saving technique presented in AN28 to verify if it could work for his context. Mike and his team conducted an experiment building and utilizing a root cellar at the Charis Farm in Tak...
  37. 2015-12-02 An introduction to plant and seed biology, including pollination, germination, multiplication, selection, isolation, and how to select seed.
  38. 2015-11-04
  39. Find links to specific seed saving instructions for 27 common vegetables. This online information comes from Basic Seed Saving, a 48 page paperback book written by Bill McDorman. It was created to provide enough practical information to allow gardeners to embark on the rewarding adventure of...
  40. The World Vegetable Center, as the name implies, focuses on vegetables to reduce poverty and malnutrition. Their website has numerous, helpful resources and publications. Among them are videos on how to save vegetable seed. They cover amaranth, eggplant, nightshade (see EDN 103), pumpkin and...
  41. This is an in-depth report of the factors to be taken into consideration when designing seed storage facilities for genetic conservation.
  42. This manual is intended for plant propagators, conservationists, land managers, and others in Hawai’i who need to store seeds of native Hawaiian plants, but do not have access to specialized facilities or staff. The techniques it describes require only simple facilities. Most equipment is...
  43. Abstract Background: Over half of the world's primary forest and a quarter of the world's plant species are found in Latin America. As a result of the limited protected areas and significant degradation of terrestrial ecosystems, seed banks provide an efficient component of integrated plant...
  44. SID is a compilation of seed biological trait data from the MSBP's own collections and from other published and unpublished sources. Its primary purpose is as an internal source of a variety of seed biological information; for use in large scale analysis and decision support for seed conservation...
  45. The Millennium Seed Bank has published a number of more detailed technical guides to various aspects of our work. Technical Information Sheets A collection of technical information sheets produced by Millennium Seed Bank staff, covering various aspects of seed conservation practices and...
  46. Genetic resources conservation is vital to global food security and poverty alleviation. IITA genetic resources center plays a major role in the conservation of seed crop germplasm in order to prevent the genetic erosion of these crop species and as well maintain a genetic base for crop...
  47. 2017-05-24 This presentation discusses the importance and benefits of seed saving the advantages of good seeds how to identify and collect good seed principles of harvesting seed seed propagation seed cleaning ... and many other things!
  48. Agronomy for Sustainable Development Brian Lawrence, Abram Bicksler, Kimberly Duncan Abstract : Prevention of pests while maintaining viable seed during storage is often challenging for smallholder farmers in the tropics and subtropics. Investment in costly technologies or storage equipment is...
  49. Experimental Agriculture Croft, M., Bicksler, A., Manson, J., & Burnette, R. (2013). COMPARISON OF APPROPRIATE TROPICAL SEED STORAGE TECHNIQUES FOR GERMPLASM CONSERVATION IN MOUNTAINOUS SUB-TROPICAL CLIMATES WITH RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS. Experimental Agriculture, 49(02), 279-294. Summary...
  50. The Germplasm Inventory Management System (GIMS) records seed flow within germplasm banks, breeding programs and research institutions that develop germplasm. Its main functionalities are to manage information about germplasm quantities (germplasm inventory) and to track germplasm history, the...
  51. BRAHMS(software updated to v7.9.4 on 2 June 2017) provides an integrated management system for herbaria, botanic gardens, seed banks and botanical survey as well as those undertaking floristic or taxonomic research. The BRAHMS project is an integral part of the research programme at Oxford to...
  52. Abstract -Conservation Physiology Seed viability monitoring, usually through a germination test, is a key aspect of genebank management; a low viability result triggers the regeneration of an accession in order to ensure that the genetic diversity of the accession is conserved and available for...
  53. Abstract - BioScience Current extinction rates of plant and animal speciesare estimated to be as much as 100- to 1000-fold higher than during the recent geological past, a phenomenon that conservation biologists attribute to wide-scale destruction of natural habitats (Pimm et al. 1995). As...
  54. Access Agriculture Training Video There are many problems with poor seed, and spotted and discoloured seed are some of the major ones. Spotted seeds can't be removed by winnowing or seed flotation. They can only be removed by manual sorting. This video will show you how to clean seed as one of...
  55. Abstract, Researchgate, 2014 The term genetic resources, or germplasm, refers to propagating material of plants and animals, including seeds, pollen, vegetative propagules and animal semen. It can also encompass whole plants and animals, in their role as reservoirs of genetic material. Germplasm...
  56. This presentation on inventory management in organic seed production by Tessa Peters of the Organic Seed Alliance was recorded at the Seed Economics Intensive of the Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. Additional recordings from this Intensive and the Conference will be...
  57. This recording is from the Seed Economics Intensive at the 2018 Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. The presenters are Sarah Kleeger of Adaptive Seeds (retail), and Sebastian Aguilar of Chickadee Farm (wholesale). More recordings from this intensive and the conference are...
  58. This presentation was recorded at the Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. The presenters are Ira Wallace of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, Pete Zuck of Johnny's Selected Seeds, and Tom Stearns of High Mowing Organic Seed. More recordings are...
  59. This presentation was recorded live on February 14, 2018 as part of the Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference. In this presentation, Travis Greenwalt of Highland Economics discusses a new tool he created in partnership with the Organic Seed Alliance which you can use for...
  60. This presentation by Tanya Murray of Oregon Tilth was recorded at the Seed Economics Intensive at the 2018 Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. Learn how to track labor on your farm. More recordings from the Seed Economics Intensive, the conference, and past Organic Seed Growers...
  61. This presentation was recorded live at the Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018 and is part of the Seed Economics Intensive. Presenters: Sarah Kleeger, Adaptive Seeds; Sam McCullough, Nash's Organic Produce; Sebastian Aguilar, Chickadee Farm, joined by Tom Stearns of High Mowing...
  62. The ECHO Asia Impact Center is staffed by the most dedicated and hardworking people! We would like to introduce you to our partner in Myanmar, the Kahelu Center! This partner has done a tremendous job developing an excellent seed banking facility. It is the desire of ECHO Asia to partner with...
  63. Does unsafe food threaten public health in your country? Is the food you eat at risk of contamination? Or, perhaps, has your shipment of agricultural goods been held at the port of entry because of a potential cargo pest infestation? The sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) plant health distance...
  64. Seed-based development demands a holistic approach if one aims to have impact for a large number of farmers and across a broad rangeof crops. Seed systems need to be designed to meet multiple goals: increase production, enhance family nutrition, make systems more resilience, and help farmers...
  65. ISSD aims to strengthen different seed systems in a country; supporting the development of a vibrant, pluralistic, and market-oriented seed sector. By cultivating an enabling environment for innovation and the coexistence of different seed systems, a wider range of farmers and seed entrepreneurs...
  66. This e-Learning course walks participants through the Seed System Security Assessment (SSSA) process and then focuses on targeted responses, depending on the key constraints identified. The 8 modules are highly interactive: participants explore how to: collect key data, decide if farming...
  67. 关键资源 1975-01-19 Compendium of Soybean Diseases, 4th Edition combines the finest qualities of best-selling previous editions with updated and new sections, making it a thorough, authoritative and practical reference. Revisions to the 4th Edition include five new sections on different leaf spot diseases, an...
  68. CRS MercyCorps GOAL USAID 2014 Seed is the foundation for the production of cereals and grain legumes that underpins farm family food security and income across Africa and Asia. Throughout Africa, in particular, farmers themselves produce an estimated 80–100% of the seed of both local and...
  69. 2015-01-01 Despite 25 years of history and the rapid growth in number, organizational diversity and geographical coverage of community seed banks, recognition of their roles and contributions has remained scanty. This book reviews their history, evolution, experiences, successes and failures, challenges and...
  70. 2020-01-20 This handbook is a companion to Vernooy, R., Sthapit, B. and Bessette, G. (2020). Community seed banks: concept and practice. Facilitator handbook (updated version). Bioversity International, Rome, Italy (https://hdl.handle.net/10568/81286). The three booklets making up this handbook were written...
  71. 2020-01-20 Over three decades, a number of international and national organizations have provided technical and financial support to community seed banks around the world. Only a few of these organizations have developed and published a practical guide about how they have offered this support. This...