Formulation of infant foods fortified with baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit pulp and/or moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder for under-five-years old children in Benin
Abstract, RUFORUM, 2018
Malnutrition is one of the most serious problems throughout the world and children are especially vulnerable to it. The aim of this research is to formulate foods fortified with baobab fruit pulp and moringa leaf powder for under-five-years old children. Specifically, the research aimed at: (i) mapping the local food matrices candidate for food formulation and (ii) designing food-to-food fortification formula using baobab fruit pulp and moringa leaf powder. The mapping was performed using literature review and field survey. Food matrices were selected based on consumption frequencies and three fortification formula were proposed. There were sorghum porridge dual fortified with moringa leaf powder (PFMo) and baobab fruit pulp, maize porridge fortified with PFMo and Cochlospermum tinctorim root powder sauce (koata sauce) fortified with PFMo. A digestibility study and acceptability tests were respectively performed using (Kiers et al., 2000) method and the facial expression of children. Results indicate that moringa leaf powder and baobab fruit pulp are traditionally used in infant diet in Benin with a consumption frequency varying significantly from one biogeographical zone to another (p<0.05). Fortification increases significantly (p<0.05) calcium (445.1±14mg/100 g dry weight to 4561.3±92.4mg/100 g dry weight) and iron (26.4±2.1 mg/100 g dry weight to 101.2±1.5 mg/100 g dry weight) content for maize porridge. For sorghum porridge, a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed for calcium (43.6±1.9 mg/100 g dry weight to 3454.5±86.4 mg/100 g dry weight), iron (7.3±0.2mg/100 g dry weight to 88.4±1.2mg/100 g dry weight) and zinc (88.2±3.8 mg/100 g dry weight to 202.4±3.1mg/100 g dry weight) content. As far as koata sauce is concerned, a significant increase was noticed only for iron content (85.7±0.4 mg/100 g dry weight to 91.2±0.5 mg/100 g dry weight). Furthermore, there is a significant difference between fortified and unfortified sorghum porridge and between fortified and unfortified koata sauce in term of calcium, iron and zinc In Vitro Solubility (IVS) (p<0.05). For fortified and unfortified maize porridge, no significant difference was observed in term of calcium and iron IVS (p>0.05) but a significant difference was observed for zinc IVS (p<0.05). The acceptability test indicates that sorghum porridge dual fortified with moringa leaf powder and baobab fruit pulp (fortification rate, 17.0 %, dry weight) and koata sauce fortified with moringa leaf powder (fortification rate, 12.3 %, dry weight) were the most accepted.