Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps) over the Centuries Worldwide
Abstract, Water, 2015
The evolution of the major achievements in water lifting devices with emphasis on the major technologies over the centuries is presented and discussed. Valuable insights into ancient water lifting technologies with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability, and sustainability are provided. A comparison of the relevant technological developments in several early civilizations is carried out. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water engineering. They represent the best paradigm of probing the past and facing the future. A timeline of the historical development of water pumps worldwide through the last 5500 years of the history of mankind is presented. A chronological order is followed with emphasis on the major civilizations.
Keywords: Hellenistic Alexandria; Ancient Egyptians; Archimedes screw; Chinese Dynasties; Classical and Hellenistic periods; Indians; Bronze Age; Roman times; Persian Empire; piston-type pump; pre-Columbian America; shaduf