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General Technical Documents are resources made available through ECHOcommunity.org that are not currently part of an ECHO periodical publication such as ECHO Development Notes or ECHO Technical Notes. These resources may or may not be published by ECHO, but have been made available to the ECHOcommunity as online, sharable resources.

72 Issues in this Publication (Showing 61 - 70) |

Utility of canopy management in Cashew nut production - 2009-02-20

Babli M and Nayak MG.,Biomolecue Reports, 2009

Cashew, an important horticultural crop, is gaining importance as an important rain fed tree crop both in traditional and nontraditional regions of the country. The demand for raw nuts for processing by Indian Cashew Processing Factories is ever increasing and now it is around 12-13 lakh tonnes per annum. Presently more than 50 % of the raw nut requirement of the country is met from imported sources especially from African countries. These cashew nut exporting countries have developed processing facilities and countries like Vietnam which are competing with India have improved their processing capabilities. Hence it is imminent to India to enhance the production so that the country will be self sufficient in raw cashew nut requirement

Evaluating Postharvest Practices to Improve Sweet Potato Storage and Culinary Characteristics - 2009-01-20

Curing sweet potatoes right after harvest improves culinary quality and reduces postharvest losses caused by diseases and skinning. This practice, however, is seldom applied by growers in Mississippi suggesting suboptimal conditions and quality for marketing in addition to losses to postharvest diseases. This project was stakeholder driven and supported by the Mississippi Sweet Potato Council to show the benefits of curing sweet potatoes and encourage Mississippi growers to adopt proper curing practices. The objectives and activities were to: 1) conduct on-farm demonstration trials on curing sweet potatoes in Mississippi; 2) evaluate the effect of curing on diseases and culinary characteristics of Mississippi sweet potatoes; 3) disseminate information about postharvest technology through workshops and publications.

Keyhole gardens in Lesotho - 2008-01-20

The district of Mafeteng was selected for a pilot project carried out between November 2004 and May 2008 to support food and nutrition security and livelihoods of vulnerable HIV-affected communities, in particular orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). This initiative was supported under the umbrella of a wider project for southern Africa, and is in line with the National Policy for Food Security. The district is affected by recurrent droughts and high rates of HIV. According to the district situation analysis conducted in 2004, Mafeteng had the country’s highest rate of orphans. A baseline study commissioned by the project highlighted high stunting rates and moderate underweight in children under the age of five, particularly in resource-poor households that host OVC. The main problems identified included poor dietary diversity, lack of awareness of nutritional needs and inadequate food safety. In addition, households that look after OVC were less likely to have developed vegetable gardens.

Gardening on Rooftops: the last agricultural frontier - 2008-01-01

Low cost, low technology, lightweight methods to produce food on rooftops and other locations above the ground.


As this is being written, food riots in Port-au-Prince, Haiti are making the news. Food riots and demonstrations are starting to occur in other cities in other impoverished countries around the world. Some food producing countries are banning or restricting exports on important food staples. Leaders have little control over the high prices of food, but are desperate to know what can be done to make more food available, at a lower price.

Quite aside from these problems, there has been a growing interest in urban food production in both economically developed and developing countries. Reasons are many. Ecological benefits to the city. A desire to use more locally grown food. Opportunities for micro farming activities for profit. The wholesomeness of allowing people to experience the joy of gardening. Producing food by or for families who cannot buy what they need.

Several large cities even have some impressive rooftop gardens on large buildings. Rooftop gardening is the primary use that we have in mind for the technologies described in this book.

There is a major difference between ECHO’s techniques and those used on or contemplated by planners for most rooftop gardens in wealthier countries.

The techniques that I will describe can be done at a fraction of the expense that is normally considered necessary. They do not require specially engineered buildings to make sure that the roof can handle the weight of the soil. Gardens can even be grown on the edge of a tin roof of a shanty.

Vegetative Propagation Techniques - 2007-11-18

This manual was produced by Roots of Peace under USAID subcontract No. GS-10F- 0359M, Task Order #306-M-00-05-00515-00, Afghanistan Alternative Livelihoods Program for the Eastern Region. It was written by Ferenc Sandor of Roots of Peace, with support from Juan Estrada of DAI for the use by Roots of Peace and Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock extension agents, farmers, agriculture input suppliers and other teachers. The work was funded by USAID under the Alternative Livelihoods Program, Eastern Region which is managed by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI). For more information, contact Roots of Peace at info@rootsofpeace.org or +1 415 455 8008.

Roots of Peace is humanitarian, not-for-profit organization based in California, USA. Roots of Peace, established in 1997, focuses on post-conflict countries to eradicate remnants of war and to re-establish and promote economic livelihoods and social programs. Roots of Peace is funded by public and private sources.

ECHO Compendium of Warm Climate Fruits - 2007-01-20

This book features both common and hard-to-find fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and bamboo for Southwest Florida.   It includes fruiting trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, fruiting vines, brambles, tropical vegetables, herbs, spices, bamboo, tropical and subtropical fruit tree ripening chart, estimated fruit yields, tree planting, fruit tree pruning, cold tolerance, drought tolerance, flood tolerance, fruit trees and saline soils, edible landscaping, plant index.

68 pages, illustrations

A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics - 2005-01-20

This book is an important work for tropical agriculture. There are very few resources that are truly “organic” and practical for the everyday farmer in the tropical setting. This book covers material that is extremely useful for the day-to-day operation of a farm or garden. It contains planning material that takes into account logistics as well as timetables.

This is not a guide for the agronomy student. I have identified several species that work well for us, but I do not have a planting guide for rice or corn or vegetables. These guides are readily obtained from seed suppliers and general horticultural works. If the reader looks carefully, he will find that I have given a system for natural fertilization in place of the chemical recommendations by traditional methods. Some creative adaptation will be required if your conditions and climate vary. We have a high acid clay soil that was rainforest at one time. Over the years a cogan grass has established itself. That is our starting point and our formulas can be changed for particular challenges that the reader may be facing.

This is not a How-to-do-it manual. Rather, this is a HOW-WE-DO-IT book based on my “Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics” manual. It has been used to train and equip hundreds of small-scale farmers and gardeners in the natural farming adventure. It is an adventure worth taking, as few things in life will improve general health and well being as much as quality food products grown to their full potential.

Keith O. Mikkelson – Fall 2005

Publication Chapters

Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics: A Natural Farming System 

Tippy Tap II - 2005-01-20

The Tippy Tap II (Lifewater International) is a modified design of the Tippy Tap that is easier to make and easy to use. The Tippy Tap II can be made from any container of about one to four litres capacity. A jug with a handle works best, but a Tippy Tap II can be made from any plastic container, even a two-litre bottle!

This publication is Copyright by Lifewater International 

Livestock Services and the Poor - 2004-01-20

This Report is a joint product of IFAD, DANIDA, World Bank, DAAS, University of Reading and national institutions in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Denmark, India and Kenya. The judgements made herein do not necessarily reflect their views. Designations employed in this Report do not imply the expression of any opinion, on the part of IFAD or its partners, concerning the legal status of any country or territory, or the delineation of its frontiers.