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Common names 

Mango [English]; mangue, manguier [French]; mango, melocoton de los tropicos [Spanish]; mangueira, manga [Portuguese]; veselperske [Afrikaans]; mangga [Indonesian]; cambe [Somali]; mwembe [Swahili]; xoài [Vietnamese]; مانجو شائع [Arabic]; 芒果 [Chinese]; μάνγκο [Greek];מנגו [Hebrew]; लंगड़ा आम [Hindi]; 망고 [Korean]; മാവ് [Malayalam]; ਅੰਬ [Punjabi]; манго [Russian]; மாம்பழம் [Tamil]; มะม่วง [Thai]


Mangos are the most important tropical fruit crop after bananas and plantains (FAO, 2011). The mango fruit is a large fleshy drupe, highly variable in size, shape, colour and taste, weighing up to 1 kg in some cultivars. There are more than 1000 mango cultivars. Green when unripe, after 3 to 6 months the fruit turns orange-reddish as it ripens. The fruit consists of a woody endocarp (pit), a resinous edible mesocarp (flesh) and a thick exocarp (peel). The majority of mango production is consumed fresh and about 1-2% of the production is processed to make products such as juices, nectars, concentrates, jams, jelly powders, fruit bars, flakes and dried fruits (Berardini et al., 2005Jedele et al., 2003). Mango varieties too fibrous or too soft for fresh consumption can be used for juice making (Hui, 2007).

Mango processing yields about 40-50% of by-products, which can be used to feed livestock (de la Cruz Medina et al., 2002Sruamsiri et al., 2009). These by-products are also potential sources of pectins and phenolic compounds (antioxydants) (Berardini et al., 2005). The mango kernel contains 7-12% of an oil rich in stearic (24-57%) and oleic (34-56%) acids that can be fractionated to give an olein with excellent emollient properties and a stearin that is one of the few fats that can replace cocoa butter in chocolate in certain countries (including the European Union) (Gunstone, 2006Schieber et al., 2001).