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Abstract, PhD Thesis, 2018

Ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, can digest cellulosic substances and can convert plants to products such as milk, meat, wool, and mohair. Pastureland, therefore, is critical to the production of these ruminants and the products they provide. In order to obtain maximum profits from pasture grazing, producers must manage the land for high production per acre and must manage the animals to minimize forage waste and to ensure they are growing sufficiently. Developing good grazing management programs can help ruminant producers reduce the amount of purchased feeds they use and produce the highest net income per grazing land unit. Grazing systems provide high-quality forage and reduce feed and veterinary costs while avoiding manure build-up. Feed costs are reduced because farmers and ranchers do not have to grow or purchase forage and grain year-round, and veterinary costs are reduced because animals on pasture have fewer health problems than those that feed in the barnyard with the application of biofertilizer and biopesticde for pasture cultivation and management. In addition, pastures require fewer or no pesticides and allow natural recycling of manure. They also provide a continuous soil cover, thus protecting wildlife habitats and important ecosystems. The three most widely used grazing systems are continuous grazing, intensive rotational grazing, and multispecies grazing.

Keywords: Livestock’s Ruminants, Biofertilizer, Biopesticide, Pastures, Grazing systems management, Nematode and Pests management, Principles of grazing