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The application of animal science has resulted in phenomenal increases in the productivity of traditional livestock species. Increased intensification has enabled millions of people to access meat, dairy, fish and eggs as a routine part of their daily diet. However, the production and consumption of animal-derived products also raises deep and urgent questions relating to human health, environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

Hard-won progress in reducing hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition has stalled in recent years and FAO analyses show that the world is not on track to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030. Animal-derived products have an important role to play in meeting this target. A small increase in animal-derived foods would greatly benefit vulnerable population groups, particularly women of reproductive age, infants and children, by providing high quality protein and important micronutrients. However, in many middle and high-income countries consumption of animal-derived foods exceeds levels required for good health and may, in some cases, lead directly or indirectly to poor health outcomes. Set against a background of rising demand and ongoing human population growth, the production of animals for food raises other urgent questions for human health. Efforts are needed to reduce antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance, to improve food safety and to reduce the spread of known pathogens and the existential risk of emergence of new viral zoonoses. Animal science has a critical role to play in producing healthier and more robust animals, and in designing housing and management systems that are more resilient to environmental perturbation and which protect the health of human workers.