Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) can potentially have an enormous impact on the environment and the welfare of whole countries. This single activity can quickly and cheaply transform communities, the environment and the economy. On cleared land where native tree stumps have not been uprooted, an extensive “hidden forest” exists. Each year, these stumps sprout multiple shoots. Traditionally, the sprouts are slashed and burned along with other vegetation. However, with culling and pruning, selected stems from this regrowth grow rapidly. FMNR is widely used in Niger and nearby countries; in Niger, more than five million hectares (50,000 km2 ) are under FMNR management. See EDN 58-4 and 90-3; other FMNR information is also on ECHO’s website in English and French.