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FAO :

Composting is the natural process of 'rotting' or decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms under controlled conditions. Raw organic materials such as crop residues, animal wastes, food garbage, some municipal wastes and suitable industrial wastes, enhance their suitability for application to the soil as a fertilizing resource, after having undergone composting.

Compost is a rich source of organic matter. Soil organic matter plays an important role in sustaining soil fertility, and hence in sustainable agricultural production. In addition to being a source of plant nutrient, it improves the physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil. As a result of these improvements, the soil: (i) becomes more resistant to stresses such as drought, diseases and toxicity; (ii) helps the crop in improved uptake of plant nutrients; and (iii) possesses an active nutrient cycling capacity because of vigorous microbial activity. These advantages manifest themselves in reduced cropping risks, higher yields and lower outlays on inorganic fertilizers for farmers.

 

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  1. 2002-01-01 A composting toilet is any system that converts human waste into compost through the natural breakdown of organic matter. The photo above shows a composting toilet from the late 1800’s. Composting toilets provide a sanitary method to recycle human waste while conserving water and protecting the...
  2. 2005-01-20 Composting is Fundamental #4. Compost will build up organic matter and create humus for your soil. The finished product of decomposition is called compost. Composting is a controlled process in which we capture a high percentage of nutrients from our crop residue and return it back to the soil in...
  3. Worm or vermiculture is a useful technique for recycling kitchen and livestock wastes into a rich organic fertilizer, for producing high-protein feed for poultry and initiating a lucrative business selling worms and worm castings for the small farm. Worms are invaluable partners in building the...
  4. Key facts - WHO In 2017, 45% of the global population (3.4 billion people) used a safely managed sanitation service. 31% of the global population (2.4 billion people) used private sanitation facilities connected to sewers from which wastewater was treated. 14% of the global population (1.0...
  5. Home gardens are found in many humid and sub-humid parts of the world. They are sometimes called backyard or kitchen gardens. These gardens have an established tradition and offer great potential for improving household food security and alleviating micronutrient deficiencies. Gardening can...
  6. 2014-11-07 Compost can be used to improve the quality of your soil. You can use plant materials, animal manure and kitchen scraps to create compost. Compost will add nutrients and organic matter to your soil. This animation explains the process of creating and storing compost. Scientific Animations Without...
  7. 2016-05-20 Vegetable crops thrive in healthy soil. Farmers can improve the quality of their soil and provide nutrients for their plants by making and adding compost to their fields or planting beds. In this video produced by the World Vegetable Center for the VINESA project, researcherEmanuel Pallangyo...
  8. AccessAgriculture Training Video Small scale farmers can struggle to keep their soil healthy, and often resort to buying fertilisers to improve their yield, but with a bit of extra work to make compost, yield can be increased naturally and the soil improved year by year. To turn your rice straw...
  9. This section looks at the way in which soil quality can be maintained and improved through a number of techniques including the use of fertilizer, manure and compost.
  10. 2017-08-01 The decline or even loss of soil fertility is the major challenge faced by more and more farmers around the world in general and especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. Many causes, mainly anthropogenic, are at the origin of this situation. Despite the massive use of chemical fertilizers through...
  11. 2017-10-03 There are many appropriate building technologies available. How environmentally friendly are they? Earthquake resistant? Typhoon resistant? How can we introduce new materials to a traditional construction culture? Why would we want to produce our own materials? How can we make production...
  12. 2011-12-01 Information from ECHO Network member Daryl Edwards from his work in Zimbabwe suggested that using quality compost containing 10% cow manure results in a maize harvest similar to that obtained with 100% cow manure. This could be significant to farmers who have small farm sizes and limited...
  13. 2015-06-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note #24 Tricho-compost is the material that results when spores of a beneficial fungus, Trichoderma sp. are used in the composting process. Trichoderma sp. are natural competitors against a wide range of harmful fungi; when it is added to compost, the latter can...
  14. 2015-03-24 The Habari Maalum Tree Nursery, outside of Arusha, Tanzania, provides over 200,000 tree seedlings per year to the surrounding villages. Until recently, HM has relied upon forest soil collected from the Olmotonyi Forest on the lower slopes of Mt Meruto replenish their nursery. Increasingly, there...
  15. Composting is an attractive proposition for turning on-farm organic waste materials into a farm resource. However, farmers in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries, are unable to make the best use of the composting opportunities available to them. This is because they...
  16. Compost is well known to be a good organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is a product derived from the decomposition of organic matter or agricultural wastes. In normal circumstances, it takes about four to five months to get compost from the composting process. However, a new technique of...
  17. ABSTRACT - Journal of Compost Science and Utilization, 2017 The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of application of different organic fertilizers (general organic fertilizer, GOF; biogas residue, BR; refined organic fertilizer, ROF) as compared to no fertilizer on the composition of...
  18. ABSTRACT - Journal of Composting Science and Utilization, 2017 Tropical acid soils are highly weathered as they exist under tropical environment with high rainfall and temperature throughout the year, which affects nitrogen availability. Soil organic nitrogen is important in estimating soil...
  19. Coffee grounds are a great addition to the garden and compost pile. Help to recycle this great organic resource and reduce the amount of organics going to the landfill! Some information about coffee grounds: Coffee grounds are about 2% nitrogen by volume. Grounds are not acidic; the acid in...
  20. ABSTRACT, FFTC In Japan charcoal has been used for a long time as environmental improver, soil improver in a firm, water purification material and odor adsorbent. It was reported that biochar has proliferation effect of symbiosis microorganisms such as root nodule bacteria and mycorrhiza in farm...
  21. Sheet composting is an ancient technique that has many practical applications today. Also referred to as lasagna composting or sheet mulching, sheet composting is a cold composting method that has been used by people around the world for generations. It is an excellent way to convert grass to...
  22. 2019-02-13 Session: The productivity of garden land depends on soil fertility, water and climate. Compost is an excellent resource to increase water holding capacity in the first place and to provide nutrients to the soil. Recent trends have introduced other techniques and key words for organic farming...
  23. 2019-02-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note # 37. One of the great challenges of sustainable agriculture is the sourcing of adequate and affordable organic (carbon based) resources that can be used on-farm for the production of food and feed. Utilizing composts, manures, mulches, and other organic inputs...
  24. The circular economy offers an unparalleled opportunity. It’s good for the economy, good for society and good for the planet. Supporting the transition would save lives and create employment, accelerating progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and reducing the tension between lifting...
  25. 2013-06-18 Everything you need to know to turn your garden and kitchen scraps into "black gold" Farmers and horticulturists have long understood the benefits of compost to their soil and plants. Compost provides important nutrients; offers habitat for beneficial fungi, earthworms, and other creatures; and...
  26. By mixing compost with water and culturing for a limited period, we can produce compost tea, either aerated compost tea or not. Non-aerated compost tea. Compost teas are used for their beneficial effect on plants. High quality compost refers to compost that is high in microbiological activity....
  27. Abstract, Journal of the NACAA, 2014 The sustainability and profitability of many agricultural systems can be enhanced through the utilization of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi. Inocula are commercially available, but inoculum can also be produced on-farm in mixtures of compost and...
  28. Hugelkultur, pronounced Hoo-gul-culture, means hill culture or hill mound. Instead of putting branches, leaves and grass clippings in bags by the curbside for the bin men... build a hugel bed. Simply mound logs, branches, leaves, grass clippings, straw, cardboard, petroleum-free newspaper,...
  29. 1979-04-01 Clearly explains the biological and chemical processes involved in composting, detailing various methods constructing a heap and making and using compost from a wide range of materials.
  30. Composting is nature’s way to recycle. Composting happens. It’s simply the slow, natural decomposition of organics. Composting at home is the controlled and faster decomposition of organics such as yard trimmings and food waste that you and your family generate. Microorganisms break down this...
  31. Thie handbook shows readers how to make compost easily in a rodent-resistant bin. Information about compost bins is included, along with methods of making compost and gardening information on what to do with their finished compost.
  32. 2014-01-01 The safe, clean and convenient way to compost ALL of you food scraps . Bokashi composting is a safe, quick and convenient way to compost in you kitchen, garage or apartment, using microorganisms to anaerobically ferment all food waste (including meat and dairy). Since the process takes place in a...
  33. 1956-01-01 The purpose of this monographis to present methods and processes by which organic waste materials, which constitute a health hazard and a source of disease communication, may be treated for sanitary disposal and utilization in agriculture. These important objectives-sanitary treatment for the...
  34. 2015-06-15 This article is from ECHO Asia Note #24 Tricho-compost is the material that results when spores of a beneficial fungus, Trichoderma sp. are used in the composting process. Trichoderma sp. are natural competitors against a wide range of harmful fungi; when it is added to compost, the latter can...
  35. Composting is the breakdown of organic wastes by simple plants and animals to produce humus. This manual describes the basic process and its dependence upon the proper provision of moisture, airsupply and heat conservation. The different materials suitable for composting, and provenmethods of...
  36. Larvae of the black solder fly (Hermetia illucens) are a popular protein source for animal feed. Ian Banks, working in research and development with Agriprotein, shared several characteristics that make black soldier fly larvae good candidates for mass-rearing (Thomas 2017a). The larvae are...