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The book comes in two volumes. They describe the physics and biology of frost occurrence and damage, passive and active protection methods and how to assess the cost-effectiveness of active protection techniques. Nighttime energy balance is used to demonstrate how protection methods are used to reduce the likelihood of frost damage. Simple methods and programs are provided to help predict temperature trends and to help determine the timing for active methods. Plant physiology related to freeze d amage and critical damage temperatures for a wide range of crops and ornamentals are presented. Finally, an economic analysis program with examples is included to assist users to evaluate cost-effectiveness of various active methods. Although the book contains considerable technical information, it was specifically written for growers rather than scientists as a practical guide for frost protection. The volume 2 reviews concepts of probability and risk of frost damage and uses that inform ation to help readers make economic decisions about frost protection. Computer application programs are included in the CD-ROM to help simplify complex calculations. The application programs are written in Microsoft Excel and sample calculations are presented in the text.