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ECHO Tech Notes are subject-specific publications about topics important to those working in the tropics and subtropics. Our material is authored by ECHO staff and outside writers, all with experience and knowledge of their subject. These documents are free for your use and will hopefully serve a valuable role in your working library of resources in agricultural development!

95 Matoleo katika Chapisho hili (Inaonyesha masuala 5 - 1)

TN #5 Neem - 20-04-1984

This technical note was published in the early 80's when there were relatively few sources of information on, or seed for the the neem tree. In recent years much progress has been made in each of these areas. The information contained in this technical note is still quite valuable. A good source of additional information is the National Academy of Sciences publication Neem: A tree for Solving Global Problems. Like all NAS publications, it should be available from: BOSTID Publications - HA 476, 2101 Constitution Avenue N. W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Complementary copies are sometimes provided free-of-charge to those working with Third World development organizations (use official letterhead and titles). ECHO now has it available for sale for $19.00 plus $2.00 postage in U.S.A.

Cite this article as:

Dreyer, M. and ECHO staff 1984. Neem. ECHO Technical Note no. 5.

TN #4 Leucaena - 19-01-1984

Leucaena leucocephala ("koa haole"-Hawaii; ipil ipil - Phillipines) is a fast-growing, leguminous tree that can be used for reforestation, for firewood, and as a forage crop that can equal alfalfa in nutritional value. There are three basic types of leucaena trees: Hawaiian, Salvador, and Peru. There are also crosses between these. You need to choose the type that best fills your needs. The Hawaiian type is short and bushy. Because its yield of wood and foliage is low compared to the other two types, this would probably be a poor choice. The Salvador type (Hawaiian giant) is tall and tree-like. The trees can grow 60 ft. in height in five years. The best varieties of this type are K8 (Mexico), K28, K67 and K72. K67 is the best variety for projects that need to produce large quantities of seed. The Peru type is tall with extensive branching. The trees are good for forage. Good varieties are K6 and K62. An excellent forage-type leucaena is the Cunningham (K500) which was developed in Australia. It is a cross between the Salvador and Peru types.

Cite this article as:

Brewbaker, J.L. 1984. Leucaena. ECHO Technical Note no. 4.

TN #3 Citrus Propagation & Rootstocks - 01-01-1983

What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing citrus from seed when that is possible? One obvious advantage is that it is much less labor intensive to simply sow citrus seeds and eliminate the grafting step. Another advantage is that the seedling will most likely be free from viruses that sometimes get into the budwood that is used for grafting large numbers of trees.

Cite this article as:

Price, M.L. 1983. Citrus Propagation & Rootstocks. ECHO Technical Note no. 3.

TN #2 Mchicha - 01-01-1983

Mchicha [Amaranth hypochondriacus, A.cruentus (Nafaka) & A. tricolor (Mboga)] ni mmea unaokua kwa wepesi na imara. Mmea huu hukuzwa kuzalisha nafaka au matawi kutumiwa kama mboga. Matawi na mbegu hutoa proteni nyingi na iliyo ya hali ya juu na ya kipekee. Mbegu husagwa kutoa unga au kupikwa kama popcorn. Malawi yaweza kutumiwa yangali mabichi au hata kupikwa. Ladha ya mchicha wa aina ya mboga ni tamu kuliko ile ya kutoa nafaka. 

Mchicha umekuzwa kwa zaidi ya miaka 8,000, kutoka enzi ya Umayani katika Marekani ya kusini na kati (Mayan civilisation). Riki kilikuwa chakula cha Kidini na chenye manufaa kwa jamii ya Aztecs. Mnamo mwaka wa 1516, Makongwi (conquistadors) walitoa ilani na tahadhari kuu kwamba mchicha usikuzwe. Hadi sasa idadi ya mimea hii ni chache na hutumiwa pamoja na asali kutengeneza "alegria" mfano wa chokoleti. Hata hivyo jamii ya mchicha imedumu tangu jadi na hupatikana kama kwekwe. 

Taja nakala hii kama:

O'Brien, G.K. and M.L. Price 1983. Amaranth . ECHO Technical Note no. 2.

TN #1 Muscovy Ducks - 19-01-1983

The Muscovy is a heavy bird, suitable mainly for meat production. Under good management, with proper feeding, the drakes (male ducks) will reach 4.0-4.5 kg and the ducks 2.0-2.5 kg at 16 weeks, which is usually the age at which the birds are sold to be eaten. Most of the Muscovys are pure white but black ones also exist. There is also a full range between black and white. All the birds develop red flesh around their eyes and at the base of their bills. In older drakes, it may even appear on the back of the neck and wings. With good feed, the ducks will lay about 90 eggs per year and will hatch ducklings very successfully. The breed is very hardy and can get a lot of its feed requirement in foraging. Traditionally, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Farmer does not feed its poultry and relies on natural incubation for breeding. The Muscovy duck is ideally suited for the PNG village conditions.