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Two long-term experiments  (11 years) showed the intriguing ability of G. senegalensis and P. reticulatum (optimized at ~1000 to 1500 shrubs ha-1 with residue returned to soil) to dramatically increase yields of groundnut and millet, with or without fertilizer additions and maintain yields in drought years.

Shrub Intercropping

• Native woody shrubs (Guiera senegalensis and Piliostigma reticulatum) coexist in farmers’ fields, but agronomic benefits are unrecognized

• Implement shrub density optimized systems in farmers fields.

• Adopt non-thermal shrub residue management to provide organic inputs and nutrients to soils using a local resource.