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de Lima Franzen, F., Rodrigues de Oliveira, M. S., Lidório, H. F., Farias Menegaes, J., & Martins Fries, L. L. (2019). Chemical composition of rose, sunflower and calendula flower petals for human food use. Ciencia Y Tecnología Agropecuaria20(1), 149–158. https://doi.org/10.21930/rcta.vol20_num1_art:1252

There is a concern for the chemical characterization of foods with economic and nutritional potential, especially those of low caloric value, in their constitution of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins, important for a healthy diet. Among these foods, edible flowers are distinguished for their beauty and for flavoring dishes; furthermore, they also have nutritional and medicinal properties. In this context, the aim of the study was to characterize chemically the petals of three species, rose (Rosa x grandiflora Hort.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) for use in human nutrition. The plants were cultivated in a protected environment and in an open field, and after harvest, physicochemical analyses were carried out (ash, carbohydrates, ethereal extract, fiber, moisture, and protein). In the current study, high water content was observed (higher than 80 %); sunflower showed a higher ash content (1.2 %), calendula presented a higher ethereal extract content (1.2 %) and rose had a higher fiber content (3.2 %). Rose, sunflower and calendula flower petals had a chemical composition with essential nutrients, being able to be included in the daily human diet because they contain essential nutrients for a healthy diet.