Seeds naturally have a place in almost any endeavor having to do with agricultural development. Seeds of most food plants are small and, as such, are more easily transported and can be shipped longer distances than vegetative cuttings. For the farmer, seeds represent the promise of a continued supply of food.

As with any development “tool,” however, seeds can be misused. For instance, distributing improperly stored seeds that germinate poorly could expose farmers to risk of crop failure.

This collection is a sub-set of the collection Seed Production and Storage which contains additional resources concerning seeds.  Please feel free to inform us of additional helpful links for either collection.



  1. 22/3/2016 La producción anual de granos, frijoles secos, y verduras, depende de un suministro confiable de semillas de calidad. Esto es cierto para un agricultor cultivando para alimentar a su familia y también para el trabajador en agricultura que evalúa y cultiva semillas de una especie o variedad nueva...
  2. Recurso clave
    1/1/2002 Seed storage is often a problem in the tropics. However, if seeds can be properly dried, they will remain viable for a longer period of time. The seed drying cabinet described here can help improve the viability of seeds in storage. What’s Inside: Introduction Description Diagram Observations...
  3. Recurso clave
    7/1/2019 Existen dos categorías amplias de semillas, denominadas recalcitrantes y ortodoxas. La primera debe mantenerse húmeda y sembrarse pronto después de recogida; las frutas de semillas grandes como el mango son ejemplos típicos. El segundo tipo de semillas se trata en este documento. Las semillas...
  4. Recurso clave This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37. Introduction Seed saving in sub-tropical and tropical climates is challenging. Without equipment designed to maintain dry and cool environments, the quality of seeds may quickly deteriorate. High temperature and humidity during storage increase seed...
  5. Recurso clave
    Este artículo aparece en ECHO Asia Note # 31. Almacenar sus propias semillas puede ser una manera económica de poder tener acceso a semilla para sembrar en el futuro y ayudar a mantener la biodiversidad vegetal del planeta. Ya sea que siembre las semillas que usted mismo almacenó, las regale a...
  6. Recurso clave This article is from ECHO Asia Note #27 When planning to construct a “Cold Room” or “Seed Storage Room” for the purpose of preserving seed viability, one must first consider principles for optimum seed storage. In ECHO Asia Note 14 (July 2012), we shared results from our comparison of vacuum...
  7. Recurso clave 15/5/2018 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 38. Introduction Given the proper facilities necessary to store seeds long-term, whereby low temperature and low humidity are kept stable over time, it is very possible to store most orthodox seeds for several years at a time in the tropics (Harrington,...
  8. 20/1/2019 Given the proper facilities necessary to store seeds long-term, whereby low temperature and low humidity are kept stable over time, it is very possible to store most orthodox seeds for several years at a time in the tropics (Harrington, 1972). Unfortunately, implementation and maintenance of the...
  9. Recurso clave This document presents key steps the ECHO Asia staffused to build an Earth Bag Seed Storage House on the new ECHO Asia Small Farm Resource Center in Thailand.
  10. This group pageexists so that individuals involved in Creating Seed Banksaround the world can connect. We encourage you to share the challenges you face in your endeavors, discuss lessons and techniques learned through your experiences, and share your story!
  11. This audio slideshow reveals how the ECHO Asia Seedbanksaves and distributes underutilised seeds for free.
  12. 22/5/2017 Seed availability for small-scale farmers can be unpredictable and unreliable. Commercial products are often out of reach financially or geographically and can lead to loss of biodiversity. ECHO's seed banks provide sample packets of seeds to evaluate for potential crop production in challenging...
  13. 22/3/2017 Seed conservation under tropical climates is a great challenge when usual storage technology is lacking. Seed pests and the loss of seed viability are among the main risks faced by farmers and seed banks. ScientistsLawrence et. al.recently found that vacuum sealing significantly reduces stored...
  14. Este artículo aparece en ECHO Asia Note # 31. Almacenar sus propias semillas puede ser una manera económica de poder tener acceso a semilla para sembrar en el futuro y ayudar a mantener la biodiversidad vegetal del planeta. Ya sea que siembre las semillas que usted mismo almacenó, las regale a...
  15. 20/1/2015 El almacenamiento de las semillas en el trópico a menudo puede resultar difícil; con altas temperaturas y condiciones húmedas, las semillas pierden su capacidad de germinar rápidamente. Existen muchas técnicas de almacenamiento, desde los estándares de alta tecnología de los bancos genéticos...
  16. 6/10/2015 Speaker Bio:Bhuwon Sthapit is the Senior Scientist at Bioversity International. He earned a Ph.D. in Plant Breeding from the University of Wales, UK, and is a pioneer in participatory crop improvement methods. He has over 30 years of experience in implementing biodiversity related projects in...
  17. The GRIN-Global project's mission is to provide a scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information Network(GRIN)suitable for use by any interested genebank in the world. The GRIN-Global database platform has been and is being implemented at various genebanks around the world. For more...
  18. Seeds conserved in genebanks are a vital and irreplaceable resource for safeguarding future agricultural options. The capacity of genebank staff to apply good standards for seed handling is hence of critical importance. This is the standard reference for genebank work and one of the few sources...
  19. Vacuum-sealing seeds is highly effective, but the technology to do it is often out of the reach of small-scale farmers. This one dollar solution can help small-scale farmers store seeds more reliably, improving seed viability and reducing loss. This research was done in Cambodia as part of "Seeds...
  20. 26/9/2016 Mike McMahon of the Charis Teaching Farm, recently contacted us about an experiment to try to adapt the CO2 seed saving technique presented in AN28 to verify if it could work for his context. Mike and his team conducted an experiment building and utilizing a root cellar at the Charis Farm in Tak...
  21. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #28 For both farmers and researchers in the tropics, seed saving can be very frustrating. In Mondulkiri province, farmers are rarely able to keep seed for more than the six months between harvest and the new planting season. Seeds stored longer than this tend...
  22. 2/12/2015 An introduction to plant and seed biology, including pollination, germination, multiplication, selection, isolation, and how to select seed.
  23. 4/11/2015
  24. Find links to specific seed saving instructions for 27 common vegetables. This online information comes from Basic Seed Saving, a 48 page paperback book written by Bill McDorman. It was created to provide enough practical information to allow gardeners to embark on the rewarding adventure of...
  25. El Centro Mundial de Vegetales, tal como su nombre lo indica, se enfoca en los vegetales para reducir la pobreza y la desnutrición. Su sitio en la red contiene numerosas y útiles fuentes y publicaciones, entre ellas se encuentran vídeos sobre como acopiar semilla vegetal. Estos vídeos cubren el...
  26. 20/1/2005 Los agricultores en todas partes siembran semillas con la esperanza de que germinen, crezcan y produzcan uncultivo que pueda cosecharse. En algunos casos, las semillas sembradas germinan según lo esperado. En otros,el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas es bastante bajo. Este artículo...
  27. 1/7/2012 Este artículo aparece en ECHO Asia Note #14 Introduccíon Almacenar semillas en el trópico a menudo resulta difícil pues con altas temperaturas y condiciones húmedas, las semillas pierden su capacidad para germinar con rapidez. Existen muchas técnicas para almacenar semillas, desde los estándares...
  28. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #8 Editor: Abram serves as a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow andInstructor with the International Sustainable DevelopmentStudies Institute in Chiang Mai. He also assists the ECHO AsiaRegional Office as a technical advisor. Introduction and Background Saving your...
  29. This article is from ECHO Asia Note #11 Editor: Abram serves as the Coordinator of SustainabilityResearch and as an Instructor with the InternationalSustainable Development Studies Institute in Chiang Mai. He also assists the ECHO Asia Impact Center as a technicaladvisor. Introduction and...
  30. This is an in-depth report of the factors to be taken into consideration when designing seed storage facilities for genetic conservation.
  31. The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), is a nodal organization under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for the management of plant genetic resources in India. Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded sub-project “Harmonizing biodiversity conservation and...
  32. This manual is intended for plant propagators, conservationists, land managers, and others in Hawai’i who need to store seeds of native Hawaiian plants, but do not have access to specialized facilities or staff. The techniques it describes require only simple facilities. Most equipment is...
  33. A community seed bank can compare favourably with its High-Tech cousin.
  34. Abstract Background: Over half of the world's primary forest and a quarter of the world's plant species are found in Latin America. As a result of the limited protected areas and significant degradation of terrestrial ecosystems, seed banks provide an efficient component of integrated plant...
  35. SID is a compilation of seed biological trait data from the MSBP's own collections and from other published and unpublished sources. Its primary purpose is as an internal source of a variety of seed biological information; for use in large scale analysis and decision support for seed conservation...
  36. The Millennium Seed Bank has published a number of more detailed technical guides to various aspects of our work. Technical Information Sheets A collection of technical information sheets produced by Millennium Seed Bank staff, covering various aspects of seed conservation practices and...
  37. Genetic resources conservation is vital to global food security and poverty alleviation. IITA genetic resources center plays a major role in the conservation of seed crop germplasm in order to prevent the genetic erosion of these crop species and as well maintain a genetic base for crop...
  38. 24/5/2017 This presentation discusses the importance and benefits of seed saving the advantages of good seeds how to identify and collect good seed principles of harvesting seed seed propagation seed cleaning ... and many other things!
  39. Agronomy for Sustainable Development Brian Lawrence, Abram Bicksler, Kimberly Duncan Abstract : Prevention of pests while maintaining viable seed during storage is often challenging for smallholder farmers in the tropics and subtropics. Investment in costly technologies or storage equipment is...
  40. Experimental Agriculture Croft, M., Bicksler, A., Manson, J., & Burnette, R. (2013). COMPARISON OF APPROPRIATE TROPICAL SEED STORAGE TECHNIQUES FOR GERMPLASM CONSERVATION IN MOUNTAINOUS SUB-TROPICAL CLIMATES WITH RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS. Experimental Agriculture, 49(02), 279-294. Summary...
  41. The Germplasm Inventory Management System (GIMS) records seed flow within germplasm banks, breeding programs and research institutions that develop germplasm. Its main functionalities are to manage information about germplasm quantities (germplasm inventory) and to track germplasm history, the...
  42. BRAHMS(software updated to v7.9.4 on 2 June 2017) provides an integrated management system for herbaria, botanic gardens, seed banks and botanical survey as well as those undertaking floristic or taxonomic research. The BRAHMS project is an integral part of the research programme at Oxford to...
  43. Abstract -Conservation Physiology Seed viability monitoring, usually through a germination test, is a key aspect of genebank management; a low viability result triggers the regeneration of an accession in order to ensure that the genetic diversity of the accession is conserved and available for...
  44. Abstract - BioScience Current extinction rates of plant and animal speciesare estimated to be as much as 100- to 1000-fold higher than during the recent geological past, a phenomenon that conservation biologists attribute to wide-scale destruction of natural habitats (Pimm et al. 1995). As...
  45. AccessAgriculture Training Video There are many problems with poor seed, and spotted and discoloured seed are some of the major ones. Spotted seeds can't be removed by winnowing or seed flotation. They can only be removed by manual sorting. This video will show you how to clean seed as one of the...
  46. Abstract, Researchgate, 2014 The term genetic resources, or germplasm, refers to propagating material of plants and animals, including seeds, pollen, vegetative propagules and animal semen. It can also encompass whole plants and animals, in their role as reservoirs of genetic material. Germplasm...
  47. This presentation on inventory management in organic seed production by Tessa Peters of the Organic Seed Alliance was recorded at the Seed Economics Intensive of the Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. Additional recordings from this Intensive and the Conference will be...
  48. This recording is from the Seed Economics Intensive at the 2018 Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. The presenters are Sarah Kleeger of Adaptive Seeds (retail), and Sebastian Aguilar of Chickadee Farm (wholesale). More recordings from this intensive and the conference are...
  49. This presentation was recorded at the Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. The presenters are Ira Wallace of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, Pete Zuck of Johnny's Selected Seeds, and Tom Stearns of High Mowing Organic Seed. More recordings are...
  50. This presentation was recorded live on February 14, 2018 as part of the Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference. In this presentation, Travis Greenwalt of Highland Economics discusses a new tool he created in partnership with the Organic Seed Alliance which you can use for...
  51. This presentation by Tanya Murray of Oregon Tilth was recorded at the Seed Economics Intensive at the 2018 Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018. Learn how to track labor on your farm. More recordings from the Seed Economics Intensive, the conference, and past Organic Seed Growers...
  52. This presentation was recorded live at the Organic Seed Growers Conference on February 14, 2018 and is part of the Seed Economics Intensive. Presenters: Sarah Kleeger, Adaptive Seeds; Sam McCullough, Nash's Organic Produce; Sebastian Aguilar, Chickadee Farm, joined by Tom Stearns of High Mowing...
  53. The ECHO Asia Impact Center is staffed by the most dedicated and hardworking people! We would like to introduce you to our partner in Myanmar, the Kahelu Center! This partner has done a tremendous job developing an excellent seed banking facility. It is the desire of ECHO Asia to partner with...
  54. Does unsafe food threaten public health in your country? Is the food you eat at risk of contamination? Or, perhaps, has your shipment of agricultural goods been held at the port of entry because of a potential cargo pest infestation? The sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) plant health distance...
  55. Seed-based development demands a holistic approach if one aims to have impact for a large number of farmers and across a broad rangeof crops. Seed systems need to be designed to meet multiple goals: increase production, enhance family nutrition, make systems more resilience, and help farmers...
  56. ISSD aims to strengthen different seed systems in a country; supporting the development of a vibrant, pluralistic, and market-oriented seed sector. By cultivating an enabling environment for innovation and the coexistence of different seed systems, a wider range of farmers and seed entrepreneurs...
  57. This e-Learning course walks participants through the Seed System Security Assessment (SSSA) process and then focuses on targeted responses, depending on the key constraints identified. The 8 modules are highly interactive: participants explore how to: collect key data, decide if farming...
  58. Recurso clave 19/1/1975 (Amazon.com Description from1999 4th edition) 2 copies Compendium of Soybean Diseases, 4th Edition combines the finest qualities of best-selling previous editions with updated and new sections, making it a thorough, authoritative and practical reference. Revisions to the 4th Edition include five...
  59. CRS MercyCorps GOAL USAID 2014 Seed is the foundation for the production of cereals and grain legumes that underpins farm family food security and income across Africa and Asia. Throughout Africa, in particular, farmers themselves produce an estimated 80–100% of the seed of both local and...
  60. 1/1/2015 Despite 25 years of history and the rapid growth in number, organizational diversity and geographical coverage of community seed banks, recognition of their roles and contributions has remained scanty. This book reviews their history, evolution, experiences, successes and failures, challenges and...
  61. Recurso clave
    1/1/1998 This technical note is divided into two parts. The first section of this note focuses in on a new technology, called the ‘technology protection system’ by its developers and ‘terminator technology’ by its opponents. This technology illustrates the potential for patents to impact society at the...
  62. Recurso clave
    21/1/2000 Con frecuencia individuos o grupos norteamericanos piden que ECHO les sugiera que semillas de hortaliza deberían de llevar consigo durante viajes cortos al exterior. A menudo se trata de un “equipo de trabajo” que viaja bajo el patrocinio de una iglesia. Alguien dentro del grupo al cual van a...
  63. ECHO Asia, in collaboration with Ntuk Nti small farm resource center and International Cooperation Cambodia (ICC), has just finished a 1-year research project (funded by the Presbyterian Hunger Program- USA) to identify key indigenous vegetable crop species in NE Cambodia and strengthen the seed...
  64. A how-to video describing how to build a low-cost seed germination chamber using local materials in Asia. This research was made possible by a generous gift from Hort CRSP and USAID.
  65. 1/10/2019 Seed saving is an important pratice for small-scale farmers. Each crop is unique, and therefore each seed needs to be cleaned in a different way. In this workshop, Khun Wah will share her years of experience cleaning and saving seed of underutilized edible crop varieties that are important to SE...
  66. This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 36. As an organization that seeks to equip people with agricultural resources and skills, we often find ourselves coming back to the seed. Again and again we witness the value saving open-pollinated seeds, shedding light on locally adapted and underutilized...
  67. 13/3/2020 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 41. A New Chapter for ECHO Asia With a new decade upon us, the ECHO Asia team is pleased to highlight the next chapter in its engagement with the Asia regional network. Many of you are well aware of the goings on of ECHO Asia, but for some it may come as news...