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General Technical Documents are resources made available through ECHOcommunity.org that are not currently part of an ECHO periodical publication such as ECHO Development Notes or ECHO Technical Notes. These resources may or may not be published by ECHO, but have been made available to the ECHOcommunity as online, sharable resources.

66 Problématiques abordées dans cette publication (Affichage 31 - 40) |

Directives d’Analyse du Sol - CFGB - 20/04/2020

L’infertilité du sol est une contrainte majeure pour l’amélioration de la production agricole envers les petits agriculteurs. Dans les zones d’interventions des membres de Canadian Foodgrains Bank, les sols se dégradent et deviennent médiocres en éléments nutritifs et matières organiques. L’analyse du sol mesure la santé et la capacité de rétention des éléments nutritifs, et fournit l’état de sa santé et des éléments nutritifs contenus dans le sol. Elle sert aussi de base pour les décisions de gestion des cultures et du sol. L’analyse du sol a été proposée par les techniciens spécialistes, par les agents gouvernementaux de vulgarisation et à travers les messages radiodiffusés. Par conséquent, il y a une demande croissante par les agriculteurs et des partenaires du projet pour des stratégies et services d’analyse du sol. Les agriculteurs ont besoin d’une directive spécifique sur quels meilleurs intrants fertilisants, et quelle quantité à appliquer.

Vu plusieurs options d’analyse du sol disponibles, il est important d’identifier quelles analyses sont les plus utiles pour un projet donné, et pour quelle raison. Certaines analyses sont utiles pour élaborer des recommandations sur la façon dont les agriculteurs gèrent les cultures. D’autres analyses pourraient ne pas aider dans la prise de décisions face à la gestion des cultures, mais sont plutôt utiles à la formation des agriculteurs en vue de pouvoir réfléchir à la santé du sol. D’autres sont encore utiles au contrôle et à l’évaluation des effets du projet aux éléments nutritifs et à la santé du sol. Ce guide est désigné pour aider les partenaires à décider quelles analyses sont plus importantes et rentables pour leur contexte.

Animal integration and feeding strategies for the tropical smallholder farm - 05/10/2019

Animal integration and feeding strategies for the tropical smallholder farm: Approaches and methods for increasing sustainability and profitability

Copyright © 2019 Keith Mikkelson – ECHO Asia Impact Center 

Integrated livestock systems can provide many benefits. With careful planning and by starting small, most farmers will be able to incorporate cows, goats, chickens, or hogs and improve the stability of their farm. Crop residues can reduce feed costs, and manure can reduce fertilizer costs. Manure can also be used to produce biogas for cooking or heating, to reduce costs on the farm. Grazing livestock can help manage weeds and improve soil health.  

This booklet was borne out of a need to help smallholder farmers re-integrate animals into their systems and use nutrients and energy wisely in order to reduce external inputs, increasing sustainability and profitability. It gives practical information, starter feed recipes, and much more, showcasing organic best practices occurring at the Aloha Farm in Palawan, The Philippines.  

This booklet is based on five of Keith’s prior articles that were written for ECHO Asia Notes, which include AN #20 Fish Feed, AN #25 Hog Feed, AN #28 Poultry Feed, AN #31 Ruminant Feeds, and AN #35 Animal Integration. This book is available in hard copy in our office.

Here are excerpts from Chapter 1 (Asia Note 35) “Livestock Integration”: 

Properly managed livestock can bring the tropical farmer higher profits than some market vegetables and most grains. In permaculture, we say “integrate instead of segregate!” An example of this is the way farmers integrate their grazing livestock into seasonal cropping patterns.  In traditional upland farmland systems, cattle and goats are left to graze in the forest or taken up onto higher ground away from the cropland during the growing season. When the harvest is over, the animals are brought back to the village to graze on the fallow croplands during the dry season. At the Aloha House Farm, we raise and integrate goats, chickens, ducks, cattle, and hogs. For example, our goats graze pasture and browse as well as feed on legume shrubs, and we feed some crop residues to the goats. With the integrated system, we are able to eliminate many feed costs and (with the manure we collect) also eliminate many fertilizer costs. We cut and carry fresh feed stock for goats, cows, chickens, and hogs; it requires labor, but we are able to minimize inputs. 

...from Chapter 2 (AN20) “Integrating Fish”: 

With experimentation and careful recordkeeping, a fish farmer can produce his/her own high-quality feed.  In many countries, readily available meat grinders and pelletizers have made it possible to create economic floating feeds for tilapia, koi or catfish. Our unit was obtained in Chinatown, Bangkok, Thailand. It is an un-branded stainless-steel auger-driven meat mincer manufactured in China. We assembled it on a table at home and mounted it with a 1 hp motor. Before beginning, make sure you have a range of plate sizes to extrude your feed, so that feed and stock size can match. The sizes we use are in the 2-8 mm range for our 300-500 gram tilapia production. When we finish making the feed, we immediately dismantle and clean the auger, blade and plates. When done with a good auger-type grinder, very little effort is spent in the production of feeds. At Aloha House, two people can produce ten trays (approximately 45 kg) of moist feed in less than one hour.  

...from Chapter 3 (AN25) “Integrating Hogs”: 

Corn-fed pork is a phenomenon that came about through a glut of low-cost maize production in industrialized countries. Modern corn has a higher carbohydrate level and a corresponding lower level of protein. By contrast, rice bran has twice the crude protein of corn, and is often less expensive. In a natural feed system, protein is the number one limiting factor in performance and growth of livestock; it is also the most expensive to purchase. If you keep the target protein level appropriate for the age of the animal, everything else will balance out with your natural feed. In creating your pig feed, you pay for protein. Old corn-based feed formulas are based on corn varieties that had more protein than the modern dent corn that permeates our supply chain (which also contains glyphosate residues and is often genetically modified). On Palawan, where Aloha House is located, corn is approximately twice the price and contains half the protein of rice bran, making corn protein four times more expensive than rice protein. We want natural feed supplies for our hogs to be economical and to assure the best end product. 

...from Chapter 4 (AN28) “Integrating Poultry”: 

The fermenting activity of certain beneficial microorganisms during the production process can enhance the digestibility and shelf life of chicken feeds. According to one study, the use of microorganisms increased the crude protein in copra meal from 17.24% to 31.22%. An amino acid was also found to be greatly improved in quantity. Please note that not all flocks like a wet feed. You can mix feed without fermenting in the morning and use it immediately if your chickens do not appreciate fermented feeds, which tend to be wet. In addition to chicken feed, you can also ferment your feed for hogs, ducks, and fish with the help of diverse probiotic groups of microbes. However, we do not recommend fermentation for ruminant feeds. 

...from Chapter 5 (AN31) “Integrating Ruminants”: 

Farmers feeding cows, goats, sheep, and buffalo should attempt to keep purchased inputs to a minimum. Farmers must balance the dietary needs of their animals with safety, comfort, and security from theft. No matter how ideal your goals for your ruminant herd, make sure you carefully plan and manage for the overall benefit of the animals and the farmer. Most small farms in SE Asia would do well to develop and manage some amount of pasture for ruminants, combined with a cut and carry strategy. Manure should be incorporated on the farm to maintain soil fertility for the forages and plants, and tighten nutrient cycling loops so that the benefits of integrated livestock will translate into more economical and sustainable food production. 

Maize Armyworm and Stalk Borer Scouting - 20/04/2018

The introduction of Fall Armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) to Africa in 2016 has raised concerns of possible widespread damage of maize and other crops. Stalk borers are a common pest of maize throughout Africa, causing modest damage virtually every year. Armyworms, on the other hand, can devastate maize and other crops if not controlled at a young age. Because of this big difference in damage potential, it is important to identify these pests early in their life cycle.

Rangelands Group Framework Worksheet - 08/03/2018

This worksheet was used at the 3rd ECHO East Africa Pastoralist Symposium by a group generating a joint voluntary plan of action including policy and legislation inhibiting or needed, social and cultural approaches that inhibit or could add value, economic tools, and natural resources governance.

Livestock to Markets (L2M) - Action Plan - 08/03/2018

This is an ACTION PLAN based on participation of representatives from three East Africa countries in the L2M Working Group. The group developed a common framework to guide their discussion and understanding of all the elements that influence the development of a Livestock to Markets Business among pastoralist communities. They will use this as a benchmark for their commitment and actions in their respective countries over the next two years.

Sustained Rangeland Improvement with Special Reference to the Laikipia Controversies - 08/03/2018

I have spent over fifty years working in East African Rangelands studying wildlife in National Parks and ranches or helping pastoralists in northern Kenya and consulting in Tanzania. The situation has changed unpredictably and dramatically since my original research in the Queen Elizabeth National Park in western Uganda. The main change has been rapid and near exponential human population growth with accompanying degradation of the rangelands especially those classified as ASALs (Arid or Semi-Arid Lands). It is not unique to the Greater Horn of Africa, but an example of what has been happening in most countries in Sahelian Africa. A world’s leading expert on deserts concluded over 25 years ago that “all the areas between the 100mm and 300mm isohyets will become man-made deserts in the next 35-70 years if the present trend is not reversed!” (Le Houerou,1991).  Further exacerbating the effects of unchecked population growth is that of global warming, where pastoralists are the victims of the rapid increase in the use of fossil fuels by the world’s increased human population.

Permaculture For Refugees in Camps - 20/02/2018

PermacultureForRefugees (P4R) a publié son premier livret dans une série pour apporter des solutions de permaculture aux situations de réfugiés. Permaculture for Refugees in Camps est un guide pratique de 20 pages décrivant une approche positive pour transformer les camps de réfugiés. C'est l'aboutissement d'idées, d'expériences et de connaissances fondées sur la discussion, les écrits, la recherche et l'expérience partagée des membres fondateurs du groupe de travail de P4R. Le document est rédigé par Ruth Harvey et Rowe Morrow.
Le livret redéfinit la période d’incertitude dans les camps, en partant de l'oisiveté forcée et du désespoir à un moment d'apprentissage et création de liens avec la terre et entre eux. En travaillant à partir de l'éthique, il présente des méthodes d'éco-conception. Il présente des principes et des stratégies qui peuvent habiliter les communautés privées de leurs droits et leur donner des compétences et des connaissances en permaculture pour passer à l'étape suivante, quelle qu'elle soit

Bicycle Pump Vacuum Sealer for Seed Storage - 20/01/2018

Storing seeds in the tropics can often be difficult; with high temperatures and humid conditions, seeds lose their ability to germinate quickly.  Many techniques for seed storage exist, from the high-tech standards of gene banks to simple methods used by villagers for saving their own seeds.  All have their strengths and weaknesses, but when balancing costs and resources, which methods are really the most effective?  This article highlights research conducted by ECHO Asia regarding the use of vacuum sealing, using a simple bicycle tire pump, for tropical seed storage under resource-constrained settings.

The three key factors that determine the rate of seed deterioration in storage are: oxygen pressure (amount of oxygen with the seeds in storage), seed moisture content, and temperature (Roberts, 1973).  An increase in any of these factors will lower the storage life of the seeds, and as a general rule any increase of 1% moisture content or 10° F (5.6° C) in storage will halve the storage life of the seeds (Bewley and Black, 1985).  Each factor contributes to seed decay in specific ways, and minimizing these conditions is critical to effective seed storage.  Vacuum sealing is a relatively low-cost method that requires few inputs after an initial investment.  Sealing helps conserve seed quality by minimizing oxygen presence and exposure to ambient humidity, thereby keeping seed moisture content low.

Moringa oleifera f-sand Filters for Sustainable Water Purification - 22/11/2017

ABSTRACT: Environmental Science & Technology, 2017

The purpose of this work is to determine parameters for the design of a Moringa seed sand filter for water purification. Moringa oleifera seeds containing cationic antimicrobial proteins have been used as natural coagulants for the removal of turbidity; however, a low removal efficiency and high residual organic levels limit their applications. In this work, Moringa seed extracts were used to reverse the charge of sand ( fsand) to 10 mV at a seed dosage of 5.6 g of seeds/m2 of sand. This f-sand filter demonstrated ∼4 log removal of 1 μm polystyrene particles and >8 log removal of Escherichia coli compared to <0.1 log removal for bare sand. Enhanced removal for particles and E. coli was dominated by attractive electrostatic interactions. Clean bed filtration modeling predicts a sticking coefficient (α) of 0.8 for f-sand compared to a value of 0.01 for bare sand. This α was further validated under a wide range of filtration conditions. Preliminary scale-up analyses suggest a point-of-use f-sand filter that requires a very small amount of seeds annually. The outcome of this work presents the scientific basis for the design of a water purification solution for developing regions, requiring only locally available resources and no use of synthetic chemicals or electricity.

ECHO Crop Information Sheet - 08/05/2017

ECHO reguguarly keeps track of crop porduction records especially for crops disseminated from our Global Seed Bank. This fillable form is the sheet ECHO staff (mainly interns) use when evaluating a crop for it's potential use and distribution to ECHO's Network. This form can also be used to monitor and evaluate new crops or regenerated crops. This form was made specifically for ECHO's use, so it may need adapted and reconfigured in order to best suit your needs and your capacity.