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Abstract, IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012

The Canavalia ensiformis used for this study was cultivated and harvested in Owo, Ondo state of Nigeria. The seed was prepared by sun drying for two weeks; it was later dehulled and milled to flour. The proximate and the mineral compositions of the seed were investigated using standard analytical techniques. The oil in the seed was extracted using solvent extraction method. The resulting crude oil was assessed for physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition. Canavalia ensiformis contains high protein content, high carbohydrate content, high fibre content, low lipid and adequate minerals. The oil was bright in colour, transparent with low thermal stability when in contact with air. The free fatty acid and acid value was low, have high iodine and peroxide values, and low saponification value. Oleic acid has the highest fatty acid composition with 32.88%, followed by Linoleic acid with 25.93%. The total saturated fatty acid was 8.41%, while the total unsaturated fatty acid was 86.49%. Having considered the proximate and mineral compositions, the study revealed that the seed have high potential for animal and human consumption. In addition, it compared favourably with some conventional edible legumes. The oil, if refined and consumed will supply essential fatty acid to the body based on the fatty acid composition.

Keywords: Canavalia ensiformis, Physicochemical, Mineral, Proximate, Oil