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Figure 4: Healthy maize compared to maize with various nutrient defi ciencies: a. healthy; b. nitrogen defi ciency (necrosis appears in a v-shaped pattern from the leaf tip); c. phosphorus defi ciency (purpling along leaf edges); d. potassium defi ciency (necrosis and scorching along leaf edges); e. magnesium defi ciency (interveinal chlorosis) (Berger, 1954).