Field studies have been performed for decades to analyze effects of different management practices on agricultural soils and crop yields, but these data have never been combined together in a way that can inform current and future cropland management. Here, we collected, extracted, and integrated a database of soil health measurements conducted in the field from sites across the globe. The database, named SoilHealthDB, currently focuses on four main conservation management methods: cover crops, no-tillage, agro-forestry systems, and organic farming. These studies represent 354 geographic sites (i.e., locations with unique latitudes and longitudes) in 42 countries around the world. The SoilHealthDB includes 42 soil health indicators and 46 background indicators that describe factors such as climate, elevation, and soil type. A primary goal of this effort is to enable the research community to perform comprehensive analyses, e.g., meta-analyses, of soil health changes related to cropland conservation management. The database also provides a common framework for sharing soil health, and the scientific research community is encouraged to contribute their own measurements.