Plant-pollinator interactions in East Asia: a review
Pollination studies in East Asia have been developing rapidly in recent decades. East Asia may provide important information on many aspects of plant-pollinator interactions because of the rich fauna and flora and highly heterogeneous environments that occur there. In this review, plant-pollinator interactions in East Asia were summarized. Bumblebees are important pollinators of many plant species in East Asia, as well as in Europe and North America. Native honeybees may also have important roles in pollination in East Asia. Bird pollination and hawkmoth pollination may be less common in East Asia than in North America. Geographic variation in pollination interactions is expected because several types of pollinators are rare or absent in some habitats or geographic regions. For example, specialized nectar-feeding vertebrates like sunbirds and pteropodid bats are absent from most of East Asia except for some areas in its southern part. Opportunistic nectar-feeding vertebrates may have important roles in pollination where specialized nectar-feeding vertebrates are absent. Human impacts on plant pollinator interactions are understudied in this region. However, climate change, habitat degradation, and invasive species may have negative impacts on plant-pollinator interactions and thus plant reproductive success there. The information available on the plant-pollinator interactions in East Asia is still limited because many plant and pollinator taxa and many types of habitats are understudied.