Hybrid Maize Revisited

Low Fertility Soil and Traditional Varieties

Aflatoxin in Peanut Butter

Feedback on Cooking Stoves Article (EDN 85)

Gray Water and Crop Irrigation

What about Hippos?

The Chocolate Pudding Tree: Diospyros digyna (Black Sapote, Black Persimmon, Zapote Negro)


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What about Hippos?

David Balsbaugh

On the banks of Lake Victoria and Lake Malawi and at river edges in Eastern and Central Africa, hippos are a major garden pest.

The Chocolate Pudding Tree: Diospyros digyna (Black Sapote, Black Persimmon, Zapote Negro)

Grace Ju

Black Sapote is eaten fresh after the fruit has ripened and softened and the inside has turned into a dark brown chocolate color.

Hybrid Maize Revisited

Bob Hargrave

Over the years ECHO has been asked to give advice concerning whether or not to use hybrid seed. We carry very few hybrid varieties in our seed bank because we expect people who receive seed to multiply it locally. Now some new information about this old question, specifically about maize, has come to our attention.

Low Fertility Soil and Traditional Varieties

Joel Matthews received some feedback about his comments on low fertility soil and traditional varieties in EDN 86. In response, he sent the following additional comment.

Aflatoxin in Peanut Butter

The University of Zimbabwe (2002) studied the presence of aflatoxin in peanut butter. Among four different methods of processing (traditional, hand, motorized, commercial) traditional methods consistently had the lowest concentrations and commercial processors consistently had the highest concentrations of aflatoxin.

Feedback on Cooking Stoves Article (EDN 85)

Feedback from the ECHO networking with information on cookstoves and indoor pollution.

Gray Water and Crop Irrigation

Larry Yarger and Dawn Berkelaar

“Gray water” (also “grey water,” “graywater” or “greywater”) is the term used to describe wastewater from dish washing, laundry, bathing, and rinsing. (Note: the term gray water does not refer to toilet waste, which is often called “black water.”) Although gray water does not need extensive treatment before it is used for irrigation, one must be careful as it can contain grease, hair, detergent, dead skin, food particles and occasionally fecal matter.