Editor: Due to the length of this article, only a portion is included in ECHO Asia Notes. The full article, including illustrated steps related to the assembly of 200- liter drum kilns as well as charcoal and wood vinegar production, can be accessed via the web link included below.
Until recently, firewood was taken for granted in northern Thailand. With vast forests full of many types of trees, upland households could afford to be choosy concerning the wood they used for cooking.
However, in recent years, more and more communities are facing restricted access to forest products due to the establishment of national parks. In many areas, deforestation caused by agricultural activities, such as the encroachment of large plantations, is also resulting in declining access to firewood.