Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit and by-products - Feedipedia
Mango [English]; mangue, manguier [French]; mango, melocoton de los tropicos [Spanish]; mangueira, manga [Portuguese]; veselperske [Afrikaans]; mangga [Indonesian]; cambe [Somali]; mwembe [Swahili]; xoài [Vietnamese]; مانجو شائع [Arabic]; 芒果 [Chinese]; μάνγκο [Greek];מנגו [Hebrew]; लंगड़ा आम [Hindi]; 망고 [Korean]; മാവ് [Malayalam]; ਅੰਬ [Punjabi]; манго [Russian]; மாம்பழம் [Tamil]; มะม่วง [Thai]
Mangos are the most important tropical fruit crop after bananas and plantains (FAO, 2011). The mango fruit is a large fleshy drupe, highly variable in size, shape, colour and taste, weighing up to 1 kg in some cultivars. There are more than 1000 mango cultivars. Green when unripe, after 3 to 6 months the fruit turns orange-reddish as it ripens. The fruit consists of a woody endocarp (pit), a resinous edible mesocarp (flesh) and a thick exocarp (peel). The majority of mango production is consumed fresh and about 1-2% of the production is processed to make products such as juices, nectars, concentrates, jams, jelly powders, fruit bars, flakes and dried fruits (Berardini et al., 2005; Jedele et al., 2003). Mango varieties too fibrous or too soft for fresh consumption can be used for juice making (Hui, 2007).
Mango processing yields about 40-50% of by-products, which can be used to feed livestock (de la Cruz Medina et al., 2002; Sruamsiri et al., 2009). These by-products are also potential sources of pectins and phenolic compounds (antioxydants) (Berardini et al., 2005). The mango kernel contains 7-12% of an oil rich in stearic (24-57%) and oleic (34-56%) acids that can be fractionated to give an olein with excellent emollient properties and a stearin that is one of the few fats that can replace cocoa butter in chocolate in certain countries (including the European Union) (Gunstone, 2006; Schieber et al., 2001).