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Life and agriculture are dependent on water. One of the most frequent questions ECHO receives from the field reflects the need for strategies to produce food in dryland areas or in the dry season. The erratic and unpredictable rainfall in much of the tropics makes food production difficult; months of drought bake and harden the soils, so the torrential rains which follow lead to erosion. People without sufficient water for cooking and personal use are not able to irrigate crops during the dry season. This chapter gives some ideas on soil and water conservation in times of water shortage and seasonal abundance.